Essay: Sprayers Used In Agricultural Applications

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  • Sprayers Used In Agricultural Applications
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Sprayers are commonly used on farms to spray pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and defoliants as a means of crop quality control. There are many kinds of machine-operated sprayers, the most common of which are low-pressure, high-pressure, air-carrier, and fogger types.

Insects and weeds are largely responsible for the crop destruction. In modern horticulture and agriculture, insecticides/pesticides, a man made or natural preparation are used to kill insects or otherwise control their reproduction. These herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers are applied to agricultural crops with the help of a special device known as a “Sprayer.”
Based on the concept of high or low pressure, sprayer provides optimum performance with minimum efforts. There are several types of sprayers available in the market such as manual or self-propelled sprayers, tractor mounted sprayers and aerial sprayers.

Science and technology always help the mankind to improve its life. This thing applies to the agriculture sector too. Innovative human brains use their creative power and blend it with the principles of mathematics and physics to develop an ultimate range of plant protection equipments, showcasing the highest degree of human excellence. The invention of a sprayer, pesticides, fertilizers, etc. bring revolution in the agriculture/horticulture sector.

Especially the invention of sprayers, enable farmers to obtain maximum agricultural output. They are used for garden spraying, weed/pest control, liquid fertilizing and plant leaf polishing. It is available in man-portable units, self-propelled units.

1.2 Application Areas

Sprayers are not only used in agricultural applications but also in domestic purposes. Below is a few detail of their application areas:

‘ Agriculture
‘ Pest control
‘ Water spraying
‘ Small nurseries
‘ Gardens
‘ Spraying wettable insecticides and fungicides
‘ Orchards
‘ Vegetable gardens, etc.

1.3 Types of sprayer
Sprayers are available in variety of sizes and specifications, depending on the requirement of the plant / crop. Following are the main types of sprayers used for insecticide or pesticide sprays:
1) Low pressure sprayer
(a) Tractor mounted
(b) High clearance sprayer
(c) Trailer-mounted Sprayers
(d) Truck mounted sprayers
2) High pressure sprayer
3) Air carrier sprayer
4) Fogger ( Mist blowers )
5) Hand operated sprayer

1.3.1 Low pressure sprayer
These sprayers are most widely used due in part to their relatively low cost. Low-pressure sprayer types include tractor mounted, high-clearance, trailer mounted, and truck mounted versions; they are typically operated hydraulically.
Low-pressure sprayers include an air chamber to level out the pump’s pulsations to provide a constant nozzle pressure, as well as pressure gages and regulators. Though booms are common on many sprayers, boom less power jet sprayers, with one to five nozzles on a single bracket, are also available.
1.3.1 (a) Tractor-mounted
In a tractor mounted configuration, a tank ranging with a capacity ranging from 150 to 500 gallons (568 to 1,893 L) is mounted on a tractor. While the pump is attached to the power take-off shaft, it may be driven by a hydraulic motor. The sprayer’s booms can be located in the front, rear, or on the belly the tractor.

1.3.1 (b) High-clearance Sprayers
These sprayers, derived from tractor mounted sprayers, are comprised of a tall frame that can clear corn, cotton, and tobacco, in addition to other tall crops. Additionally, high-clearance sprayers’ boom height can be adjusted depending on the height of the crop.

1.3.1 (c) Trailer-mounted Sprayers
Trailer mounted sprayers, mounted on a trailer and towed by an agricultural tractor, comprise a tank with a potential 1,000-gallon (3,785-L) capacity. The pump, driven by the power take-off shaft or hydraulic motor, is mounted on the sprayer. These sprayers may have a boom measuring from 12 to 50 feet (3.7 to 15 m) in length. In addition, high-clearance trailer mounted sprayers are available.
1.3.1 (d) Truck-mounted Sprayers
This design consists of a skid-mounted sprayer, powered by an auxiliary engine, placed in a pickup or flatbed truck. Flotation tires are included on larger units to aid the sprayer’s operation in wet conditions. These large models, including tanks that hold up to 2,500 gallons (9,463 L) and booms up to 60 feet (18.3 m) long, are most useful on expansive areas, or special applications.
1.3.2 High pressure sprayer

