a. Gender and sexuality being related to the brain, chemicals, and genetics
i. gender and sexuality as predisposed and undeniable aspects of human behaviors (Diamond, 2008; Gagnon & Parker, 1995)
b. Gender and sexuality being related to how men and women are socialized
i. taught to behave differently in every aspect of daily life (Gagnon & Parker, 1995)
c. Transition: Sexual relationships are often defined by socialized, gendered behaviors that are controlled by societal “scripts” (Simon & Gagnon, 1984).
i. Socialized gender roles and sexual scripts then normalize how sexuality and is able to be discussed/expressed, attained, and then enacted around others.
2. GENDER SOCIALIZATION AND HETERONORMATIVITY
a. Gender is not only a socialized process, but it creates a social hierarchy in which one gender benefits over the other (Atkinson & DePalma, 2009; Pateman, 1988).
i. gender determines how men and women interact, which further reinforces its social construct
ii. gender then becomes patriarchically constructed through the continued reinforcement that males and masculinity are superior to women and femininity
b. Gender socialization and normative gender scripts are heavily enforced and maintained
i. parents work to ensure their children conform to society’s normalized expectation of his/her appropriate, heterosexual gender (Martin, 2009; Solebello & Elliott, 2011).
ii. gender non-conformity is discouraged and often attempted to be corrected (Mundhammer & Mussweiler, 2012)
iii. Transition: Gender and sexuality are linked.
c. Sexual experiences and sexual scripts are embedded within heterosexual and patriarchal social structures, the pinnacle of which is heteronormativity (Caldwell, Letitia, & Peplau, 1984; Dunne, 1997; Hillier, 2001; Horowitz & Spicer, 2013; Klinkenberg & Rose 1994; Levitt & Hiestand, 2005).
i. heteronormativity is the societal notion that the coupling of a man and woman together is societal norm, and is often assumed to be at the core of social life (Dean, 2011).
ii. research is extensive in regards to how heteronormativity has constructed how society enacts a gender as dimorphic, and each respective gender’s expected sexual habits (Bartoli & Clark, 2006; Dean 2011; Hundhammer & Mussweiler, 2012).
3. FEMALE IDENTITIES WITHIN HETEROSEXUAL SOCIAL STRUCTURES
a. Socially constructed norms often limit the ability for individuals, especially women, to truly express their real identities.
b. Our hetero-patriarchal society restricts women’s abilities to openly express themselves because normative social structures regarding gender are “restrictive and institutionalizes power differentials that disenfranchise women.” (Wasley, 2013, p. 9)
i. Not only do women have less ability and power in regards to simply just their general capabilities within society, but their own sexual manifestations are restricted as well due to the impact of society’s heteronormative, structured expectations of women.
4. TRADITIONAL AND HETEROSEXUAL SEXUAL SCRIPTS PERTAINING TO WOMEN
a. Sexual scripts are traditionally defined as… (Simon & Gagnon, 1984).
i. Taking into consideration the heteronormativity of society, traditional sexual scripts place men in the active and domineering role of sexuality, while women are placed in the restrictive and passive role (Dean, 2011).
ii. These heteronormative scripts then result in the regulation of how men and women express their sexual behaviors within society.
iii. Men are expected and praised for asserting their sexuality through means of being sexual without emotional attachments, as well as increased ability to engage in more numerous occasions of sexual behavior, due to society’s gendered constructions of male superiority and dominance; women, in turn, are socially outcasted for sexual behaviors that do not adhere to society’s regulated and restricted scripts (Wiederman, 2005).
b. THESIS: The regulation and restriction of women’s sexual behaviors enforced by heteronormative social scripts results in their inability to truly manifest their sexuality because their understanding of their sexual identities is institutionalized by society’s sexual scripts; women’s own conceptions of their sexual selves are instead placed within the context of these heteronormative scripts and their interpretations of how to sexually behave as a result of those scripts.
Body/Middle (“The Impact of Heteronormative Social Scripts on Women”)
5. SOCIETY’S SEXUAL SCRIPTS FOR WOMEN REGULATE THEIR SEXUAL BEHAVIORS AND SELF-IDENTITIES
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