Socio-economic development having said that is a system that tries to distinguish both the social and the economic necessities of any community and attempt to make programs that would deal with those necessities in ways that are useful and to the greatest advantage of the populace in the mean time. The central notion is to discover approaches to enhance the way of life in the region, while likewise ensuring the confined economy is strong and equipped for satisfying the populace at any period, as the primary objectives and embodiment of each government is to understand the political, social and economic inclinations that embeds the basic requirements or needs of its people. In realization of these goals, many States have made, as a priority, the quest for the better welfare and improved standard of living of its citizens. Hence, policies and programmes are introduced, funded and executed. In contrast, any government that shy away from its primary responsibility and appropriate the rights of the people without due process, and subject the principles of good governance below standards will definitely fall things apart which culmunates to violence and all sorts of vices. It is vital that every government should entrench the rule of law into the justice system of the State coupled with the protections of the fundamental human rights of the citizens, and bringing governance to the grassroot level where acountability and transparency would be the slogan of the political office holders. When government does take governance to the best of its form, the political, social and economic situation of the community and its people will be impeccable.
In this study, it is put forward that terrorism and different types of political insurgences and violence are results of poverty, hardship, tyranny and marginalization which can be attributed to the poor ill-informed economic policy. Political analysis has cited this presumed connection, scholars and federal character from across the political, social and economic spectrum and has found its way into mainstream economic development and international security policy. It is imperative to emphasize that terrorism succeed in regions or area where people suffer oppression, suppression and exploitation in folds understandable by the victims. All these are the springboard to propel or impel elements prerequisite to the birth of terrorism.
At present, democratic template of governance opens a doorway for countries to operate from an angle of law based precept and standards that guarantees a peaceful and trouble-free atmosphere for everyone. Of worth mention here is speeches of notable personality on poverty. In respective assertions, November 2001 marks the time when forty-one head of States moved the idea that the UN General Assembly should consider treating terrorism in a way similar to the attention given to issues such as underdevelopment, inequality and poverty that spoke before the General Assembly.
To refer to a couple of citations being made at the floor of the Assembly, the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced, “Nobody in this world can be relaxed or safe when such a variety of individuals are suffering and deprived.” Giving a proper illustration of terrorism as the pain pierced through the marrow of the present civilization, and observing that approximately one-half of the world’s population cannot live to the standards of $2 per day beckons a clarion call on policymakers to orchestrate the improvement of national security by creating an avenue for the cutting down of the extraordinary margin between the rich and the poor (these are the opinions of U.S. President Bill Clinton). In similar way, Vice President for Private Sector Development, Infrastructure and Guarantees at the World Bank, in person of Nemat Shafik, recognized the third World nations with legacies of fiscal inactivity, very minute employment opportunities, and unequal economic development as, “fertile ground on which terrorist seeds can flourish.”
The largest gathering of Nobel Peace Prize laureates ever was held in Oslo, Norway in 2001 had much of terrorism and September 11 as the focal point of their discussion during the three-day of talks among 30 past winners of the peace prize created by the Swedish industrialist a century ago. In their words, poverty, discrimination and social injustice in the developing world was attributed to the root of terrorism
Be that as it may, the definitive sign that universal poverty has turned into a generally acknowledged clarification for the frequency and occurrence of terrorism can be ascribed to the speech delivered by United States President George W. Bush which he delivered at the Monterey Development Summit in March 2002. He talked about fighting against poverty in the form that brings hope and discourages terror.
Numerous elements have been cited as reasons that give Africa a noteworthy susceptability to the development of basic and internationally connected campaigns and ideologies that utilize terrorism. Its combination of relatively weak states, ethnic and religious diversity and sometimes discrimination, its poverty, and in many places its “ungoverned space” is a common feature in Africa and particularly in Nigeria to observe that government only make political and economic promises in order to secure a win, but after they have won; promises are abandoned only to recycle the promise in the next election because they must win their votes. The world is in now a terrorist ridden society, which is stained with attacks that can be called irregular with unnoticeable prints until attacks. Research has demonstrated that individuals who are exposed to unjustifiable treatment respond violently.
Nigeria has been enmeshed in a firebox of insecurity (such as kidnappings, ritual killings, suicide bombings, religious murders, politically-motivated murder and violence, ethnic clashes, armed banditry and others) leading to scores of deaths of innocent citizens, immigrants, some members of the nation’s security personnel, elected officials and many government workers. The uncertainty challenge has supposed formidable dimensions, forcing the country’s political and economic managers and indeed the entire nation-state to rue the loss of their loved ones, investments and absence of safety in most parts of the country.
The government is required to engage in serious and all-encompassing explicit activity in the violent actions of terrorists if the solidarity, peace, and progress of the nation are considered most importantly above primitive and provincial interest. Government must acknowledge the difficulties in spite of distractions and disturbances hitting them hard. This is needed in Nigeria so as to keep high the confidence people have in the government activities and policies. The war against terrorism cannot be successful when the living condition of citizens is nothing to write home about.