High-pressure application of chemicals is employed when spray needs to be driven through thick brush or tall trees. These sprayers, heavier and more expensive than low-pressure models, are able to operate under working pressures as high as 1,000 pounds per square inch (6,895 kPa). Aside from these differences, they are also hydraulically operated and consist of the same basic parts as low-pressure versions; they can be applied to the same tasks when outfitted with a boom.
1.3.3 Air-carrier Sprayers
These machines are often referred to as air-blast sprayers or mist blowers. Pesticides contained in air-carrier sprayers are transported in an air stream ranging in speed from 80 to 150 miles (129 to 241 km) per hour. Concentrated pesticides are used in these sprayers, as the air in which they are carried disperses and dilutes them considerably. The use of concentrated chemicals is therefore more efficient, as it takes little time to fill the tank when 80 percent less dilution water is required.
A common type of air-carrier model is the orchard sprayer, used to spray to either one or both sides of a row of orchard trees. One type of air-carrier sprayer used in fields is mounted on a turntable to enable the spray to aim in either direction. Another type used on shade trees can spray up to 100 feet (30 m) high.

1.3.4 Foggers (Mist blowers)
Though these machines are used to distribute liquid pesticides, they are not actually sprayers. They are employed when an entire area such as a greenhouse or mosquito-ridden area needs to be filled with pesticides..
Foggers are either engine-driven or electrically powered. The former models release aerosol vapour through their exhaust. Electric foggers may use a 110-120 volt current, or may receive electrical power from a car, truck, or tractor. Some larger foggers are powered with a 12-volt, ?? horsepower electric motor; their pumps are capable of developing pressure of up to 1,800 pounds per square inch (12,410 kPa) for a powerful spray. Foggers are not suitable to be used in windy conditions.

1.3.5 Hand operated sprayers
Hand operated applicators are generally used to apply small quantities of pesticides both inside structures such as greenhouses or for small jobs outdoors such as on small farms or spot treatment on larger farms.
Hand-held sprayers usually have an air pump which compresses air into the tanks and pressurizes the spray mixture. The pressure slowly drops as the liquid is sprayed. When the pressure gets too low, the nozzle spray pattern is poor. You must stop spraying and pump to rebuild the pressure. These sprayers operate at low pressures of 350 kPa (50 psi) or less and have small tanks of up to ten litters.
Back-pack sprayers are fitted with a harness so the sprayer can be carried on the operators back. Tank capacity may be as large as 20 litters. A hand lever is continuously operated to maintain the pressure which makes the back-pack sprayer output more uniform than that of a hand-held sprayer. Basic low cost backpack sprayers will generate only low pressures and lack features such as high-pressure pumps, pressure adjustment controls (regulator) and pressure gauges found on commercial grade units.



‘ Sprayer are commonly used on farms to spray pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and defoliants as a means of crop quality control.
‘ There are many kinds of machine-operated sprayers, the most common of which are low-pressure , high-pressure , air-carrier, and fogger types.
‘ Though methods of chemical pest control have been used for centuries, they were not always spread by machine; before the 1800s, most pesticides were applied by hand.
‘ Early sprayers were most likely first developed to apply fungicides to the vineyards of Bordeaux, France.
‘ Between 1850 and 1860, John Bean of California, D.B. Smith of New York, and the Brandt Brothers of Minnesota ,developed the hand-operated insecticide sprayer.
‘ 1874 marked the year that knapsack sprayers first entered the U.S. market.
‘ At the beginning of the following decade, the first commercial spraying machine was introduced. By 1887.
‘ In 1894, the first steam-powered sprayer was produced.
‘ Advancements continued, and by beginning of the 20th century, the first gasoline engine powered sprayer was on the market.
‘ 1911 saw , the introduction of a pressure regulator and air chamber; these were employed to achieve smooth, uninterrupted spraying.
‘ In 1914, Moses Rittenhouse began producing ‘orchard sprayers’ for the fruit-producing region in Niagara, later founding M.K. Rittenhouse.
‘ Several years after the development of the row-crop tractor in 1925, tractor mounted sprayers were introduced.
‘ The same year, low-volume, low-pressure sprayers were introduced. In 1945.At that time 10,000 power sprayers were produce.
‘ In 1950, 75,000 power sprayers were produced.

