Essay: Principles of Modern Architecture

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The Modern Movement in architecture can be viewed as a reaction to the ‘Jugenstil’ or ‘The Vienna Secession’ of the early 20th Century. Using examples demonstrate how the Modern Movement contrasts with the principles of the established theories of architecture, art and design at the end of the 19th Century in Europe.

Modernism in Architecture began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It has made a movement that revolutionised the shape of our environment. The changes of modern architecture have started to progress just after the evolution of building materials in 19th century and it has inspired many architects to take a chance of a new way of thinking, designing and performing. It all runs under the Principal of ‘form follows function’ and arguably has come around as a reaction to the Jugendstil and Vienna Secession styles of the early 20th century

Jugendstil is a style of art and architecture, especially within decoration, it was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the lines and shapes of plants and other natural forms. The word Jugendstil is german, the style is known in English and French as art nouveau. Art nouveau was known to be founded by a Belgian architect Henry Van de Velde. He was inspired by naturalistic lines and shapes in his works. However these ideas changed and modernised as a result of changes in fashion.

An example of a piece of modern architecture that contrasts with the Jugendstil style is the unity temple designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in early 1900’s. It was built as a church in Illinois, USA and has been seen to be fit for function. A clear contrast between these structures is the temple can be seen to be very basic and having little decoration, compared to a Jugendstil style building which has detail as well as a stylish structure. However, the temple does give a feel of modernisation and a sort of minimalist feel to it, giving that there has been a clear change between the temple and a Jugendstil style structure.
In the book ‘Zwei Wohnhäuser von Le Corbusier und Pierre Jeanneret, by Alfred Roth, Stuttgart. 1927 ’ five points for a new architecture are enunciated.
These are the Pilotis, roof terrace, free plan, continuous window strips, and free façade. Explain each of these terms and give examples of other houses that demonstrate these five points.

Charles Eduoard Jeanneret, the Swiss architect who more commonly known as Le Corbusier, can be described as a pioneer for modern architecture. He earned this title for the principles which he created and has used when designing his structures. These principles can be referred to as the modular. The modular consists of 5 components – pilotis, roof terrace, free plan, continuous window strips and free façade. These 5 components are the foundations of the philosophy in which Le Corbusier had founded for what is known today as modern architecture.

The term pilotis refers to when a structure is raised off the ground by either pillars or any other means which act as a support for the structure. Roof terrace was a component of his philosophy in which he found important because he wanted to maximise the space available, rather than wasting space with a slanted or angled and detailed style roof, Le Corbusier would prefer to create a roof terrace, making a structure more attractive and space efficient. Rather than using walls to support levels on the inside of a building, Le Corbusier insisted on free plan, this meant that beams would be used to support each level of the structure, this was to make his structures more space efficient and allow a more open looking area. For free façade, the absence of walls would be filled by glass to create a high amount of natural light coming into the building. From this, the continuous window strips bring an open and modern look to the building.

The aim of using these principles was to modernise architecture and give buildings the freedom and space which previous designs did not have. These principles have been clearly represented within structures of his. These structures have a clear footprint of his philosophy and it is very easy to recognise and see a significant difference in his work after he introduced the use of the 5 principles. An example of a building which he designed is the Cite Radieuse in Marseille, France which was built between 1947-1952. The building is seen as a huge milestone in modern architecture, which reflects his philosophy and the thoughts he had on what modern architecture is. The structure contains all 5 of the components and each of these add to the buildings aesthetics and each give the building its own individual sense of modernisation, visually the first thing which is seen when looking at the building is the pilotis feature, all stories of the building are held up using this method. The roof terrace is a feature used repeatedly by the building in modern use for different activities such as theatre and athletics, giving evidence that a roof terrace can be used to maximise the amount of space within the building. The interior is full of natural light due to the high number of glass windows and this helps to give the building a free sense and less like a prison like structure.

Using examples of buildings of the Modern Movement discuss the Modernist theory that ‘Form follows function’

There is a modernistic approach to architecture of form following function, essentially what this means is that before designing a building, you must first take into consideration the purpose of the building.

An architect Reese Rowland quoted ‘Architecture is the only art form that is functional.’ thats why it has such a powerful impact on the idea of modern architecture. It’s where people live, where they work and thats how we can express our personalities and values.

The nuts and bolts in architectural plan when the innovation, has dependably been indistinguishable such from space making, space characterising or looking how the light falls inside the space. The main thing that has changed was the utilisation and the association of materials. In late eighteenth century when the High Baroque style showed up it was well known for architects to utilise smooth surfaces, sometimes bended, and lots of glass (windows and mirrors). At that point the innovation began, and the look of rooftop configuration turned out to be level and basic. There were additionally a few changes in the material classification. Glass towers, steel outlines or strengthened cement moved toward becoming to be the primary parts of architectural life.

A standout amongst the most well known structures in twentieth century, present day architecture was the Bauhaus set in Germany. It was designed by an architect called Walter Adolf Georg Gropius in 1919. ‘Gropius was the first to state question in present day terms. The contention had emerged on account of the warring potential outcomes of the nature of craftsmanship and the amount made conceivable by industry’.

The Bauhaus was predominantly utilised for presentations, shows and art exhibitions but on the other hand was utilised for instructive purposes. Bauhaus propelled architects from different nations and landmasses to make a spot where individuals would impart to their comparative advantages and information. This was an ideal spot for individuals that were imaginative and appreciated craftsmanship in each importance.

