Essay: University architecture project

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  • Published on: March 9, 2018
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List of Figures

Fig. 1 – University of Bombay (Mumbai) in 1857 along with Rajabai Clock Tower. www.emotionalprocessing.co.uk

Fig. 2 – Main building, University of Bombay (Mumbai) in 1857.

www.mumbaigo.com

Fig. 3 – University of Mumbai, Fort in 2017. Clicked by author

Fig. 4 – Rajabai Clock Tower, Fort (Mumbai). www.flikr.com

Fig. 5 – Rajabai Clock Tower, Fort (Mumbai). Clicked by author

Fig. 6 – University of Mumbai, Fort (Mumbai). Clicked by author

Fig. 7 – University of Mumbai, Kalina (Mumbai). Clicked by author

Fig. 8 – Jawaharlal Nehru Library at University of Mumbai, Kalina campus (Mumbai). Clicked by author

Fig. 9 – University of Mumbai sub-centre, Ratnagiri. Clicked by author

Fig. 10 – Roof Layout of University of Mumbai sub-centre, Ratnagiri. www.mu.ac.in

Fig. 11 – Model replicating University of Mumbai sub-centre, Ratnagiri. www.mu.ac.in

Fig. 12 – University of Mumbai sub-centre, Ratnagiri. Clicked by author

Fig. 13 – Friendship Centre at Gaibandha, Bangladesh. www.archdaily.com

Fig. 14 – Plan of Friendship Centre, Bangladesh. www.archdaily.com

Fig. 15 – Friendship Centre, Bangladesh. www.archdaily.com

Fig. 16 – Training Hall at Friendship Centre, Bangladesh. www.archnet.com

Fig. 17 – Friendship Centre, Bangladesh. www.archnet.com

Fig. 18 – Map (Google) showing political boundary of Kalyan, Maharashtra.

www.googlemaps.com

Fig. 19 – Map (Google) showing the site allowed for Mumbai University sub-centre by Kalyan – Dombivali Municipal Corporation (KDMC). www.googlemaps.com

1 – Introduction

1.1 – Abstract

The Kalyan Dombivali Municipal Corporation (KDMC) has officially allotted the plot measuring about 35,000 sq. mt. (8.64 acres) located at Gandhari Area1, having an approximate geological address as 19°15’32.9″N 73°08’11.2″E to the University of Mumbai for the construction of its sub-centre.1 Proposed site is at proximity to the main road, thus making it convenient for staff & students; also Kalyan Dombivali Municipal Transport (KDMT) buses adds to the comfort. Although the proposed site is about 4 kms away from the Kalyan railway station (nearest) but it is expedient for a person residing at the neighbouring areas as compared to the University of Mumbai – Fort / Kalina. The site is surrounded by 20 mt road on two sides & 9 mt road on other two sides with open spaces & a few residential buildings.

For case study; the Fort Campus, the Kalina Campus, the Ratnagiri Campus (Sub-Centre) & the Friendship Centre at Bangladesh are taken into consideration.

University :

A university is an institution of higher education & research which grants academic degree(s) in variety of subjects. It is a corporation that provides undergraduate, graduate, post graduate & doctorate education.2

In India, there are universities privately headed as well as headed by the central or state government.

The following are a few types of universities :-

Central University – These are established by act of parliament & are under the purview of Department of Higher Education, Government of India. There are about 42 Central Universities.

State University – They are sun by the state government & are established by respective state legislative act. There are about 274 State Universities of which about 170 receive central assistance.

Deemed University – It is a status of autonomy granted by Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, on the advice of the UGC, under section 3 of UGC Act, 1956. There are about 130 Deemed Universities.

Private University – They can grant degree(s) but are not allowed to have off-campus affiliated colleges. There are about 85 Private Universities.

Autonomous University – They are under the administrative control of the Department of Higher Education.3

1.2 – Background Study 4

In accordance with “Wood’s despatch”, drafted by Sir Charles Wood in 1854, The University of Bombay (Mumbai) was established in 1857 after presentation of a petition from the Bombay Association to the British colonial government in India. The University of Mumbai was modelled on similar universities in the United Kingdom, specifically the University of London. The first departments established were the Faculty of Arts at Elphinstone College in 1835 and the Faculty of Medicine at Grant Medical College in 1845. Both colleges existed before the university was founded and surrendered their degree-granting privileges to the university. The first degrees awarded in 1862 were Bachelor of Arts and Licentiate in Medicine. Initially, the Town Hall in Mumbai was used as the university’s offices.

Until 1904, the university only conducted examinations, awarded affiliations to colleges, developed curricula and produced guidelines for colleges developing curricula. Teaching departments, research disciplines and post-graduate courses were introduced from 1904 and several additional departments were established. After India achieved independence in 1947, the functions and powers of the university were re-organised under The Bombay University Act of 1953. The name of the University was changed from University of Bombay to University of Mumbai in 1996. In 1949, student enrolment was 42,272 with 80 affiliated colleges. By 1975, these numbers had grown to 156,190 and 114 respectively.

1.3 – Justification

There are currently 711 colleges affiliated to the University of Mumbai & a total number of 5,49,532 students have enrolled till date.5 These numbers are increasing rapidly due to privatisation of higher education & an additional 200 – 250 colleges are required in the coming years planned.6 With this we can estimate its growth rate & size. Also, it would prove helpful to the academic community in this region (Kalyan) & other neighbouring regions or regions far away from Mumbai but comparatively closer to Kalyan for university related work or query as it would no longer be required to travel all the way to its main centre.

