Essay: Pulmonary vs Tracheal Respiration, using organisms' bony fish/grasshoppers.

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I. Introduction:
What are the different types of gas exchange that occur in these two animals?
All animals have some sort of system for taking oxygen from the air and transmitting it into their circulatory systems (Bryan 1993). Most of the time, a unique organ is utilized; such as lungs, trachea, or gills. Even in the simplest of animals, oxygen and carbon dioxide are substituted directly between the organism’s circulatory system and the surrounding environment. (J Anat. 2002). The following literature review establishes two different types of respiration between two specific organisms along with the same purpose ENERGY.
II. Background information:
A. The Bony Fish: First known vertebrates and the stepping stone to all tetrapod’s, meaning land-walking vertebrates (McKean, 2013). Bony fishes are presented in all freshwater and ocean environments, they make up half of all vertebrates. They are (jawed fish) which have skeletons that are made of bone (Klappenbach, 2011). Most of them use their gills to breathe throughout their entire lives. A bony fish’s gills are sustained by gill arches that are made of bone and are known as (cartilaginous fish), such as sharks, which do not have swim bladder and some are hermaphrodites.
B. The Grasshopper: Grasshoppers are medium to large plant eating insects. Live in fields, meadows and anywhere where they can find abundant amounts of food (Hadley, 2013). They promote plant growth/development, participate in supplement cycling, and are a significant part in food chains (Latchininsky 2011). These insects own a hard shell exoskeleton of chitin and a three part body. Their three part body contains of a head, a thorax, and an abdomen. The external respiration in a grasshopper happens in the tracheal system but starts at the spiracles where air is taken in first. (Rodell 1977).
III. Pulmonary respiration: Gills
A.) The lungs and gills are known to be the two main structures in vertebrates known as external respiration or gaseous exchanges, between blood and the environment. (McEwen, 2014).
‘ While a fish breathes, water goes into its mouth and past gills that are filled up by blood vessels (Parsons, 2014).
‘ As the flowing of water is occurring over the gills, the breaking down of oxygen in the water moves into the fish’s blood and makes its way into its cells (Gardner, 1922).
B.) In the article (Respiration exchange in fresh water fish),( Gardner and King 1922)
‘ Fish are normally ectothermic, which implies that their body temperature can change relying upon changes in their surroundings or environment(King, 1922)
‘ Don’t necessarily need to heat their bodies using a process that implicates oxygen, (meaning having to breathe less) (Gardner, 1922).
‘ Smaller lungs and gills adjust for their size by increasing the breathing rate.
IV. Gills: Research Articles:
A. Air-breathing fishes have developed a variation in air-breathing organs with the purpose of obtaining oxygen directly from above the water surface, although maintaining gills, ventilated by cranial muscles(Taylor, E.W, 2010)
‘ End of effective gill breathing while swimming.
‘ Ventilation (respiratory flow in some fish in which the mouth is opened during swimming) (Ishimatsu, 2012).
B. The capacity in marine fishes to assimilate oxygen at lower pressure from the sea water depends on the hydrogen ion concentration present in the water (Powers, 1922).
‘ Relying on alkaline reserve in the blood of the fish(Haldane, 1905).
‘ State of the sea water for the intake of oxygen (Henderson,1919).
‘ Fish most immune to an extensive variation in the hydrogen ion concentration (Krogh, 1919).
V. Tracheal Respiration: Tracheae
A. Insects possess their respiratory surfaces inside the body. They are connected to the exterior by a series of tubes known as tracheae. These tubes are structured from invaginations of the whole integument of the cuticle (Westneat, 2009).
‘ Tracheae connects to the atmosphere through openings called spiracles.
‘ Grasshoppers’ air sacs that led to bigger tracheae missing the normal exocuticle and taenidia are assumed to act as bellows to help convective airflow (Henry, 2009).
‘ The oxygen from the air to the tissues gets to be more arduous as grasshoppers increment in body measure because of expansions in tracheal length (Clarke, 1957)
B. Respiration is controlled by movements of the abdomen (Prange, 1990).
‘ Air is inhaled through the anterior five pairs of spiracles and exhaled from the posterior ones.
‘ Waste carbon dioxide exits both in the exhaled air and through the cuticle (Prange, 1990).
VI. Tracheae, Research Articles:
A. Respiration has its impact on auditory sensitivity in the grasshopper (Meyer, 1995).
‘ As the result of the tympanal membrane being so close to air sacs in the tracheal system, it is avoided internal and outward by as much as 80??m during the respiratory cycle (Elsner, 1995).
‘ This sound-related sensitivity impacts the animals’ ability to recognize songs of their same species.
B. Ventilation and the Spiracles During Flight: In flight there are two largely independent ventilating systems (Miller, 1959).
‘ a two-way process, ventilates the flight muscles through the open spiracles 2 and 3 and is drove by the flight movements
‘ a one-way process, airs primarily the central nervous system and is driven by the abdomen
VII. Conclusion:
There are several methods of gas exchange used by animals. Fish use the method known as countercurrent flow, where water and blood flow to different directions across the gills, expanding the diffusion of oxygen. The folded surfaces of the gills supply a large surface area guaranteeing that fish obtain the maximum oxygen. In insects, respiration; is independent of its circulatory system; as a result, blood does not play a direct role in oxygen transport. Here, diffusion is through air and hence, and is more effective than through water or tissues.
