Essay: GM technology

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In high school we have learned about that gene is the basic unit to control biological traits, genetic information is recorded biological procreation. Different information recorded in different genes, gene can be changed by modifying some or all of the features of an organism. After entering the university, after the completion of the study a semester general biology, although not yet talked about the genetic aspects of the content, but for the interest in this part of the simple read a bit. I learned the different DNA sequences have different functions on genetic aspects of technology, there are many. Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA, such as mankind has entered a new era of gene.
As a new technology of transgenic contemporary biological science, is widely used in various fields. For example, through the cultivation of genetically modified cotton for diagnosis and treatment of genes to be used in transgenic technology. How to change the quality of the food so it can make it more suitable for human to use has become a issue. GM technology is used in medicine, industry, agriculture, energy, environmental protection, and new materials.
GM technology medicine is the first wave of GM technology, such as vaccines, suppression of growth hormone, insulin, interferon, human growth hormone. Application in industry is mainly cellulose exploitation; in the food industry, transgenic technology for dairy fermentation and brewing industries. GM technology second wave occurred in the field of agriculture, include the cultivation of agricultural genetically modified; animals, plants and microorganisms, cultivating a group of insect-resistant GM crops, disease resistance, herbicide tolerance traits, the current transgenic technology is moving to improve agronomic traits such as photosynthetic efficiency, fertilizer use efficiency, drought tolerant, and improve the quality of other direction Moreover, transgenic technology can be used for environmental protection, such as bio-degradable pollutants; used for energy production, such as the use of genetically modified organisms ferment alcohol; for new materials, such as the use of genetically modified organisms to produce high-value industrial products.
When early humans began to use hybrid plants to boost production between plants. This approach would actually use the conversion genes. GM food is moving genes of plants and animals and to be changed, there by producing a variety of food products with new features. For example, we can use biotechnology to transfer gene in different species, the genetic structure modified organisms, so it doesn’t have its own original properties. As an example to illustrate: People can access certain bacteria genes of corn and soybean plants, we can better protect them from pest invasion. It also can ordinary plants to withstand the cold. And in these transgenic organisms as raw materials for food processing is genetically modified food. They can be achieved through human will, we can think of can be achieved mostly been in the specific experiment.
Many countries in the world have applied to transgenic technology in the development of food. For example, the United States since the 1990s has been developing a number of genetically modified foods. Part of the product by the planting of transgenic technology to be harvested. Among them an integral part of people’s daily cotton, soybeans, corn and other crops. This technique is constantly and matures more plants for planting. Some countries also plunge into the study of genetically modified foods in the past, there was a certain outcome.
With fat transfer and research with the world’s advanced countries, transfer of genetic research also made significant progress, and in generic drugs, genetically modified crops, new varieties of crop genetic map and so has a comparative advantage. But truly enter commercial production is less, the crop is concerned, only cotton, petunia, antiviral peppers, tomatoes and extension of the anti-virus and other cooked tomato.
In the past to change the varieties of plants primarily through cross-breeding, long time this traditional breeding methods need, but also a variety of hybrid difficult to control, the purpose of the poor, their offspring may yield, but not disease, may also be resistant, but not high-yield, perhaps yield but the quality is poor, so once again necessary to carry out breeding. GM technology is different, you can choose any one target gene transferred directly into it, you can get a corresponding new varieties do not have to spend so long screened. GM technology can not only genetically different plants combined, but can also be modified animals, or even a combination of human genes into plants to go. For example: scientists saw a polar bear genes that have a role to resist freezing it, so be separated out, and then implanted into the tomatoes, tomato hardy breed.
By transgenic technology it can cultivate high-yield, high-quality, new crop varieties anti-viral, insect, cold, drought, waterlogging, salt tolerance, herbicide resistance and other characteristics, in order to reduce reliance on pesticides and fertilizers and water, reduce agricultural costs , greatly improve the yield per unit area, can improving the quality of food to ease food shortages in the world’s conflicts.