References

https://www.britannica.com/art/Jugendstil – Jugendstil Information

http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/architecture/essay-modernism-in-architecture/ – information on modern architecture

www.google.com/images – for pictures

Principles of Modern Architecture

By Jack Davidson

The Modern Movement in architecture can be viewed as a reaction to the ‘Jugenstil’ or ‘The Vienna Secession’ of the early 20th Century. Using examples demonstrate how the Modern Movement contrasts with the principles of the established theories of architecture, art and design at the end of the 19th Century in Europe.

Modernism in Architecture began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It has made a movement that revolutionised the shape of our environment. The changes of modern architecture have started to progress just after the evolution of building materials in 19th century and it has inspired many architects to take a chance of a new way of thinking, designing and performing. It all runs under the Principal of ‘form follows function’ and arguably has come around as a reaction to the Jugendstil and Vienna Secession styles of the early 20th century

Jugendstil is a style of art and architecture, especially within decoration, it was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the lines and shapes of plants and other natural forms. The word Jugendstil is german, the style is known in English and French as art nouveau. Art nouveau was known to be founded by a Belgian architect Henry Van de Velde. He was inspired by naturalistic lines and shapes in his works. However these ideas changed and modernised as a result of changes in fashion.

An example of a piece of modern architecture that contrasts with the Jugendstil style is the unity temple designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in early 1900’s. It was built as a church in Illinois, USA and has been seen to be fit for function. A clear contrast between these structures is the temple can be seen to be very basic and having little decoration, compared to a Jugendstil style building which has detail as well as a stylish structure. However, the temple does give a feel of modernisation and a sort of minimalist feel to it, giving that there has been a clear change between the temple and a Jugendstil style structure.
In the book ‘Zwei Wohnhäuser von Le Corbusier und Pierre Jeanneret, by Alfred Roth, Stuttgart. 1927 ’ five points for a new architecture are enunciated.
These are the Pilotis, roof terrace, free plan, continuous window strips, and free façade. Explain each of these terms and give examples of other houses that demonstrate these five points.

Charles Eduoard Jeanneret, the Swiss architect who more commonly known as Le Corbusier, can be described as a pioneer for modern architecture. He earned this title for the principles which he created and has used when designing his structures. These principles can be referred to as the modular. The modular consists of 5 components – pilotis, roof terrace, free plan, continuous window strips and free façade. These 5 components are the foundations of the philosophy in which Le Corbusier had founded for what is known today as modern architecture.

The term pilotis refers to when a structure is raised off the ground by either pillars or any other means which act as a support for the structure. Roof terrace was a component of his philosophy in which he found important because he wanted to maximise the space available, rather than wasting space with a slanted or angled and detailed style roof, Le Corbusier would prefer to create a roof terrace, making a structure more attractive and space efficient. Rather than using walls to support levels on the inside of a building, Le Corbusier insisted on free plan, this meant that beams would be used to support each level of the structure, this was to make his structures more space efficient and allow a more open looking area. For free façade, the absence of walls would be filled by glass to create a high amount of natural light coming into the building. From this, the continuous window strips bring an open and modern look to the building.

The aim of using these principles was to modernise architecture and give buildings the freedom and space which previous designs did not have. These principles have been clearly represented within structures of his. These structures have a clear footprint of his philosophy and it is very easy to recognise and see a significant difference in his work after he introduced the use of the 5 principles. An example of a building which he designed is the Cite Radieuse in Marseille, France which was built between 1947-1952. The building is seen as a huge milestone in modern architecture, which reflects his philosophy and the thoughts he had on what modern architecture is. The structure contains all 5 of the components and each of these add to the buildings aesthetics and each give the building its own individual sense of modernisation, visually the first thing which is seen when looking at the building is the pilotis feature, all stories of the building are held up using this method. The roof terrace is a feature used repeatedly by the building in modern use for different activities such as theatre and athletics, giving evidence that a roof terrace can be used to maximise the amount of space within the building. The interior is full of natural light due to the high number of glass windows and this helps to give the building a free sense and less like a prison like structure.

Using examples of buildings of the Modern Movement discuss the Modernist theory that ‘Form follows function’

There is a modernistic approach to architecture of form following function, essentially what this means is that before designing a building, you must first take into consideration the purpose of the building.

An architect Reese Rowland quoted ‘Architecture is the only art form that is functional.’ thats why it has such a powerful impact on the idea of modern architecture. It’s where people live, where they work and thats how we can express our personalities and values.

The nuts and bolts in architectural plan when the innovation, has dependably been indistinguishable such from space making, space characterising or looking how the light falls inside the space. The main thing that has changed was the utilisation and the association of materials. In late eighteenth century when the High Baroque style showed up it was well known for architects to utilise smooth surfaces, sometimes bended, and lots of glass (windows and mirrors). At that point the innovation began, and the look of rooftop configuration turned out to be level and basic. There were additionally a few changes in the material classification. Glass towers, steel outlines or strengthened cement moved toward becoming to be the primary parts of architectural life.

A standout amongst the most well known structures in twentieth century, present day architecture was the Bauhaus set in Germany. It was designed by an architect called Walter Adolf Georg Gropius in 1919. ‘Gropius was the first to state question in present day terms. The contention had emerged on account of the warring potential outcomes of the nature of craftsmanship and the amount made conceivable by industry’.

The Bauhaus was predominantly utilised for presentations, shows and art exhibitions but on the other hand was utilised for instructive purposes. Bauhaus propelled architects from different nations and landmasses to make a spot where individuals would impart to their comparative advantages and information. This was an ideal spot for individuals that were imaginative and appreciated craftsmanship in each importance.

References

https://www.britannica.com/art/Jugendstil – Jugendstil Information

http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/architecture/essay-modernism-in-architecture/ – information on modern architecture

www.google.com/images – for pictures

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