Annotated Bibliography:
Atsushi, Ishimatsu, Evolution of the Cardiorespiratory System in Air-Breathing Fishes, qua-BioScience Monographs, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1’28 (2012) http://www.terrapub.co.jp/onlinemonographs/absm/pdf/05/0501.pdf
The author gives an excellent general idea of air-breathing biology. With the evolution of air-breathing capacity in fishes, the circulatory system has also been adapted in various ways, in order to accommodate blood to and from the newly developed air-breathing surface. The purpose of this article was reviewing the current knowledge about the function of the cardiorespiratory system of particular species of air-breathing fishes.
Clarke, Kenneth Upex, Physiological Entomological Society : pgs. 67’79, 1957
The author points out that bigger insects must apply convective gas exchange to achieve a satisfactory oxygen distribution. The measures in air sac volumes and the usage of convection along insects of various sizes prove it. The purpose of this article is to give a complete account of the post-embryotic development of the respiratory system in this kind of insects during their immature stages.
Gardner JA, King G, Powers EB. The Respiratory Exchange in Fresh Water Fish. III. Gold-fish. Biochem J. 1922;16(4):523’529 URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1259105/
Clarifies that the frequency in respiration of a freshwater fish is determined by temperatures. It was resolved by counting the number of intervals the gill covers of the fish opened and closed during intervals of 1-minute at the different temperatures. With increase of temperature from 16?? to 34??C the rate of respiration increased by 70%.
Greenlee, K. J., Henry, J. R., Kirkton, S. D., Westneat, M. W., Fezzaa, K., Lee, W.-K., & Harrison, J. F. (2009). Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system: morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 297(5), R1343’R1350. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00231.2009 URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3774187/
This article main topic is hypoxia which is a deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues. Larger and older S. Americana grasshoppers have a more prominent tidal volume very still in hypoxia compared to smaller insects. Throughout jumping, bigger grasshoppers have increased exhaustion rates and the jumping muscle likewise expends more oxygen than smaller animals. Their tracheal system does not restrict oxygen.
Henry D Prange Temperature Regulation by Respiratory Evaporation in Grasshoppers Medical Sciences Program, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA November 1, 1990 URL: http://jeb.biologists.org/content/154/1/463
The author establishes that grasshoppers are able to resist air temperatures higher than lethal internal temperatures for up to an hour. The surface of the air sacs in grasshoppers seems to be the sites for evaporation, classified as thermoregulatory organs as well. They normally produce little body heat, they maintain their right body temperature by using heat gained from the environment.
Jens Meyer, Norbert Elsner, How respiration affects auditory sensitivity in the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus (L.),Journal of Comparative Physiology A April 1995, Volume 176, Issue 4, pp 563-573
The author establishes that at whatever point the tracheal weight changes, sound-related sentivity and data about the spectral composition of a sound example are adjusted at the level of tympanal layer vibrations and sound-related receptor action. As a result, the animal can’t rely on upon a recurrence investigation inside their sound-related pathway.
McEwen, Robert S., Parsons, Thomas S., Randall, David J., Clements, Leo P., McCutcheon, F. Harold, Butler, P. J., and McCutcheon, F. Harold. (2014). Respiratory system. In Access Science. McGraw-Hill Education. Retrieved from http://www.accessscience.com/content/respiratory-system/583600
Confirms that the major respiratory organ of a fish is the gill. Respiration refers to as the capture of O and elimination of CO. Gills make possible the gas exchange in fish. Gills extract oxygen from water; the boundry water layer next to the gills is quickly depleted of oxygen. To move a gill actively through water, mechanical strength of gill would have to increase dramatically, extra energy devoted to respiration.
Powers, E. B. (1922). THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE RESPIRATION OF FISHES IN RELATION TO THE HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION OF THE MEDIUM. The Journal of General Physiology, 4(3), 305’317. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2140499/
Fishes breathe dissolved gases from water which pump over their gills. The hydrogen ion concentration in fish blood is usually lower than what is observed in vertebrates. The fishes living in the tropics at certain times of the year may have encountered difficulty in obtaining the necessary oxygen from the water. Such fishes have their oxygen supply from the air.
P. L. MILLER Department of Zoology, The University of Cambridge; Makerere College, Kampala, Uganda, September 14, 1960. Respiration in the Desert Locust: Ventilation and the Spiracles During Flight URL: http://m.jeb.biologists.org/content/37/2/264.short
In his analysis, in an insect’s body every cell is nearby to, or very close to, the end of a tracheole. In some of the flight muscles the tracheoles even enter into their t-tubules carrying oxygen right next to the mitochondria that controls the muscle. Abdominal pumping can be blocked or reduced without hurting the wing movements of the desert locust.
Taylor EW, Leite CA, McKenzie DJ, Wang T. Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and reptiles, Braz J Med Biol Res April 2010. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20396858
Points out that fish and amphibians utilize a power pump to ventilate gills or lungs, with the respiratory muscles stimulated by cranial nerves. Fish can initiate or develop a hypobranchial pump for active jaw during the blockage or closing of any blood vessel during hypoxia.

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