Essay: Studying enzymes under different temperatures

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The experiment was directed to research the effects temperature has on enzymes and the reaction times of breaking down starch at different temperatures. The role of the enzyme can be disturbed by temperature, PH, salinity, enzyme and substrate concentration, and the presence of inhibitors or activators. There were two enzymes brought into the experiment conducted, one was Bacterial Amylase and the other was Fungal Amylase. Eight test tubes for each amylase (Fungal and Bacterial) are needed, four containing starch and for containing amylase. Each test tube with starch and with amylase is placed into designated water baths temperatures of 0, 25, 65, and 85 degrees Celsius and left for a certain amount of time to see the reactions time to break down starch when combined. The time the test tubes are placed in the water baths are 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes. At each minute a pipette is placed in the test tube and 2-3 drops of the solution of the test tube is placed on the spot plate slot designated at each time mixed with 2-3 drops of Iodine. Depending on the color at each minute is the effect the temperature had on the reaction time of the breaking down of starch. Each result should be recorded to combine the results of both Bacterial and Fungal Amylase. This would allow for conclusion of the experiment.

INTRODUCTION

Cells require enzymes to survive and function. Enzymes are catalysts, a catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. The enzyme lab is to see how the rate of enzyme activity is affected due to the changes in temperature, salinity, and pH levels. If the temperature is too high or too low the enzyme will start to denature. Denaturing means that the enzyme will start to unfold or lose its shape and therefore stop working because it can no longer bind to its active site. In this lab the study of specifically Bacillus lichenformis and Aspergillus oryzae, which are enzymes, will be studied at different temperatures. By studying the enzymes under different temperatures combined with starch will demonstrate at which temperature the enzyme works best. When starch is broken down the product will be yellowish coloring. When the starch combined with the enzyme is not broken down the product will be black/blue. Bacillus lichenformis is commonly found in soils, plant material, or bird feathers (ducks and sparrows) around the world. It is used in the industry to secrete proteins from the enzyme creating antibiotics. The enzyme thrives in temperatures of 50 degrees Celsius or higher. It can survive in bad environments by turning into a spore (Mai, 2011). The other enzyme being used for starch breakdown is Aspergillus Oryzae. This enzyme is commonly found in the ground as it is a type of mold. This tends to thrive in temperatures of 30 to 45 degrees Celsius. It is used in the industry but more commonly towards the Asian culture

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