‘ Since 1995 FAO-AGSE has worked on the formulation of guidelines to improve the safety and efficiency of the most commonly used types of spray equipment.
‘ The first versions of the FAO(Food and Agricultural Organization) guidelines on pesticide application equipment were approved for publication in May 1997 by; the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Specifications, Registration Requirements, Application Standards and Prior Informed Consent; and the FAO Panel of Experts on Agricultural Engineering.
‘ A significant development in sprayer application methods is controlled droplet application (CDA). In contrast to conventional nozzles that produce droplets that are widely variable in size, CDA technology produces uniform droplets using a rotary spray nozzle. In operation, the rotary nozzle accumulates spray solution at the bottom of a spinning cup. The centrifugal force of the cup creates spray droplets, which are forced up multiple grooves on the inside of the cup. From there, the solution reaches the top of the rotary nozzle, and droplets are projected in a circular pattern up to a six-foot (1.8-m) diameter. Droplet diameter is determined by the speed of the cup. CDA is seen as advantageous as less water is required per acre of spray: conventional sprayers use 20 to 30 gallons (76 to 113 L) per acre (0.4 ha), CDA technology uses one gallon (3.79 L) or less. While some argue that CDA causes less spray drift and uses fewer pesticides, these claims have not been fully verified for all cases. Additional benefits may include savings in time and fuel, and less soil compaction.



‘ Generally the pesticide spraying action is done by farmers by putting the heavy storage tank on shoulder and applying hand effort for pumping action.
‘ They need to pump several times in certain time interval. This will make pesticide application process more time consuming and intermittent.
‘ In addition while applying the pesticides to the plants workers have to put the heavy pesticide container on their shoulder. This will result in early fatigue to the workers, which in turn will result in less efficiency.


4.1 Design of parts:
(Front and Top view of Trolley)

4.1.1 Fluid tank


Capacity: 15 L
Lance / Wand: Brass – Heavy
Pressure Chamber: Brass – Heavy
Trigger / Cut-Off Device / Manual Cock: Brass – Heavy
Belt: High Quality Cotton Belt
Working Pressure: 0.2 ‘ 0.3 MPa
Quantity: 1 pc / ctn

4.1.2 Pump cylinder

4.1.3 Pump piston

4.1.4 Piston ring

4.1.5 Pump push rod

4.1.6 Crank shaft

4.1.7 Bearings

4.1.8 Wheel

4.1.9 Spray tube

4.1.10 Nozzle

4.2 Construction and Description of parts:
‘ Pumps
‘ Trolley
‘ Shaft
‘ Cam & Gear Mechanism
‘ Storage Tank
‘ Piston
‘ Pipes
‘ Control valve and pressure regulation,
‘ Filtration
‘ Nozzles
‘ Types of nozzle are:
(1) Hollow cone nozzle
(2) Solid Cone nozzle
(3) Fan nozzle
‘ Nozzle tips
‘ Nozzle tips are:- (1) Flat fan nozzle tips (3) Variable cone nozzle tips
(2) Even nozzle tips (4) Hollow cone nozzle tips
(5) Flood nozzle tips

4.2.1 Pumps
‘ A pump creates the pressure required for atomization and penetration of the spray on almost all types of sprayers.
‘ Choose a pump that: has enough capacity for your spraying needs, can produce the desired operating pressure at the capacity you need, can handle the pesticide formulations you need without wearing or corroding too much, can be repaired economically and quickly, and can be used with your power source.

