Essay: US Response To Non-Endemic Diseases

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  • Subject area(s): Science essays
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  • Published on: January 13, 2020
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  • US Response To Non-Endemic Diseases
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Background information:

There have been many non-endemic diseases that have spread rapidly and have killed many people. This topic has risen up because many people believe that the way that the United States responds to these diseases is unethical, meaning there can be more harm to doing these studies and vaccinations than there is benefit. The United States government finds a person who has the new disease, put them in quarantine, and see what is wrong with them. From there, the scientists see what the disease consists of a d try to make a vaccine. But before that, what is a non-endemic disease? A non-endemic disease is a disease that can travel throughout many places in the world, and rather fast, making the disease very deadly. These diseases have very different types of effects. Malaria, a non-endemic disease, causes a fever, vomiting, tiredness, muscle aches, etc.. Another non-endemic diseases, Yellow Fever, causes a fever, headache, vomiting, etc.. One non-endemic disease completely different from those two diseases is Polio, which most times causes paralysis. Malaria and Yellow Fever were mostly found in Africa, while Polio was found in the United States. Malaria and Yellow Fever spread through insects, mostly mosquitoes, while Polio spread through contaminated food and water. These are big non-endemic diseases that caused the United States many problems when they were spreading rapidly. This also shows how there can be many types of non-endemic diseases, causing the United States more problems to go against. There has been many non-endemic diseases in America but the first non-endemic disease that had ravished the U.S. was the Smallpox epidemic in 1633-1634. Smallpox is a disease that causes muscle aches, fever, and terrible rashes around the body. The disease was first in Great Britain but the british settlers brought it to America, and as the disease is very contagious, it killed many british settlers and entire native american tribes. The disease had killed over seventy percent of the native american population in the New England region, and including the settlers, it had killed over twenty million people. This happened because there were many native americans and settlers in that region, which had caused the disease to spread rapidly throughout the population. The disease than did its job from there on, killing all of the people infected with it. The United States did not know what to do to prevent the Smallpox, as it had spread more later on. Smallpox had then ravished America in 1901 in Boston, where 1,500 people had been infected and 270 died. Those were the two biggest outbreaks of Smallpox in America, but it had spread more, but not at the rate it had at those two events. This disease has since been destroyed completely, as there has not been a case of Smallpox in the United States since 1980. The United States had created a vaccine for Smallpox which contained a vaccinia virus that had been alive. This means that there was a real virus in the vaccine that counteracts Smallpox, which also means that the scientists who made this vaccine had to be really careful when caring for the vaccine, as if they did not, the virus could have spread. This did not happen, as they managed to destroy the Smallpox and prevent it from spreading. But before they were able to fully eradicate the disease, they also needed to vaccinate the people in low economic communities in Africa and Asia so the Smallpox cannot spread anywhere. This Smallpox is just one example of a non-endemic disease that the United States had tried to destroy because of its contagion, and there are many other non-endemic diseases that the United States had gone against for the same reasoning that they had to destroy Smallpox.

Types of viewpoints:

There can be different viewpoints that a person can see through these studies and vaccinations to try and prevent these non-endemic diseases. There are positive effects of these studies and vaccinations such as it does not allow the spread of the disease to go on for a long time, less people will be infected with the disease, the United States government can make mass production of the vaccination to make the vaccine inexpensive, can possibly help cure other disease related to the cured disease, and will allow people not to be afraid of doing their everyday things, as they were not able to do because of the threat that they can catch the disease. Also simply, people can argue that the disease will be destroyed completely, such as Smallpox. There are also negative effects of these studies and vaccinations such as it takes a long time to produce while the disease is spreading globally, too much money into the studies of the disease which might not allow the United States to have enough supplies to support the mass production of the vaccine which causes many people to die for the disease, the side effects can cause more detrimental effects to the user of the vaccine, and trying to find whoever has that certain disease and testing them is an invasion of their privacy.

