As an adolescent when I tagged along with my parents to the grocery store I remember quickly jolting myself towards the magazine racks to pick up the newest edition of Flex Magazine to examine the latest and greatest bodybuilder on the cover. I quickly became a muscle enthusiast and got a gym membership. However after months of training and dieting, I found myself disappointed with my physical changes it wasn’t what I envisioned. Consequently, after accepting I was being constrained by my own incomprehension of the mechanism of muscle growth I commenced my quest in researching the complex biological system of muscle growth along with a manifold of biological factors correlated with muscle growth. This article is to inform the audience of Hypertrophies effect on muscle growth and explain how Microtrauma is an imperative biological factor that assist muscular development through the medium of the immune system along with an illustration of Training Variables correlated with the greatest hypertrophic response and it’s biological mechanism.
Before we get started have you ever daydreamed of being an elite bodybuilder with all the chicks? Well, as an overweight adolescent with an insignificant pick up ratio I did so I needed to get to work, How does muscle actually grow?
Hypertrophy is the expansion of the size of a muscle fiber or cells with a change in overall dimensions. Hyperplasia (Hypergenesis) opposed to Hypertrophy is the splitting of new fibers or cells that increase in numbers of fibers or cells contrary in Hypertrophies overall size. According to (Schoenfeld 2010) Hypertrophy is induced by traditional resistance training program but not limited to. Hypertrophy increases the sarcomeres (tubular muscle cell that increase glycogen storage) this is recognized as Sarcoplasmic Hypertrophy. Myofibrils (myocytes containing myofibers longer sarcomeres chain that increase myofibril size) is understood as Myofibrillar Hypertrophy. (Schoenfeld 2010) unfolds that when an overload in the skeletal muscle is stimulated it causes a disturbance in Myofibers, consequently setting off (myogenic) the increase in size and amount of muscular tissue.
Resistance Training? and overload of the muscle? I’m still not quite comprehending I just finished stating in the introduction I endured several months of training and dieting with disappointing results what am I doing wrong?
Microtrauma is a small damaged muscle fiber that holds an essential role in muscular development when microtrauma occurs (from resistances training or other activities) the immune system is then activated by rejuvenating the damaged muscle fibers and risk factor of injury is then reduced. Arguments occur that damage to these fibers has been speculated as a symptom of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) initially why progressive overload is important to continue progress the body becomes resistant to stress additionally when looking at micro trauma it’s important to understand the mechanism of muscle contraction Concentric Contraction is when strength is satisfactory to overthrow resistance so then the muscle shortens. Eccentric Contraction is when the strength is inadequate to overthrow the external load on the muscle forcing the muscle to lengthen this is achieved when the lowering of the load is brought down gently rather than dropping it. It’s believe to be the main determinate to the (DOMS) theory so once micro trauma is inflicted our immune system then take over (Goldspink 2003) elaborates that the immune system response to micro trauma and it’s preparation system he states IGF-1 is the troubleshooter of the skeletal muscle and it’s reconstruction mechanism works by increasing the generation potential of satellite cells ( myogenic stem cells) once stimulated they merge to present cells or split themselves and generate new myofibers hence promoting muscle regeneration and giving rise to enlarged muscle mass established by exercise induce overload and blemished fibers.
Point made so maybe I need to emphasize technique to inflict micro trauma more efficiently so now what another training variable we need to look out for?
Furthermore, appropriate administration of training variables is essential to the stimuli of Hypertrophy. Intensity is argued to be the most meaningful variable towards achieving muscular hypertrophy.(Schoenfeld 2010) Clarifies Intensity is translated in percentage of 1RM and is equated to numbers of reps performed with a given weight Repetitions are assorted and understood in three categories low rep (1-5) Moderate rep (6-12) and High Rep (15+) all use a unique energy system impacting the degree of the hypertrophic response (campos 2002) elaborates the Hypertrophic response to high repetition has been analyzed and authenticated, high repetitions is inferior to the stimulation of Hypertrophy in correlation to low reps or moderate reps which produce a superior hypertrophic response. (Hakkinen 1985) Elaborates Moderate repetition is superior considering it promotes a convincing anabolism response and elevation of Testosterone and GH opposed to low reps by generating (anaerobic glycolysis) a large build up of metabolites hence metabolic build up more significant than the weight load in this occasion.
OK, I definitely had a misconception of training with Intensity, training with insanity doesn’t fit the profile let’s continue. Another essential variable is Volume (number of rep completed without rest) opposed to Exercise volume (Total reps, Set and load in a training session) High Volume, multiple sets have proven greater to stimulate muscular hypertrophy. (Krieger 2010) point out multiple sets of each exercise was 40% superior in the dimension of the muscle as opposed to single sets. People wanting to achieve an exceptional hypertrophic stimulation should consider no less than 2-3 sets per
Another essential variable is Volume (number of rep completed without rest) opposed to Exercise volume (Total reps, Set and load in a training session) High Volume, multiple sets have proven greater to stimulate muscular hypertrophy. (Krieger 2010) point out multiple sets of each exercise was 40% superior in the dimension of the muscle as opposed to single sets. People wanting to achieve an exceptional hypertrophic stimulation should consider no less than 2-3 sets per exercise although 4-6 set could give a higher stimulus there is no research to back up this statement. Final Variable will review is Rest Intervals the time taken in between sets are classified in three categories Short (30 seconds or less) Moderate (60-90 Seconds) and Long (3 minutes or more) all three speed have a unique effect on the metabolic build up and hypertrophic response. (Willison 2006) Goes into detail that short rest produces the largest metabolic build up and elevates the anabolism process nonetheless, this is counterproductive to the individual because it impedes them to regain their strength capacity this makes short rest insignificant to superior hypertrophic response. Secondly, long rest you get adequate recovery of your strength content, however it’s inadequate when generating metabolic stress consequently constricting the hypertrophic response. Lastly, moderate rest gets the best of both worlds it promotes hypoxia a factor that accelerates muscular growth and metabolic build-up inducing anabolism concentration after exercise.
(Schoenfeld 2010) contributes this training program and suggest it promote the greatest exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy stimulation. This is achieved by specific training methods that generate an imperative metabolic stress and moderate tension on the muscle for instance (6-12) moderate rep range with the resting at 60-90 interval between set along with workouts sessions assorted into body parts. Multiplanar exercises are important to muscle stimuli also suggested that split training routines generate a greater anabolism milieu (Schoenfeld 2010) adds some sites need to be pushed out to concentric failure at fast to moderate speed (1-3 seconds) this dispatch the greatest hypertrophic response. Concentric reps should be enforced placed at fast to moderate speed (1-3 sec) and Eccentric reps constrained to slower steps (2-4Sec)
Now that I’ve exhausted my brain capacity to continue writing this informative paper I hope I achieved my goal and you’ve gained a better understanding of the complex biological mechanism of muscular hypertrophy and put it’s correlating factor functioning as micro trauma the immune system and training variable into perspective. In closing, we have only reviewed a very small fraction of this monumental mechanism of muscle growth there is much more to explore science is always progressing as should our research.
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