This segment consists of the information (statements) on what led the investigator to launch the study, presents the statement of the problem, the roof of the problem presented or how this problem starts and its causes, underlying factors on this particular study. This particular topic discussed in this study. Also, historical background will be given, facts have been relatively studied how this particular problem arises or how this particular problem starts. It ends up with the nature of the study which will help to comprehend the whole study.
1.2. Background of the study and Literature Review
Before considering a net explanation of historical back ground of the “queer theory”, a queer concept must be sepecified. Queer is a labyrinthical word that has been used in a multitude of ways and meanings to describe odd people and strange things. A number of exemplification are presented with the purpose of showing the differences aforementioned. As an adjective form of queer, is used for referring attracted to person of various genders, tough hegemon societies or cultures have difficulty in accepting genders apart from the male and female binary. There are also men, women and genderqueer people who is attracted by nonconforming people. In the same manner to the above, queer can be used as a label for noncorforming people who violating the social norms, do not fit into the social stigmas on account of their gender identity. Also queer is sometimes used as an umbrella term to address non heterosexuals comprising LGBT community which is marginalized in respect to sexual orientation. The word queer is included LGBTQ to talk about sexual orientation as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer”. But still, queer is used for humiliating people especially has been used as a term of homophobic abuse.
Historical development process of arising concept “queer” has been gradually developed and derived from post-structuralist critical theory that emanated in the begining of 1990’s also affected feminist approaches by Judith Butler and influenced radical movements in US and Western European Societies, AIDS activism, gay and lesbian movements ACT UP, OutRage!
Fifty years beyond, the evolution of language and the various form of terms especially in the field of gender study has been clearly noticed that shifted and became wide. Strange and unaccustomed usage of gender and sexuality terms substitute for the conventional gender terms such as male and female or feminine and masculine. In this way many words loose their meanings and gradually fall out of touch and die out for better comprehension and interpretation, new terms ensue. Aforementioned the language diversity around gender and sexuality terms have been changing apace, a better understanding of the gender study requires eloquently definition of gender. The term of gender touches upon the significance or existence of character, emotion, consciousness, also in touch with biological sexes (male or female). Gender is a wide term that creates a coherence with culture:
The contents of gender stereotypes – the traits that are perceived as uniquely characteristic of women versus men – turn on the dimension of independence-interdependence. Men are stereotyped as independent, agentic, and goal oriented; women are stereotyped as interdependent, communal, and oriented toward others (Eagly & Steffen, 1984; Spence & Helmreich, 1978). These stereotypes affect important life outcomes such as hiring and promotion (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2004; Gorman, 2005; Heilman, 2001), job performance evaluations (Fuegen, Biernat, Haines, & Deaux, 2004; Heilman & Okimoto, 2007), academic performance (Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2000), and even sexual harassment (Berdahl, 2007). The contents of gender stereotypes are accepted as pervasive and universal (Heilman, 2001), and are endorsed by both men and women (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007; Wood & Eagly, 2010) and across cultures (Williams & Best, 1990).
A gender theorist and one of the most sounding book’s Gender Trouble author Judith Butler whose fields gender study, feminism, queer and literary theory. Butler develops the theory of gender performativity and stands up to the traditional norms about sexes. Arguing in Gender Trouble, performances and sexes are each other’s subsidiaries, performativity such as acting and actions ground on gender and affect each other. Butler crystalises the gender matter with a term of “mute facticity” (GT: 129), as it is anaylsed gender mainstreaming producing the self-anticipation, but performativity is not a one time act it requires recurrency and ritual. In other words social norms represent our expectations (self-aniticipation) gender norms can be accepted as a subtopic of social norms and these are the behavioural expectations about a person’s sex. Social norms deal with the binary oppositions stereotypes as masculinity and femininity. Around the social norms, for instance a new born baby if it is male always wear blue dresses if it is female always wear pink dresses to continue with another exemplification girls playing dolls men like playing cars. These gender streotypes can not take male and female genders with social stigmas as straight. Butler resists these social stigmas and expectations about how people display a behaviour. In point of fact, the gender interpretation is an expectation and a some kind of certain performative actions that society and social stigmas produced. In Gender Trouble, all identities accepted as bodies are gendered from the very begining of their social existence just to clarify there is no natural body indissociably cultural expression. Gender is not something one is, it is something one does, an act, or more precisely, a sequence of acts, a verb rather than a noun, a “doing” rather than a “being” (GT: 25).
From the time of 1990’s the leading term queer has claimed its place in gender study globally. In as much as queer theory and gender study has been under the assumption of an indivisible whole. As a wide concept “queer” manifests to the normality between the genders commonly addresses the binary oppositions as base for instance male and female.
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