4.2.2 Common pumps include:
‘ roller pump excessive wear can occur with wet table powders
‘ piston pump
‘ diaphragm pump
For spraying insecticides or fungicides, sprayers require either diaphragm or piston pumps to develop the higher pressures needed (700 kPa or 100 psi) to get thorough plant coverage. Determine the capacity of the pump by the highest rate of application the sprayer is expected to deliver, an adequate volume for agitation and an additional 25% volume to account for the pumps wear. During operation there should always be flow in the bypass line indicating the pump has enough capacity to send some excess to the tank. Note the maximum rpm allowed for the pump and always operate the tractor throttle so that the maximum is not exceeded. Be aware that increasing the pumps rpm will also increase its output, therefore, the tractors throttle setting must not change during calibration and sprayer operation. Operating at too low an rpm may decrease the pumps output below that required for the sprayer.
4.2.3 Tanks
‘ The size of the spray tank depends on the intended application rate and the mounting space available. The tank should be equipped with a large screened opening for easy filling and cleaning. Tanks may be constructed of steel, stainless steel, epoxy-coated steel, fiberglass, polyethylene or aluminium. Fiberglass, stainless steel and polyethylene tanks are preferred because of their rust and corrosion resistance.
‘ The herbicide Roundup and liquid nitrogen fertilizers must not be put in galvanized steel tanks, as a hazardous chemical reaction can result.
‘ The rusting of steel tanks can be reduced by proper draining, cleaning and airing of the tank after use and by the use of rustproofing compounds.
‘ The tank must have either hydraulic bypass or mechanical agitation. If hydraulic agitation is used in the spray tank, additional pump capacity is required.
‘ Mechanical agitation with paddles gives the best mixing for wettable powder formulations. If hydraulic agitation is used, 1/10 to 1/20 of the tank capacity should be recirculated per minute. This flow should be supplied from a separate pressure line, not from the relief valve bypass.
‘ Tanks should be equipped with drains in the lowest part of the tank to allow complete emptying of the tank. Drains should be easy to operate to encourage operators to drain the tank at the end of each day.
‘ For proper mixing of pesticide dilutions it is important to know the volume capacity of the spray tank.
4.2.4 Control valve and pressure regulation
Most sprayers have one control valve which is the on off switch. The on/off switch also often acts as the pressure regulator. Pressure tends to fluctuate between the down stroke of the pump and the upstroke- high on the down stroke and low on the upstroke. It will also tend to fluctuate as a person spraying becomes tired and finds it more difficult to maintain the initial pressure.
4.2.5 Filtration
Small filters or fine mesh screens are inserted into the nozzle body to filter out particles that may clog the spray tip. While filters are needed for all spray solutions, tips will become clogged.
4.2.6 Hoses
Suction hoses (from the tank) should be reinforced so they will not collapse, be resistant to chemicals and oils, and be of the same diameter as the pump inlet hole. The same type of hose can be used for the bypass line.
Hoses on the pressure side of the pump must be able to handle pressures higher than the intended use and preferably as high as the maximum pressure the pump can develop. To avoid excessive pressures on the hose the relief or unloading valve should be released before flow to the boom is shut off.
4.2.7 Nozzles
The size of droplet produced by various nozzles depends upon operating pressures and nozzle design. The droplet size decreases with a higher pressure and with a smaller nozzle tip opening. Droplets that are too big give poor coverage and droplets that are too small drift easily.
Types of Nozzles:
Nozzles help control the amount of spray applied, the size of spray droplets, the specific pattern, and the uniformity of the application. Often, several types and sizes of nozzles are needed; Select the best pattern and size of nozzle for your spraying needs. The main nozzle types used for chemical application are:
(A)Flat spray nozzles (Also called fan type or Tee Jets):
These are used for low-pressure spraying such as the application of herbicides and insecticide drenches. They produce a fan-type pattern with less material applied along the edges of the spray pattern. By properly overlapping the spray, a uniform application is produced across the spray boom. Offset flat spray nozzles at an angle of 10 degrees to the boom to prevent interference of the overlapping spray patterns. Nozzle spacing on the boom and the height of the boom above the target are critical to obtain a uniform application.

Sprayer equipment suppliers and nozzle manufacturers’ catalogues can advise growers as to the correct height of the boom at different nozzle spacing and for different nozzle spray angles. Do not operate these nozzles above 400 kPa (60 psi) to prevent excessive wear and fine spray droplets. Refer to manufacturers specifications for recommended nozzle pressures.

