Kazemi et. al. (2013) stated two research questions for this study. (A) Is there a reduction in blackouts over six months while participating in the MI program? (B) Is there an association between the prevalence of blackouts in the consumption of alcohol and drugs by freshmen college students based on race and gender?
The independent variable in the study by Kazemi et. al. (2013) was using a Motivational Interviewing program as an intervention in college freshmen. The dependent variables in Kazemi et. al. (2013) study were the associations between the rate of blackouts and time, ethnicity, gender, illicit drug use, and alcohol consumption. Kazemi et. al. (2013) did not explicitly state any extraneous or confounding variables in the report nor were any made obvious.
The design of this study by Kazemi et. al. (2013) is qualitative and longitudinal. It is qualitative because it follows a sample group for one college, and uses three different questionnaires for measuring effects of MI on the number of blackouts in college freshmen. The Daily Drinking Questionnaire, Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, and the Government Performance and Results Act were completed by the participants after the baseline therapy session and then again after the six-month therapy session to review efficiency of MI. Qualitative design was appropriate for this study because questionaries’ were needed to assess the number of drugs used and alcohol consumed and number of blackouts participants had throughout the six-month period to see if MI interventions effected these numbers.
Population, Sample, and Setting
Kazemi’s et. al. (2013) study was conducted at a public university in a southern state using a purposive sample. Three hundred freshmen students were recruited from residence halls and seminar classrooms. Students that wanted to participate were told to call and were screened for eligibility. Criteria for this study were full-time freshmen status students willing to participate between the ages of 18-20 years old, they must have consumed alcohol in the last 30 days, been able to read and speak English, and attend all four sessions. Of the initial 300 students, 98 were excluded because they did not meet the criteria requirements. Fourteen more students were excluded because they were unable to attend all four sessions. The final sample size for the study was 188 students. The mean age of participants was 18.5 years. 95% of students lived on campus. The ethnic distribution is as follows: 57.4% European American, 17.6% African American, 9.6% multicultural, 3.2% Latino American, and 2.1% Asian American. The study
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