This is seen to be the Nigerian predicament, the basic confluence that has improved the rise and development of insurgency and terror sects in Nigeria. The government should not only make policies but should ensure that the policies are holistic and is implemented bearing in mind that failure of this creates the breeding platform.
The existence of security problems in any society amounts to a risk to lives and properties, it disturbs economic activities and dismays local and international investors. This suffocates and thwarts the components that are subset of national gowth and development. In Nigeria, since independence from the colonial masters, it is important to say that insecurity has been the major problem. This rising trend has not subsided but rather has taken a unsafe aspect that is notwithstanding undermining the mutual presence of the nation as one geological body. The end of these threats ought to be the main objective of governments in Nigeria at all levels as the nation cannot accomplish any noteworthy advancement in the midst of terrorism.
Government must be pre-emptive in managing security issues and dangers, through means for intelligence gathering, data sharing, training, logistics, inspiration, and conveying modern equipment in handling security challenges. Industrious disparity, destitution and imbalance in access to social administrations and financial open doors, especially for youth, individuals with inabilities, the matured, and even ladies are producing deficiencies in human improvement, and making the fruitful ground for terrorism.
Persistent inequality, poverty and inequity in access to social services and economic opportunities, particularly for youth, persons with disabilities, the aged, and women are creating deficits in human development, and creating the fertile ground for terrorism.
5.2. RECOMMENDATION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
There are so many reasons that must reflected as a feature of any improvement that has to do with the social-economic state of any society. A deep knowledge of the present circumstance that carries the day in the society is the initial move toward national improvement vis-a-vis checking terrorism.
One of most recognized solution for tackling insurgencies and its related problems in Nigeria is for the government to quicken the pace of improvement. Development in this aspect is about putting in place an economy with important social and physical framework for operational activities in the commerce area with development in the industrial sector which opens up more job opportunities to keep idle able hands busy, medical insurance and other benefits attach to the job. It also has to do with making laws and regulations and permitting amendments in the existing enactment to fortify advancement and enhance the way of life for the citizens. Amendments in laws can make it simpler for a place to witness a deluge of investors which offers business opportunities that thusly can help in propelling the formation of more amenities that citizens can appreciate, enhancing the success pattern of the area. Making and keeping up a reasonable law enforcement agency that helps to uphold law and order in the society with protecting the lives of civilian as a core assignment central their formation. Doing this adds to making the nation more attractive and promising and helps to minimize the likelihood of individuals taking part in terrorist acts.
It is however a known notion that education from the primary level to higher level such as the secondary or tertiary can be a tool to drastically lift criminal characters off some persons which can proffer a potential tendencies of reducing crime rate in any society. It would improve the degree of self and social consciousness where the understanding of making peace the core piece of life with oneself and others will be dominating. The literate and educated citizens are assets to national security, and this is what the government of Nigeria should promote-investing on education sector where not going to school would be no option or a choice but what must be done.
It is also important for the Nigeria government to put the masses into the wheel of programs where everyone –interested- will be involved in policies that are doormat for development in the social and economic aspects of the activities of the government. Information has the tendencies to cripple or structure anyone depending on if there is awareness and sensitization or not. When knowing the rights and responsibilities bestowed on a reasonable person in a sovereign State, and there are agencies to make things right when things are going right, social development will be easy and everyone would consider safety as not a threat but a phenomenon that is natural. Even though Nigeria has about 35% literacy levels, with low repute to the education sector and high of unemployment, it is certain that there would be higher development rates if the government gets things right and work more to empower the citizens with developmental and sustainable engagement.
With the right type of infrastructure and people, a pool of jobs can be created, which is essential for preventing terrorism. There should be diversification of the nation’s economy. There should be a substantial investment in the agricultural sector which may not necessary be done by the government. The government can through policy framework create an enabling environment for investors in the sector, in no doubt, this will accelerate socio-economic development. It is also imperative that government should create more and better opportunities for citizens to improve and develop their potentials whether they acquired western education or not. Doing this will bring down the occurrence of insurgencies and even terrorism to the minimal level. Sects like Bokoharram would not even be in existence and peaceful co-existence would be a system in every unit of the society.
It is good that governments at all levels should guarantee that increasing poverty records are worked on and turned back, and a reasonable social and security policies are set and efficiently executed to guarantee that the citizens meet their essential needs. So also government authority’s obligation and responsibility need to be guaranteed through the making public of their possessions, bringing to book the agents of bribery and corruption, impeachment or dismissal and detainment of corrupt officials.
Counter-terrorism laws and different measures must be completely legislated and applied. In perspective of difficulties recognized and examined, components of the government ought to work in line with the policies and procedures laid down by the authorities in power and embracing the true spirit of a democratic strongholds with all the arms of government playing their dynamic roles in keeping the country together peacefully with proper concern for programs that will eradicate poverty, and investing in human capital coupled with creation of more industries to absorb people to get engaged. Foreign investors could also be invited with the attractive human capital and the peaceful co-existence which would soci-economic development of the country.
Federalism that undermines the freedom and self-sufficiency of its branches will just open doors to social and political conflicts which will expose national unity and peace to extreme threat. In this manner, there is the need to make laws that take into account genuine federalism.
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