(B) Even spray nozzle tips:
These produce an even spray pattern across the entire fan width. These nozzles are used in band spraying of herbicides where there is no overlap from other nozzles. Align even spray nozzles with the spray boom. These nozzles are designed to operate at low pressures (less than 400 kPa or 60 psi). Refer to manufacturers specifications for recommended nozzle pressures.
(C) Cone nozzle tips:
These are used for medium to high-pressure spraying (mostly fungicides and insecticides). These nozzles produce a good swirling mist so the spray material can reach the undersides of leaves. Nozzle spacing should allow the adjacent spray patterns to cover the entire target otherwise skips may occur. An example of skips would be when the nozzles (and boom) are too close to plants – the plants close to the boom and between the nozzles will be missed. Cone nozzles are available as either hollow cone or solid cone types both produce the same swirling mist but the solid cone nozzles are used when larger volumes are required. Cone nozzles are used in both boom and most air-blast sprayers.
(D) Air-shear nozzles:
This use a high-speed air stream to break up the liquid into droplets, so this nozzle is limited to air-blast sprayers with a high-velocity air discharge (at least 250 km/h or 150 mph). Air shear nozzles operate at low pressures and have large openings which minimizes plugging. Air-blast sprayers using regular cone nozzles normally operate at air-velocities of 160 km/h (100 mph) and air-velocity is not critical for droplet formation.
4.2.8 Nozzle Sizes
Various sizes of flat, even and cone nozzle tips may be used to obtain the volume of water desired. Consult with your sprayer equipment supplier for information on nozzle outputs for the various nozzle sizes. Ask for a catalogue with nozzle outputs in litres per minute.
4.2.9 Nozzle Tip Materials
Nozzle tips are made from a variety of materials. Choice of material depends upon the abrasiveness of the spray mixture. Wet table powders are more abrasive than emulsions. Brass tips are cheap but the metal is softer and the tips wear faster. In increasing order of durability the following materials are used: plastic, brass, stainless steel, hardened stainless steel, ceramic and tungsten carbide. By making flat and even spray tips out of colour plastic with a small amount of stainless steel or ceramic in the centre with the spray orifice, the more durable tips can be made at a very reasonable cost. These nozzles are more cost-effective than nozzles made entirely of brass.
Cone nozzles – nozzle discs and cores
Nozzle screens and strainers

As nozzle tips wear out, the rate of application increases. Tests have shown that some wet table powders wear nozzle tips sufficiently to increase the rate as much as 12% after spraying only 20 ha.
For this reason, frequent calibration of equipment is necessary. Also, much worn nozzles should be replaced because their spray pattern is distorted and uneven application will result.

4.3 Working/ Proposed solution:
‘ We have constructed an equipment which will eliminate the burdensome tasks of lifting and pumping.
‘ This innovative equipment is designed in such a way that it prevents hand pumping to spray the pesticides as it is designed using single slider crank mechanism.
‘ Explaining about how this equipment work, the farmer has to just push this equipment on the farm land and the nozzle will spray pesticide automatically in whichever direction he wants. Wheels are hinged on the axle, which in turn drives a cranking mechanism to create reciprocating motion of piston and actuates the pump of the cylinder of pesticide tank. This creates pressure inside the tank and due to this pressure pesticide gets sprayed.
‘ Another speciality of this mechanism in our model is engagement and disengagement of crank shaft at operator’s will. We can stop the movement of piston by disengaging push rod from crank shaft when the pressure is not required. And when the requirement of pressure occurs we can again engage the push rod and crank shaft.

4.4 Material procurement
Material is procured as per raw material specification and part quantity. Part process planning is done to decide the process of manufacture and appropriate machine for the same.
‘ Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties.
‘ By comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin. Bronze does not necessarily contain tin, and a variety of alloys of copper, including alloys with arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium, manganese, and silicon, are commonly termed “bronze”. The term is applied to a variety of brasses and the distinction is largely historical, both terms having a common antecedent in the term latten.
‘ Brass is a substitution alloy. It is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance; for applications where low friction is required such as locks, gears, bearings, doorknobs, ammunition casings and valves; for plumbing and electrical applications; and extensively in musical such as horns and bells for its acoustic properties. It is also used in zippers. Brass is often used in situations where it is important that sparks not be struck, as in fittings and tools around explosive gases.

