Essay: A scheme to minimize future road accident occurrence and severity

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  • Subject area(s): Sociology essays
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  • Published on: August 17, 2019
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Abstract

The sole objective of the process is to minimize future road accident occurrence and severity once the scheme has been built and the road comes into use. The identification of potential safety hazards on new road project at the appropriate Type, so that they can be eliminated or otherwise treated to mitigate their adverse effect at minimum cost .To decrease the rate of accidents at a particular location. The identification of potential safety hazards features of an existing road so that they can be eliminated or otherwise treated before they become accident prone location.

Road safety audit is formal procedure for assessing accident potential and safety performance in the provision of new road schemes, the improvement and rehabilitation of existing road & in maintenance of roads. The role of auditor is to provide independent advice in the form of written recommendations. The designer or client then considers the advice and formal decision is made by them on whether or not to adopt each of the recommended safety alterations. The primary role of audit team is to identify the potential problems of a highway project by conducting the site inspection & collecting data from various agencies.

1                                                      INTRODUCTION

Road Safety Audit (RSA) is a formal procedure for assessing accident potential and safety performance in the provision of new road schemes and schemes for the improvement and maintenance of existing roads.

Road safety audit procedures were developed in 1989 by British traffic engineers and evolved from a tool used by railway engineers to examine safety issues on railways. RSA’s were soon adopted by Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and many other developed countries in the early 1990s (FHWA 2009a). The development of the road safety audit procedures was refined before adoption by the American transportation community. In 1996, the FHWA sponsored a tour of Australia and New Zealand to study their road safety audit programs to learn strategies on how to implement road safety audits in the United States. From the lessons learned, FHWA sponsored a road safety audit workshop in St. Louis to develop procedures to be used in the road safety audit pilot program. The first pilot program included thirteen states and provided a basis for use of road safety audits in the United States (Wilson and Lipinski 2004). As road safety audits have gained popularity in the United States they have also gained recognition and acceptance in other parts of the world. The Asian Development Bank, in collaboration with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and the World Bank, has recently sponsored the use of road safety audits and have a published their own toolkit to be used in conducting a road safety audit (ADB 2003). Countries around world are starting to realize the low cost tool of saving lives. There are two different RSA processes that can be used. The first one is the traditional RSA that looks at projects before they are built or operational, Pietrucha et al. (2001) described a road safety audit as a process where a team of experts attempts to 9 identify features of the roadway operating environment as potentially dangerous and work to eliminate or change those features in different parts of the design process. The other RSA process used and the process that is used throughout this research is called Road Safety Audit Reviews (RSARs) and can be defined as “an evaluation of an existing roadway section by an independent team, focusing solely upon safety issues” (Wilson and Lipinski 2004). Most states DOTs have reactive safety programs that focus on highcrash locations or have black spot treatment programs. RSARs are different in that they are proactive in nature and use crash data when available but are not dependent on it. RSARs focuses more on safety issues associated with the roadway, all road users, operating under all environmental conditions, and to identify the safety issues associated with the existing facility (Wilson and Lipinski 2004).

1.1. General

A road safety audit is the continuous monitoring of the safety factor of new and existing highway and traffic management scheme, which involve improvement of existing layout. The fundamental goal of road safety audit is to insure that there is less future problems on highway. A accidents are occurs due to collision of two or more vehicles, cyclist and vehicle, pedestrian and vehicle, fixed object and vehicle, overturned vehicle near public road, etc. in our routine life as the transportation is increasing it will also increase safety issue in this area of extensive research and work. In developing countries like India, the road accidents increasing year by year. So it is necessary to reduce road accident and work towards the road safety. To apply the road safety audit in real life, the first thing is to know the geometric features of highways.

This accidents will effect of people for a long time. The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation provides facility of transportation to approximately 24 lakh people every day. Road safety audit provides to assess the road accident and will give the better sa than cure”.  For improving road safety audit will the work road on new roads , safety,

Existing road sand therefore the maintenance of the existing road. Road safety audit contained the internal part of designing, planning, construction maintenance of road, this will become the compulsory rule for newly road.

In past, there is no priority to road safety audit but now a days India also started believing in the importance of road safety audit .because of this Ministry of Road Transport and Highway sponsored the project Under this project, Manual for Road Safety Audit has been prepared. First Road Safety Audit was carried again by CRRI IN 2000 on Indore Bypass.