GM food can get grow in different season, the climate, so that people can eat fresh vegetables all year round. Meanwhile, it also found that genetically modified crops to bear fruit, regardless of appearance or taste unique flavor. British scientists will be a way to destroy the chlorophyll mutation gene transplanted into the grass, you can make it evergreen, in addition to the green features, but also to make animal husbandry benefit, because grass hay higher than nutrition, leaving the meat quality improved. use of transgenic technology, the growth hormone gene, prolific genes, pro-egg gene, high milk yield gene, lean gene, keratin genes, anti-parasite genes, gene endures antiviral genes into animal sperm , egg, or zygote, short growth cycle can breed, litter size, raw eggs, high milk yield, the production of meat, good for quality and processing performance, and has a disease-resistant animals, now in cattle, made some achievements in sheep, pigs, chickens, fish and other domesticated animals.
Development of transgenic technology let people believe that the quality of the food it brings. Scientific advances allow people have more choice in the selection of food. It can be based on people’s needs, giving new features crops. We cannot have the original traits through gene conversion can be achieved. For example, you can crop insect genes added to make their release a crop pesticide; may extract some hardy plants and transfer genes into the body of crops that can make or Saline upland crops in harsh environments grow, greatly increasing the utilization of land; can produce more nutritious foods. Transgenic technology makes the impossible had become possible.
GM crops as exotic species into the natural ecosystems, often with a strong “selective advantage”, may affect the genetic structure of plant gene bank, out of the original habitat of the species on earth and other genetic resources, resulting in a single species showed a trend, resulting in biological dramatic reduction even make the original species extinction, resulting in the loss of biological diversity. For example, insect-resistant crops, insect-resistant genes not only a direct effect on the target pest, on non-target pests may harm, directly or indirectly, and thus have an impact on biodiversity.
Many allergens exist under natural conditions. GM crops are usually inserted into a specific gene fragment to express a particular protein, and the protein if known allergens, there are likely to cause adverse reactions allergic population. For example, to increase the sulfur amino acid content of soybean researchers in the Brazil nut 2S albumin gene into soybean, and 2S albumin has allergies, leading soy had no allergic reaction to some people, the GM soy was eventually banned commercial production. Even non-protein known allergens, but as long as the edible part of the expression in transgenic crops, it is also required to be evaluated.
Some believe that by artificial refining and adding genes may reach to achieve results, but it can also increase the accumulation of food and any original trace toxins, in addition, crop residue insect toxins and protease inhibitor activity may be harmful to human and animal health, as crop residues containing insect toxins and proteinase inhibitors leaves, fruits, seeds, etc. since insects can bite their leaves compromised digestive system, there is a similar injury to humans and animals possibilities.
One thing has its two sides. Some experts also say a negative attitude: 1999 transgenic potato events, results of a study published in the British officer said: rats fed with potato contains genetically modified, causing the abnormal growth of organs in rats, weight loss, immune system destroyed. The experimental results immediately caused a sensation, leading to GM food safety suspicion worldwide.
Actually match between genes are not as easy as people imagine, simply gene copy and paste. It requires a certain basic conditions. For example there are incompatibilities between some genes. In transplantation of human organs to make a lot of time, of rejection, because the body’s immune system to destroy the antigen enters the body, leading to danger. Such body is the same as a normal plant. The gene in a plant is applied to force the body of another plant; there will be a corresponding “rejection.” It is sometimes fatal plants. So the principle of transgenic technology and specific application or to take practical to rely on. Current people should not believe humans are genetically modified to bring salutary, perhaps one day will find that the transgenic incompleteness will bring a series of disasters.
The current situation is not the scientists from the proof of transgenic technology to food and the impact on the future of mankind brought science. It might be to promote human progress, and therefore may also bring unpredictable disaster. Current scientists but also through continuous efforts to make a better application of transgenic technology to the food industry to go.
Although genetically modified somewhat numerous, but because of the potential hazards of genetically modified foods, including: new toxins within the food produced and allergens, without affecting other natural foods that cause damage to health, the application of chemicals on crops increased contamination of water and food, will produce herbicide-resistant weeds, diseases spread across the species barrier, the loss of crop biodiversity, ecological balance interference. Safety of GM crops worldwide has aroused heated debate, many people opposed to transgenic plants and transgenic technology for biological traits improvements.

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