4.4.2 MS-Mild Steel

‘ Mild steel contains 0.16’0.29% carbon; therefore it is neither brittle nor ductile. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable; surface hardness can be increased through carburizing.
‘ It is often used when large quantities of steel are needed, for example as structural steel. The density is approximately 7.85 g/cm3.Young’s modulus is 210,000 MPa.

4.4.3 EPDM

‘ EPDM rubber (ethylene propylene dine monomer (M-class) rubber), a type of synthetic rubber, is an elastomer which is characterized by a wide range of applications.
‘ The E refers to ethylene, P to propylene, D to dine and M refers to its classification in ASTM standard D-1418.
‘ The M class includes rubbers having a saturated chain of the polyethylene type. Dienes currently used in the manufacture of EPDM rubbers are dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), ethylating Norborne (ENB), and vinyl Norborne (VNB). EPDM rubber is closely related to ethylene propylene.


Polyvinyl chloride, commonly abbreviated PVC, is the third-most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC is used in construction because it is more effective than traditional materials such as copper, iron or wood in pipe and profile applications. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in clothing and upholstery, electrical cable insulation, inflatable products and many applications in which it replaces rubber.
‘ Pipes
‘ Electric cables
‘ Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) for construction
‘ Signs
‘ Clothing and furniture
‘ Sport
‘ Healthcare
‘ Flooring


Outline process chart shows the sequence of process carried out on the material to from a project. It represents the line diagram of process sequence from outline process chart. We can find out how many operation and inspection carried out on the material.
Thus ‘An Outline Process Chart is a process chart giving on overall picture by recording in sequence only the main operation and inspections’.
The O.P.C. is a graphical representation of the process by using only two symbol operation & inspection.
It indicates activity concerned manufacturing working & accomplishing.
It indicates activity to check the quality.

This chart is useful for the theoretical examination of long process. It is very useful to study the operation processes – entire method of production can be understood by this chart, so it is useful to know the number of each item

It is used recording of sequence i.e. series of events happening in the order which they occur.
This chart is frequently used in the study of the job, which is respective or standardized. Service and maintenance work, laboratory procedure and other work are shown in this chart. Since this chart follows one individual or group performing the some activity in sequence. The standard flow process chart can be used.



Chart No. 1 Sheet No. 1 Summery Saving
Present Proposed
Product : FRAME Activity
Activity : cutting & welding Operation
Location : Workshop Transport
Method : Proposed Inspection
Operator : X. Y. Z. Delay
Checked By : B. V. Chaudhary Storage
Approved By : B. V. Chaudhary Total 14

No. Description
D T Symbol Remarks

1 Storage

2 Transport to the Workshop

3 Marking

4 Transport to Hacksaw m/c

5 Cutting

6 Inspection

7 Transport to Drilling m/c

8 Drilling

9 Inspection

10 Transport to Welding m/c

11 Arc Welding

12 Inspection

13 Transport to Storage

14 Storage

Total 4 5 3 0 2

Chart No. 2 Sheet No. 2 Summery Saving
Present Proposed
Product : piston, crankshaft, push rod Activity
Activity : machining and welding Operation 6
Location : Workshop Transport 5
Method : Proposed Inspection 5
Operator : X. Y. Z. Delay 0
Checked By : Storage 2
Approved By : Total 18

No. Description
D T Symbol Remarks

1 Storage

2 Transport to the Workshop

3 Prepare a mould

4 Cast a piston ‘

5 Release the casted work

6 Inspection

7 Transport to bin

8 Facing & turning of rod

9 Inspection

10 Assembling piston on rod

11 Inspection

12 Transport to Cutting m/c

13 Cut the shaft(crank shaft)

14 Weld on crank shaft ‘

15 Inspection

16 Transport to Storage ‘

17 Storage

Total 7 4 4 0 2


Chart No. 3 Sheet No. 3 Summery Saving
Present Proposed
Product : Mechanism Activity
Activity : cutting & welding Operation 4
Location : Workshop Transport 5
Method : Proposed Inspection 3
Operator : X. Y. Z. Delay 0
Checked By : Storage 2
Approved By : Total 14