1.2    Scope of Road safety audit

India has the second largest road network in the world with over 3 million kms of             roads of which 60% are paved. These roads make a vital contribution to India’s economy. On the whole, however, the facilities for the road users fall far behind acceptable standard, leading to a huge death toll resulting from road accidents. In recent times, there has been a growing concern over the road safety problem.

The Road Safety problem in India demands a multidimensional approach. Road Safety Audit is only one important component: Subcontracts India is  doing ground breaking work in the following areas:

1.3   Road safety audit Phases

a. Completion of preliminary design, preferably prior to the submission for planning permission

b. Completion of detailed design, usually before the tender documents have been submitted

c. Completion of construction prior to opening (or completion if on a ‘live’ highway)

d. Collision monitoring (12 months and 36 months after opening of the highway scheme)

1.4   Types of Road safety audit

There are four different Types of a Road Safety Audit each forming their own independent report but refer to each other and these are detailed below:-

Type 1

Type 1 Road Safety Audits are undertaken at the completion of preliminary design and where possible, before planning consent is granted. This is the last occasion at which land requirements may be increased and it is therefore essential to consider fully any road safety issues which may have a bearing upon land take before planning consent is granted. At the Road Safety Audit Type 1 all team members shall visit together and examine the existing highway layout or features and where the new highway improvement scheme ties into the existing highway.

Type 1 – Completion of Preliminary Design

• Will the new road drain adequately

• Can all accesses be used safely

• Are horizontal and vertical alignments consistent with required visibility

• Is provision for right turning vehicles required

• Have pedestrian and cycle routes been provided where required

• Are lighting columns located at new junctions and where adjoining existing roads

• Are any road markings proposed at this Type appropriate

Type 2

Type 2 Road Safety Audits are undertaken at completion of the detailed design Type of the works. The Audit Team will be able to consider the layout of junctions, position of signs, carriageway markings, lighting provision and other issues. At the Road Safety Audit Type 2 all team members shall visit together and examine the existing highway layout or features and where the new highway improvement scheme ties into the existing highway.

Type 2 – Completion of Detailed Design

• General basic design principals

• Local alignment

• Visibility

• Junctions layout and visibility

• Non motorized user provision

• Road signs, carriageway markings and lighting

Type 3

The Type 3 Road Safety Audit should be undertaken when the Highway Improvement Scheme is substantially complete and preferably before the works are open to road users. The Audit Team will examine the scheme site during daylight and during the hours of darkness, so hazards particular to night operation can also be identified. The Audit Team Leader shall invite representatives of the Police, the Local Authority and Maintaining Agent to accompany the Audit Team to offer their views for the Type 3 Audit.

Type 3 – Completion of Construction

• The Audit Team should consider whether the design has been properly translated into the scheme as constructed and that no inherent road safety defect has been incorporated into the works.

• Particular attention should be paid to design changes which have occurred during construction.

• Design principles

• Local Alignment

• Visibility

• Junction layouts

• Non motorized user provision

• Road signs, carriageway markings and lighting

Type 4 – (Monitoring)

During the first year a Highway Improvement Scheme is open to traffic, a check should be kept on the number of personal injury collisions that occur, so that any serious problems can be identified and remedial work arranged quickly. Type 4 collision monitoring reports shall be prepared using 12 months and 36 months collision data from the time the scheme became operational.

These reports shall be submitted to the Overseeing Organization. The collision records shall be analyzed in detail to identify:

• Locations at which personal injury collisions have occurred

• Personal injury collisions that appear to arise from similar causes or show common factors.

1.5  Objectives

The sole objective of the process is to minimize future road accident occurrence and severity once the scheme has been built and the road comes into use.

• The identification of potential safety hazards on new road project at the appropriate Type, so that they can be eliminated or otherwise treated to mitigate their adverse effect at minimum cost.

• To decrease the rate of accidents at a particular location.

• The identification of potential safety hazards features of an existing road so that they can be eliminated or otherwise treated before they become accident prone location.

1.6  Road geometry design

Geometric design deals with the visible elements of a highway. Adoption of proper geometric standards facilitates safe and economical operation of vehicles. Geometric design is influenced by a number of factors among which nature of terrain, type, composition and volume of traffic, operating speed, land-use characteristics and aesthetics are important.

