Essay: Lung Cancer

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  • Subject area(s): Science essays
  • Reading time: 4 minutes
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  • Published on: January 12, 2020
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  • Number of pages: 2
  • Lung Cancer
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Have you ever seen commercials of lung cancer or of people smoking? That is lung cancer. Lung cancer starts when there is random growth of abnormal cells. Abnormal cells multiply so much it causes a tumor in your lungs. The tumors can make it breathe and the abnormal cells can get into your bloodstream and affect your whole body. Abnormal cells also have abnormal nucleons. The abnormal nucleons tell the abnormal cells to keep splitting and not to stop.

Some symptoms of lung cancer are are coughing, coughing up blood, breathing difficulties, loss of appetite, recurring infections and bone pain. At least 80% of people that die from lung cancer are caused by tobacco smoking and many others are that live by exposure to secondhand smokers. Believe it or not non smokers can get also lung cancer by secondhand smokers, air pollution, or work exposures like diesel exhaust.

There are 4 stages of lung cancer: Stage 0, the cancer is in place(like in the lungs) and has not grown into nearby tissues and spread outside the lung. Stage 1, A stage one lung cancer is a small tumor that has not spread to any lymph nodes or other regions of the lungs , so it is still possible for a surgeon to remove it. Stage I is divided into two substages based on the size of the tumor: Stage I A tumors are less than 3 centimeters wide. Stage IB tumors are less than 5 cm wide.

Stage 2, Stage two lung cancer is divided into two stages : A stage IA lung cancer describes a tumor larger than 5 cm but less than 7 cm wide that has not spread. Stage IB lung cancer describes a tumor larger than 5 cm but less than 7 cm wide that has spread to the lymph nodes or a tumor more than 7 cm wide that may or may not have grown into nearby structures in the lungs.

Stage 3, lung cancers are determined as either stage IA or IB. For many stage IA cancers and nearly all stage IB cancers, the tumor is sometimes impossible, to remove. For example, the lung cancer may have spread. The lymph nodes located in the center of the chest, which is outside the lung. Or, the tumor may have grown into nearby structures in the lung. In either situation, it is less likely that the surgeon can completely remove the cancer because removal of the cancer must be performed bit by bit.

Stage four (IV) means the lung cancer has spread to more than one area in the other lung, the fluid surrounding the lung or the heart, or the bloodstream. Once released in the blood, cancer can spread anywhere in the body, but it is mout likely to spread to the brain, bones,and liver. It is divided into two stages : Stage IA cancer has spread within the chest. Stage IB has spread outside of the chest.

There is one form of lung cancer :small lung cancer: About 10% to 15% of all lung cancers are small cell lung cancer (SCLC), named for the size of the cancer cells. Other names for SCLC are oat cell cancer.

Lung cancer starts in the lining of the bronchi and other parts of the lung such as bronchioles or alveoli. Changes in the genes or DNA in the lung cells may cause the cells to grow faster. These cells look abnormal under a microscope and cannot be seen by an X-ray. Over time, the abnormal cells may acquire other gene changes. Those gene changes can cause them to progress to lung cancer. As a cancer develops, the cancer cells may make chemicals that cause new blood vessels to form nearby. These blood vessels “feed” the cancer cells, which can continue to grow and form a tumor large enough to be seen on x-rays. At some point, cells from the cancer may break away from the original tumor and spread. Lung cancer is often a life-threatening disease because it tends to spread in this way even before it can be seen on an imaging test such as an x-ray.

There are five basic ways to treat NSCLC: Surgery, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, Targeted therapy and Immunotherapy. In surgery the doctor will try to remove the tumor before it gets bigger. Radiation therapy is the use of high energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells and to clear the body of the infection. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy and delete the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is shown to improve both length of life and quality of your life if you survive. Targeted therapy is a treatment that targets the cancers specific genes, proteins or tissue that helps cancer growth and survival. Immunotherapy is designed to boost the body’s natural defenses to fight the cancer.

People who had surgery to remove lymph nodes or radiation therapy to lymph nodes may develop lymphedema. Lymph nodes are the tiny, bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. When fluid builds up and causes swelling and pain, it is called lymphedema. That was the long term effect. I couldn’t find any short term effects on lung cancer.

In conclusion lung cancer is the uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells in the lungs. I chose this topic because I have seen commercials with people telling you not to smoke or this is what you will look like if you do smoke. It always mentioned lung cancer in the commercials and I wanted to explore more about the topic. I think that we should advertise the causes more and make cigarettes more expensive so it costs more of your money.

Bibliography

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/detailedguide/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-what-is-non-small-cell-lung-cancer

http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/lung-cancer-non-small-cell/treatment-options

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