Protective Effect of Abutilon indicum (L.) on Cisplatin & Acetaminophen Induced Nephrotoxic Rats

Abstract: Abutilon indicum L. (Malvaceae) is a common Indian medicinal herb traditionally used for curing variety of disorders in ancient systems of medicine. The study aims at evaluating the protective and curative effect of ethanolic extract of Abutilon indicum (EEAI) at 200 & 400 mg doses on cisplatin and acetaminophen induced nephrotoxic rat models. Ethanolic … Read more

Spatial synchrony

Spatial synchrony occurs when properties measured in populations (e.g., species abundance), communities (species richness) or ecosystems (e.g., primary productivity) vary synchronously. Several studies have demonstrated synchrony of temporal dynamics in local population densities (Knops and Koenig 1998; Shanker and Sukumar 1999; Cattadori et al 1999; Liebhold et al 2004a). Other studies also revealed synchrony as … Read more


The word ‘anatomy’ derives from the Greek term ‘anatome’ which means ‘cutting apart’. However, anatomy is a broad subject which encapsulates many scientific components of life thus it is an ever developing science (Patton et al, 2007). Human anatomy is the subdiscipline of biology which focuses on the internal structures of the human body including … Read more

Small ribonucleic acid (RNA)

Small ribonucleic acid (RNA) can act as specific regulators of gene expression. Over the years many new small functional RNAs have been found. RNAs are usually thought of as messenger RNA, which serve as templates for the translation of genes into proteins. Encoding of the DNA sequence is often referred to as an RNA gene. … Read more

Application essay: Chemistry

‘Better things for Better living through Chemistry’, taking this thought as a motivation for my objective to pursue graduate studies in Chemistry. My interest in this field is determined by my majoring in Organic Chemistry with a research experience in the relative field persuaded me that I had made the right choice of study, heading … Read more

GM technology

In high school we have learned about that gene is the basic unit to control biological traits, genetic information is recorded biological procreation. Different information recorded in different genes, gene can be changed by modifying some or all of the features of an organism. After entering the university, after the completion of the study a … Read more


Synchrony is a significant and recurring result for different taxonomic resolutions at the present time series study. The synchrony of zooplankton populations have been detected in different types of ecosystems, both temperate (Rusak et al. 1999, 2002) and tropical (Caliman et al. 2010). The results obtained in this study and for several other groups of … Read more

The Universe

Abstract The universe is a known place to our young and sensitive eyes. Stars galaxies, planets, comets, asteroids are part of this abundant place that has an end of 13. 8 billion years to us. The age of the universe was known by studying the oldest objects within the universe, which can be studied using … Read more

Research proposal: Phyllanthus niruri for Malaria

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction Over 500 million cases of malaria are reported annually among the world’s poorest populations. Millions of children die each year in Africa alone. The parasite that causes the most deadly form of malaria, plasmodium falciparum, is spread by the highly prevalent mosquitos’ anopheles gambiae and anopheles. funestus. After decades of neglect, … Read more

CPE methodology

The CPE methodology was introduced by Watanabe and co-workers (Goto K, Fukue Y and Watanabe H., 1977; Watanabe H and Tanaka H.,1978), and its analytical potential was reported by Watanabe in 1982 (Watanabe H and Mitta K L.,1982) and its application for organic pollutants have been extensively reviewed(Tani.H, Kamidate.T and Watanabe.T.,1997; Quina.F.H, Hinze.W.L.,1999; Sanz-Medel.A.,; Huddleston.J.G.,; … Read more

Investment casting (lost wax process casting)

Investment casting is one of the metallurgical processes that are used worldwide which was discovered many years ago. It is also known as lost wax process casting. In the early days they use to produce copper, bronze and gold. This technique re-emerged in the late 19th century when dentists began using the technique to make … Read more


Yield is a complex trait which determined by high number of genes and effected by many other traits; yield components, traits relate to the seeds, and agronomic traits. One of the most important yield component traits is productive tiller number. Productive tiller number is a quantitative trait which controlled by large number of genes, one … Read more

Research proposal: Modeling flow and transport of pollutants in porous media

Fresh water is an essential element of life, the main source of drinking water being represented by groundwater. Since aquifers provide drinking water needs of humanity, water quality and pollutant transport to the saturated zone has to be carefully monitored. Unsaturated zone acts as a buffer between surface waters and aquifers. Environmental protection in general … Read more

Optical coherence tomography

Optical coherence tomography is a technique that generates slice images of a three-dimensional object (Fercher, Drexler, Hitzenberger, & Lasser, 2003). Compare to other tomographic techniques, for example CT scan, OCT is a non-invasive and it is particular importance in the medical field. Optical coherence tomography is physically founded on optical diffraction tomography (ODT) (Fercher, Drexler, … Read more

Research proposal: Does the Tortoise Beetle attack plant species other than the Eucalyptus tree?

LITERATURE REVIEW: According to my previous research, it has shown that the Tortoise Beetle affects the Eucalyptus trees seen in the past study, ‘NEW WORK ON BIOCONTROL FOR EUCALYPTUS TORTOISE BEETLE’ in New Zealand by Toni Withers of Scion May 2012. In my investigation, I would like to find out if the Tortoise Beetle affects … Read more


The incorporation of nanotechnology into molecular biology and medicine has resulted in active developments of a new emerging research area, nanomedicine which offers exciting opportunities for discovering new materials, processes, and phenomena (Whitesides, G. M, 2003). Nanoparticles play vital role as imaging contrast agents in various bio-imaging and pathogenic detection modalities including fluorescence microscopy, Confocal … Read more

Genetic algorithm

Genetic algorithm is an evolutionary algorithm which is based on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and works on the natural phenomenon of evolution according to which only the fittest survive and reproduce, which produces better offspring’s with the best genes from both the parents and as the generation goes on, we obtain an overall fitter … Read more

Chromium coatings

The dense oxide layer which naturally forms on the aluminum surface inhibits the direct electroplating of trivalent chromium coatings on the aluminum substrate. The trivalent chromium coatings with and without Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) deposits on the pure aluminum substrate using a thin zincates interlayer to improve the mechanical and corrosion properties of pure aluminum … Read more

Evolution and Charles Darwin

Evolution I. Evolution is the most important concept in all of biology. None of biology makes sense except in the context of evolution. Just why is evolution so important to biologists? A few examples’ A. Taxonomy: Evolution makes sense of the similarities and differences and provides a rational explanation for the distribution of taxa. It … Read more

Dissertation: Baobab fruit trees

Abstract The African baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a multi-purpose tree that is important among African communities as it provides food and a range of raw materials. Its fruits provide essential nutrients and are sold to generate income. As baobab fruits are important to the livelihoods of many people, it is important to understand the causes … Read more

Gene transfer techniques – pros and cons

Gene transfer is a technique to stably and efficiently introduce functional genes (that are usually cloned) into the target cells. Genetic transfer is the mechanism by which DNA is transferred from a donor to a recipient. Once donor DNA is inside the recipient, crossing over can occur. The result is a recombinant cell that has … Read more