A draft for this document was initially prepared by the IRC Secretariat. This was considered by the Traffic Engineering Committee (personnel given below) in their meeting held onthe 4th and 5th October, 1978 which approved the same subject to certain modifications to be carried out by Dr. N.S. Srinivasan and K. Arunachalam. The draft so modified was approved by the Specifications and Standards Committee in their meeting held on the 24th May, 1983, and later by the Executive Committee and Council in their meetings held on the 21st July, 1983 and 21st August, 1983 respectively.

GEOMETRIC DESIGN AND GENERAL FEATURES

(i) This Section lays down the standards for geometric design and general features for upgrading the existing state highways/major district roads to two-lane with or without paved shoulders.

(ii)   (a) Stretches passing through built up areas shall normally be provided with 4-lane divided carriageway . Such stretches shall be indicated in Schedule-B of the Concession Agreement. Additional land, if any, required for 4-laning shall be acquired by the Government and where the land is yet to be acquired, the date of handing over the land to the Concessionaire shall be indicated.

(b) Where there are constraints of existing ROW width or difficulty in acquiring land along the existing alignment in built up areas, the Government may specify construction of a bypass instead of 4-laning. The alignment of the bypass shall be specified by the Government. The land for the bypass shall be acquired by the Government and where the land is yet to be acquired, the date of handing over the land to the Concessionaire shall be indicated. The bypass shall be access controlled, unless specified otherwise. In case, the Government decides to provide two-lane carriageway for the bypass, the same shall be placed eccentrically with respect to the ROW to facilitate proper widening to four lanes in future.

(iii) The geometric design of the Project Highway shall conform to the standards set out in this Section as a minimum. The Concessionaire shall ensure that liberal geometric standards are followed to the extent feasible within the given Right of Way.

(iv) As far as possible, uniformity of design standards shall be maintained throughout the length. In case of any change, it shall be affected in a gradual manner.

(v) Where the existing road geometrics are deficient with respect to minimum requirements and its improvement to the prescribed standards requires acquisition of additional land, such stretches shall be specified in Schedule-B of the Concession Agreement. Additional land as required shall be provided by the Government. pc/coi 11 12 IRC:SP:73-2007 MANUAL OF SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS

(vi) Existing horizontal curves, which are found deficient in radius, layout, transition lengths or super elevation shall be corrected to the specified standards.

(vii) Any deficiencies in the vertical profile in respect of grades, layout of vertical curves and sight distance shall be corrected to meet the minimum specified requirements.

1.7  Scope of road geometry design

These standards are applicable to urban roads in plains. These are also applicable to roads in suburban areas. These however do not cover standards for urban expressways.

All the main elements of geometric design for urban roads are included in the text. Layout of junctions are not covered as standards for the same are proposed to be brought out

separately.

1.8  Classification of urban roads ,Definitions and functions

For the purpose of geometric design, urban roads other than expressways are classified into four main categories.

These are:

(i) Arterial

(ii) Sub-arterial

(iii) Collector Street

(iv) Local Street

This publication deals with standards for all categories of roads except Expressways for which separate standard is proposed to be evolved.

Definitions

(i) Arterial : A general term denoting a street primarily for through traffic, usually on a continuous route.

(ii) Sub-arterial : A general term denoting a street primarily for through traffic usually on a continuous route but offering somewhat lower level of traffic mobility than the arterial.

(iii) Collector Street : A street for collecting and distributing traffic from and to local streets and also for providing access to arterial streets.

(iv) Local Street : A street primarily for access to residence, business or other abutting property.

Functions

Functions of different categories of urban roads are give below:

(i) Arterials : This system of streets, along with expressway where they exist, serves as the principal network f 2 IRC : 86-1983 through traffic flows. Significant intra-urban travel such as between central business district and outlying residential areas or between major suburban centers takes place on this system. Arterials should be coordinated with existing and proposed expressway systems to provide for distribution and collection of through traffic to and from sub-arterial and collector street systems. Continuity is essential for arterials to ensure efficient movement of through traffic.

A properly developed and designated arterial street system would help to identify residential neighborhoods, industrial sites and commercial areas. These streets may generally be spaced at less than 1.5 km in highly developed central business areas and at 8 km or more in sparsely developed urban fringes. The arterials are generally divided highways with full or partial access. Parking, loading and unloading activities are usually restricted and regulated. Pedestrians are allowed to cross only at intersections.

(ii) Sub-arterials : These are functionally similar to arterials but with somewhat lower level of travel mobility. Their spacing may vary from about 0.5 km in the central business district to 3—5 km in the sub-urban fringes.

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