No. Description
D T Symbol Remarks

1 Storage

2 Transport to the Workshop

3 Marking

4 Transport to Cutting m/c

5 Profile Cutting

6 Inspection

7 Transport to drilling m/c

8 drilling

9 Inspection

10 Transport to welding m/c

11 Welding

12 Inspection

13 Transport to Storage

14 Storage

Total 4 5 3 0 2


Chart No. 4 Sheet No.4 Summery Saving
Present Proposed
Product : assembly of upper 3 product Activity
Activity : assembly & mounting Operation 4
Location : Workshop Transport 5
Method : Proposed Inspection 3
Operator : X. Y. Z. Delay 0
Checked By : Storage 2
Approved By : Total 14

No. Description
D T Symbol Remarks

1 Storage

2 Transport to the assembly shop

3 Assemble crankshaft with bearing

4 Fix the wheel on crankshaft ‘

5 Connect the push rod on crankshaft

6 Mount the tank with cylinder on frame ‘

7 Assemble piston with cylinder ‘

8 Welding of mechanism on pushrod and frame

9 Inspection

10 Transport to storage

11 storage

Total 6 2 1 0 2


Buyer decision processes are the decision making processes undertaken by consumers in regard to a potential market transaction before, during, and after the purchase of a product or service.
More generally, decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. Common examples include shopping and deciding what to eat. Decision making is said to be a psychological construct. This means that although we can never “see” a decision, we can infer from observable behaviour that a decision has been made. Therefore we conclude that a psychological event that we call “decision making” has occurred. It is a construction that imputes commitment to action. That is, based on observable actions, we assume that people have made a commitment to effect the action.
In general there are three ways of analysing consumer buying decisions. They are:
‘ Economic models – These models are largely quantitative and are based on the assumptions of rationality and near perfect knowledge. The consumer is seen to maximize their utility. See consumer theory. Game theory can also be used in some circumstances.
‘ Psychological models – These models concentrate on psychological and cognitive processes such as motivation and need recognition. They are qualitative rather than quantitative and build on sociological factors like cultural influences and family influences.
‘ Consumer behaviour models – These are practical models used by marketers. They typically blend both economic and psychological models.

1 Water tank 1 PVC BUY
2 Water tank cap 1 PVC BUY
3 Pressure vessel 1 PVC BUY
4 Pump cylinder 1 BRASS BUY
5 Pump piston 1 PVC BUY
6 Piston ring 1 EPDM BUY
7 Push rod 1 M.S BUY
8 Crank shaft 1 M.S MAKE
9 Spray nozzle 1 BRASS BUY
10 Spray tube 1 BRASS BUY
11 Flexible pipe 1 RUBBER BUY
12 Pedestal bearings 4 STD BUY
13 Wheels 4 STD BUY
14 Nuts and bolts 20 M.S BUY
15 Clamps 4 BRASS BUY
16 L section(frame) 50 ft M.S MAKE
17 Colour 500 gm STD BUY

It is the determination of actual cost of an article after adding different expenses incurring in various department. It may also be definite as a system which systematically. Records & the expenditure included in various departments.
To determine any the cost of manufactured product.
The important Aim & object of costing are as follows:
‘ To determine the cost of each article.
‘ To determine the cost of each article operation to keep central overhead expenses.
‘ To supply information for costing of wastage.
‘ It helps in reducing the total cost of manufacture.
Actual expenditure incurred in various departments for costing collects different items. The expenditure is categorized under the following main heads:

All the expenses made by an industry may be group into various components of cost.

‘ The various components of cost are as under:
It should be noted that it is cumulative as shown. This system is used in most of modern industries irrespective of their size. It is because this type of classification is very helpful in analysing cost compounds according to modern management techniques.

1. Prime Cost:
a. It is also referred as direct cost and is comprised of the Direct Material Cost, Direct Labour Cost and Direct Expenses incurred on the manufacturing of product.
b. Prime Cost = Direct Material Cost + Direct Labour Cost + Direct Expenses

2. Factory Cost:
a. It is also referred as works cost and is comprised works overhead.
b. Factory Cost = Prime Cost + Factory Over Head

3. Office Cost:
a. It is also referred as production cost of manufacturing cost is comprised of Factory Cost and Administrative Over Heads or Office on Cost.
b. Office Cost = Factory Cost + Administrative Over Head

4. Total Cost:
a. It is also referred as ultimate cost or gross cost and is comprised of the Office Cost and Selling and Distribution Overhead.
b. Total Cost = Office Cost + Selling and Distribution Overhead

5. Selling Price:
a. When profit or loss of organization is added / subtracted to the Total Cost of the product we get Selling Price.
i. Selling Price = Total Cost + Profit or loss.

