During the first week we learn that the scientific method consist of observation, hypothesis, experiment and conclusion. Atoms are made of protons neutron and electrons. Water is have four contributing property; attracted to themselves, high heat capacity, less dense in solid state than liquid and water is solvent. Biological (macro) molecules are group into four category; carbohydrate, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid. (Mader & Windelspecht, 2015)
In second week we discuss the difference of animal and plants cell are vacuole, cell wall and chloroplast also both have difference ways to get energy. Cell membrane is present in all cells and is in charge protect and organize the cell. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) have the function to shuffle the energy also is like the currency or money of the organism. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is created by photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis (6CO2 +6H2O+sunlight ‘ C6H12O6+6O2) cellular respiration (C6H12O6+6O2 ‘ 6CO2 +6H2O+Energy) is like their reverse each other. (Mader & Windelspecht, 2015)
In third week we learn that cellular reproduction are composed of cell cycle (interphase, mitosis or cytokinesis). Cancer is the lack of control in the cell cycle. Meiosis make new different cells and mitosis duplicate cells. The distribution is by crossing over or by the independent assortment and we identify the alleles as dominant or recessive. In order to understand better the cross between chromosomes the used of pedigree and Punnett square are essential. (Mader & Windelspecht, 2015)
In fourth week we discuss the DNA. The genes are unit of genetic material that codes for a specific trait. DNA is made of molecule call it nucleotides. DNA contain four nitrogen bases: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. Adenine pair up with thymine (2 hydrogen bond) and cytosine with guanine (3 hydrogen bond). The different arrangements of nucleotides is what make the diversity on organism. DNA must be duplicate, during this process the DNA produce two identical new complementary strand following the base pairing I mention before then each strand of the original DNA serve as a template for new strand. (Mader & Windelspecht, 2015)
DNA is essential in the production of proteins. Proteins are composed of 20 different groups of amino acid and are made by the ribosomes. Some of this proteins benefits include: help with digestion, build new tissue and the composition of the cell membrane. In order to DNA became proteins is necessary to follow two steps. The first step is called transcription (the copy of DNA go to the RNA) and the second step is called translation (decoding mRNA into a protein). When a series of three adjacent base is in the mRNA is called it codon and the one that are complementary to the codon is called it anticodon. When amino acid join together that make polypeptide (proteins). This process summary in the following way DNA ‘ transcription’ mRNA’ translation’ proteins. (Mader & Windelspecht, 2015)
One information I found very interesting during the presentation was the DNA fingerprinting. DNA fingerprinting is a process in which you are identify by your fingerprint. This process can be beneficial to identify parents and to identify criminals however, it is not so accurate. In conclusion, during this class I learn the aspect of a cell their structure, function and cycle. We discuss about genetics, chromosomes, protein synthesis and DNA structure.
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