Positive viewpoints:

Starting with the positive viewpoints of the studies and vaccinations of the United States to try and prevent these non-endemic diseases, having the vaccine come out as fast as possible stops the spread of the disease is one of the positive effects. This means that there would be way less casualties by that disease than there would be if there was no vaccine to stop the disease. That is one positive viewpoint that people can see through these studies. Another positive effect of these studies and vaccinations is that the United States government can make mass production of the vaccination to make the vaccine inexpensive. This means that if they are able to make a lot of the specific vaccine for the disease, it will make it inexpensive which will allow the people in low economic places able to buy the vaccine. Also by any chance that the disease resurfaces, they will be prepared as they have many unused vaccine to help the people with. This was the same with Smallpox, as the United States government has a bunch of unused vaccines, which is also the reason why Smallpox has been non-existent for thirty-six years. Having the extra vaccines would be very beneficial to the United States government and their citizens. That is another positive viewpoint that people see through these studies and vaccinations of these non-endemic diseases. Another positive effect of the studies and vaccinations is that the vaccine might be able to cure other diseases. This might be possible if there are diseases closely related, and there would only be a few changes to the already working vaccine to create a vaccine for the other related disease. This can give hope to people as it will also not take a long time to create that vaccine, and it is basically killing two birds with one stone, or in this case, two diseases with similar vaccines. Another positive effect of these studies and vaccinations is that the United States citizens and everyone else in the world would not be afraid of doing their everyday activities. They were not able to do their everyday activities because of the threat of contracting the disease, but now that it is under control with the vaccine, they can do whatever they like, which gives many people hope to have their normal lives back after whatever disease had ravished the world. The last positive effect of these studies and vaccinations is that it can eradicate the disease completely. With these vaccines and also with the mass production of them, the disease can simply go away and never harm anyone ever again. This again gives people hope that they will be ok after going through all of these diseases and the government finally having a vaccine. Through these viewpoints of the studies and vaccinations of the non-endemic diseases, it makes people believe that this is ethical and that it is ok for the government to make the vaccinations because of all of the benefits it gives to their health and to their personal lives. Negative viewpoints:

Now with the negative viewpoints of the studies and vaccinations of the United States to try and prevent the non-endemic diseases, having the vaccine take a long time to produce which then allows the disease to spread faster is definitely a negative effect of these studies, if there are some mistakes in the making of the vaccine, the disease is able to spread even farther than it was before and across the world as there are always people traveling from place to place. This cause some people to have doubt about the government having the vaccine in time, which can be bad for the peoples personal lives. Another negative effect of the studies and vaccinations is that the United States government puts too much money into making the vaccine function, but there is not enough money to make a mass production of that vaccine. If they spend too much time on the vaccine, that would lead to more money being wasted on the production of that vaccine, and there will not be enough money in the budget for the mass production. This will lead to many more people dying from the disease and it will not be able to fully destroy the disease without the mass production. Many people see this as unethical because they do not believe that people in low economic places that are unable to get the vaccine deserve to die more than people in high economic places that are able to get the vaccine, so they do not want anyone to get the vaccine as everyone is equal. Another negative effect of these studies and vaccinations of the non-endemic diseases is that the side effects of the vaccine may be more detrimental to the person’s health than it is beneficial. There have been many times when a vaccine has many side effects, such as people can get a severe allergic reaction to the vaccine, which makes them unable to be immune from the disease killing many people and their lifespan would be shortened also by the allergic reaction. This is seen as unethical to many people because it is unfair to some people as they are not able to get the vaccine without having side effects happen to them, which basically leaves them thinking about their eventual death from the disease, which messes up their state of thinking. The last negative effect of these studies and vaccinations of the non-endemic diseases is how trying to find whoever has the disease that is killing many people and doing studies on them an invasion of their privacy. The United States government can take a person if they see a person who might be sick or was with someone sick with that disease and if they did not allow them to treat for them, it is an invasion of privacy. The government puts that person in quarantine and it can be without their permission as the government is trying to stop the spread of the disease. As Doug Farquhar from the National Conference of State said “Quarantine may be used to restrict the movement of well people who have been exposed to a communicable disease until it can be determined if they are ill.” (Farquhar, 2014). This means that if you are reported to be near a person who had a serious disease, the government will put you in a room so you can not communicate with any other people in public until they know that you have the disease. This might be against the person’s permission and this ruins the person’s day, week, or maybe even month as they are just in a room. Some people view this as unethical because it is not right to put a person in a blank room as if they were in prison and they might not even have the disease that they are going against. Those are the negative viewpoints of these studies and vaccinations of the non-endemic diseases and why people see them as unethical.