6. Market Price:
a. It is also referred as catalogue price or list price some percentage of discounts is always allowed to the distributors, when this Discount to the Distribution is added to the Selling Price we get Market Price.

7. Market Price = Selling Price + Discount to the Distributors.


1 Water tank 1 3600
2 Handle 1 40
3 Pedestal bearings 4 1280
4 Wheels 4 1080
5 Steering 1 100
6 Nuts and bolts 22 150
7 Clamps 4 40
8 L section 50 ft 1200
9 Colour 500gm 230
Total 7220


‘ Total production cost = Purchase Parts cost + Labour cost
= 7220 + 1000
= 8220

‘ Selling price = total cost + profit ( 20 % of production cost)
= 8220 + 0.2(8220)
= 9864
= 9850

Work Progress Chart

9.1 Work Progress Chart

Sr. no Particulars July ’13 Aug ’13 Sept ’13 Oct ’13 Nov ’13 Dec ’13 Jan ’14 Feb ’14 Mar ’14 Apr ’14
1 Problem identification ‘
2 Literature survey ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘
3 Data collection ‘ ‘
4 Collection of materials ‘ ‘
5 Fabrication of prototype ‘ ‘
6 Testing ‘
7 Modification ‘
8 Controlling system implementation ‘
9 Report preparation ‘

9.2 Work Allocation Matrix

Act. No. Description Who will perform? Planned Dates Who have performed? Initial of teacher
1. Selection of project Group June Group
2. Understand Concept of project Group July Group
3. Prepare work allocation matrix in group Group August Group
4. Preparing and maintaining Work Progress Chart
Dharmang September Dharmang
5. Preparing conceptual sketch of machine parts Parth January
6. Preparation of assembly drawings Kunal January Kunal
7. Specification of machine & materials Dhaval January Dhaval
8. Assembly Group March Group
9. Costing Dhaval &
Dharmang March Dhaval &
10.. Preparation of project report Parth &
Kunal April Parth &
11. Presentation Group Group


10.1 Result:
‘ This equipment eliminates the burden from farmer’s shoulders and reduces the effort to the great extent.
‘ This in turn helps in increasing the efficiency of farmer and reduces the total time required for pesticide action.

10.2 Future scope:
‘ By incorporating some integrated circuits, we can completely eliminate the need of human presence for pesticides injection. We will just need to set the programme of I.C. and the equipment will spray the pesticides automatically to specified area.
‘ By developing some mechanism we can use or store the work produced during ideal movement of trolley.


10.1 Advantage:-
‘ Eliminates extra effort required in conventional pesticide application.
‘ Compact in size requiring less space for working.
‘ Eliminates extra time consumed in pumping action.
‘ Eliminates extra load from the worker’s shoulders.
‘ Low and high pressure capability.
‘ No skill operator is required.
‘ It can be operated by aged person.
‘ Highly durable knapsack sprayer.

10.2 Disadvantage:-
‘ The initial cost is high to some extent as compared to conventional sprayer.

10.3 Application:-
‘ This equipment can be used to reduce effort in pesticide action in following areas.
– Farm
– Garden
– Greenhouse
– Nursery




‘ Stone, Archie A. and Gulvin, Harold E. Machines for Power Farming. John Wiley and Sons, Inc: 1967.
‘ Pesticide. 2008-09-09.
‘ Smith, Harris Pearson and Wilkes, Lambert Henry. Farm Machinery and Equipment. McGraw-Hill Inc: 1976.
‘ Pesticide History. Clemson. 2008-09-09.
‘ GUIDELINES ON MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION EQUIPMENT(volume one), Food and Agricultural Organization of the united Nations Rome,2001.

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