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Essay: Cell components

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  • Subject area(s): Science essays
  • Reading time: 2 minutes
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  • Published: 30 September 2015*
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  • Words: 504 (approx)
  • Number of pages: 3 (approx)

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The animal and plant cell are composed of organelles that are almost the same. From the ribosomes to mitochondria, both cells have it. However, they still have differences too; animal cell doesn’t have any cell wall while plants have it.
Below are the organelles that animal and plant cells have.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ORGANELLE
CELL MEMBRANE
Structure: The cell membrane is known as a mosaic because it is consists of different parts. It is flexible and is somewhat a fluid structure to allow other organelles to float and move sideways inside.
Function: The cell membrane acts as a barrier of the cell from its surrounding. It also protects and regulates the interchange of materials.
MITOCHONDRIA
Structure: The mitochondria surrounded by two membranes; outer and inner membrane. These membranes are made up of proteins and phospholipids. Also, it is a rod-shaped structure.
Function: The most important function of it is to produce energy that is why it is also called the ‘power’ or ‘battery’ of the cell.
NUCLEUS
Structure: The nucleus is made up ‘of a nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, nucleolus and chromosomes’.
Function: The nucleus is the command centre of a cell. This is common in eukaryotic cells. It contains genetic information of the cell and also controls growth and reproduction.
NUCLEOLUS
Structure: The nucleolus is a round shape structure that is inside the nucleus.
Function: Its function is to produce ribosomes which produces protein for the cell,
NUCLEAR MEMBRANE
Structure: The nuclear membrane have two layers; outer and inner, that wraps the parts of the nucleus.
Function: Its main purpose is to keep and protect the DNA that is inside the nucleus from the outer organelles in the cytoplasm.
GOLGI BODY
Structure: Golgi bodies are the most important organelle for eukaryotic cells. It is a sac-like organelle.
Function: Its function is to transform, sort, and transport the ‘macromolecules’ created by the cells. It also creates lysosomes.
RIBOSOMES
Structure: Ribosomes are tiny particles approximately ‘200 ‘??. It is made up of proteins and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid). It is found in two sections of the cytoplasm; cytoplasm and with the endoplasmic reticulum.
Function: Its main function is to produce proteins.
LYSOSOMES
Structure: The lysosome is a round-shaped organelle and its outer surface is only consist of a single membrane.
Function: The lysosome is known as the ‘rubbish disposal unit’ of the cell since it breaks-down and dispose harmful worn-out materials from the cell.
SMOOTH RETICULUM
Structure: The smooth reticulum is made up of slippery smooth fats and is not covered with ribosomes that’s why it is flat.
Function: Its function is to produce and metabolise steroid hormones and fats.
ROUGH RETICULUM
Structure: On the other hand, rough reticulum is covered with ribosomes that is why it is known as ‘rough’.
Function: Its function is also to produce protein and protein folding. It also function to transport proteins.
CYTOPLASM
Structure: Cytoplasm is the fluid where all the organelles float on.
Function: Its function is important because the expansion and growth of a cell takes place here.

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