Ethical stand:

This topic is ethical because the positive viewpoints of the studies and vaccinations that the United States make far outweigh the negative viewpoints in terms of benefits to the people in surviving the disease. The positive viewpoints such as it does not allow the spread of the disease, less people will be infected with the disease, the United States government can make mass production of the vaccination to make the vaccine inexpensive, can possibly help cure other disease related to the cured disease, will allow people not to be afraid of doing their everyday things, and eradicating the disease give the people in the world more benefits than it would hurt them. Eradicating the disease is the best option as it is unwanted and the only way to do that is through these studies and creating the vaccine. There also needs to be a mass production of the disease to be able to destroy the disease completely. There are some people that would argue that if they spend too much money on the studies for the vaccinations, while during this time the disease is still spreading, there would not be enough money in their budget to support the mass production, killing way more people in this process without the mass production. Well this argument simply does not make sense, as the United States government wants to destroy the disease, so why would they not want to make a mass production? Also if they do not simply spend any money on these vaccinations, there is a good chance that hundreds of millions of people would die from that non-endemic disease. The United States would not want to let that happen so the money that they need to make the mass production of the vaccine would be nothing for the United States. This just basically proves that this negative effect of the studies and the vaccinations is nothing more than a hypothetical and this will not actually happen in real life. The other negative viewpoints of the studies and vaccinations for the non-endemic diseases such as taking too long to make the vaccine and taking a person into a quarantine is an invasion of their privacy do not make much sense either. A vaccine may take a long time to make but the scientists are trying their hardest to get the vaccine as quick as possible, and having a working vaccine is better than having no vaccine, as having no vaccine will eventually lead to the disease killing another hundreds of millions of people on top of the ones that would have died before the vaccine came out. The negative effect that says that putting a person in quarantine is an invasion of their privacy does not make sense either because if a person was with another person that had a serious disease and they were in communicating distance, the government has a right to get that person as if they were still in public, they might have spread the disease even farther. This is not an invasion of privacy as this benefits the person in quarantine, even though they are in a blank room for a long period of time some times. Being in the quarantine also improves your health because if the person was not in a hospital and contracted the disease, they might have died soon or sooner than they would have if they did not have the disease. Being in the quarantine will make that person one of the first to get a working vaccine and it will also benefit a lot more people than just themselves, as way less people would have died if the disease was able to spread in the public. That is why those two negative effects do not make much sense to discredit the United States to stop their studies. The one negative effect that can actually cause a problem to the people is the side effects that the vaccine might have. There are many vaccines with side effects and some have more than others. They can cause many health deformities and if a vaccine that is trying to cure a bad disease has bad side effects, it will solve one problem but cause other ones. It will cause other problems because all of the people who took the vaccine might have health deformities and their lives might be shortened, and that is not what the vaccine is for. The vaccine is just for curing the non-endemic disease and not to cause more problems. This is a valid negative effect but the only one that can hold up as all of the other negative viewpoints are hypotheticals and will not actually happen or do not make sense. This is why the positive viewpoints outweigh the negative viewpoints because the positive viewpoints benefit the people more than one real negative viewpoint. That is what makes this topic ethical as the United States government has the right to do all of these studies, even if some people do not believe it as right because the studies benefit all of their citizens and even most of the World’s population as they want their health to remain the same as before and for people to have their normal lives back without the concern of a deadly disease that can hurt them and their friends and families.

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