Additionally, it would cater to the needs of the academic community like documentations & can initiate Central Assessment Program for professors. This proposed area is about 8 acres & would be administrated by an officer of the rank of Assistant Registrar. Such sub-centre would prove beneficial to a large number of students in this region (Kalyan) & other neighbouring regions or regions far away from Mumbai but comparatively closer to Kalyan, as it would reduce travel time.

Along with the benefits gained by academic community in Kalyan & other neighbouring regions or regions far away from Mumbai but comparatively closer to Kalyan, it would be helpful to the main centre also, since a sizeable amount of load would be transferred here. This would also lead to decentralisation & such decentralisation would prove fruitful in terms of work efficiency & administration. As a result, the overall productivity would increase & would give rise to new opportunities in the academic s
ector.

Considering these & various other elements the Kalyan Dombivali Municipal Corporation (KDMC) has officially allotted the plot to the University of Mumbai for the construction of its sub-centre, measuring about 35,000 sq. mt. (8.64 acres) located at Gandhari Area,7 it is at a close proximity to the main road & thus, making it in a convenient zone.

1.4 – Aims & Objectives

The main aim & objectives of the Institute are:

To provide facilities of higher education to the working population, women and adults, who wish to upgrade their education or acquire knowledge in various disciplines.

To provide education for poor and such other people who cannot attend regular face

to face class room teaching.

3. To help the Students upgrade educational qualification, for academic achievements in the process of lifelong education.

4. To develop education as a lifelong activity so that the individual can refresh his/her

knowledge or can acquire knowledge in new areas.

1.5 – Scope & Methodology

The following are the scopes of this topic :

To position institute as a premier institute responsive to emerging needs of learners by providing education for all.

To produce high quality graduates and contribute towards sustainable development of the university by supporting creation of excellence in teaching, learning and research.

The institute shall strive to promote innovative strategies for creation and dissemination of knowledge using available media and technologies so that university graduates acquire relevant capabilities to contribute with diligence to national development and global knowledge pool through their caliber, professionalism, value system and sense of service.

This will be achieved by providing high quality self learning materials with extensive learner support services and to take education to the unreached and promote community participation for local development.

Methodology:

2 – Case Studies

2.1 – List of identified Case Studies & Justifications :

The following are the case studies incorporated in this dissertation :

University of Mumbai, Fort – To study the administration & work hierarchy.

University of Mumbai, Kalina – To study the spaces & area differentiation.

University of Mumbai Sub-Centre, Ratnagiri – To study the spaces & area differentiation.

Friendship Centre, Gaibandha (Bangladesh) – To study designs, aesthetics, working & details having architectural importance.

2.2 – Case Study 1

University of Mumbai, Fort :

The main campus is at Fort, near the southern end of the city of Mumbai. It houses the administrative division of the university. It is built in the Gothic style of architecture. The Rajabai clock tower is located in the lawns of the campus. The convocation hall of the university has been awarded the status of a heritage structure. The University of Bombay (Mumbai) was established at the Fort Campus in 1857.8 In the same year, universities were established in the two Presidency towns, namely – Calcutta and Madras. University of Bombay – Fort Campus was one of the 111 first educational institutions established by the British in India following Sir Charles Wood’s dispatch on education in 1854.9

One of Mumbai’s landmarks, the Rajabai Clock Tower is situated in the Mumbai University campus at Fort. It houses the university library. Based on plans by British architect Sir George Gilbert Scott and completed in the 1870s, it was modelled on the Big Ben clock tower of London.10 A businessman, Premchand Raichand contributed monetarily to the construction of the tower. It is named in memory of his mother Rajabai. It is 280 feet tall with five storeys. At a height of 30 feet from the ground, there are eight statues representing the Indian castes, the tower clock is reported to have played 16 tunes including Rule.11 The ground floor has two side rooms, each measuring 56 x 27.5 ft (17 x 8.5 m). The tower forms a carriage porch 2.4 m2 (26 ft), and a spiral staircase vestibule of 2.6 m (28 ft). The Tower, over the carriage porch, has a square form up to the gallery at the top of the first level which is at a height of 68 ft (20.7 m) from the ground. The form changes from a square to an octagon and the height from this gallery to the top of the tower is 118 feet (36 m) and the third stage to the top of the finial is 94 feet (28.7 m), thus making a total height of 280 feet (85 m). The Rajabai Tower at South Mumbai is located in the confines of the Fort campus of the University of Mumbai. It was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, an English architect, and was modelled on Big Ben, the clock tower of the United Kingdom’s houses of Parliament in London.12

The foundation stone was laid on March 1, 1869 and construction was completed in November 1878. The tower stands at a height of 85 m (280 ft) and at the time it was the tallest building in India. The tower fuses Venetian and Gothic styles It is built out of the locally available buff coloured Kurla stone and stained glass. University Library and Rajabai Clock Tower above, is unique among the building which enhance the beauty of the first city in India. Rising to a height of 280 feet it catches the eyes of visitors as one of the most attractive architectural features of Mumbai.13

The ground floor has 2 side rooms, each measuring 56 feet x 27.5 feet and a staircase vestibule 28 feet square. The Rajabai Tower forms a carriage porch square feet in front of the building. The Tower, over the carriage porch, has a square form up to the gallery at the top of the first stage which is at a height of 68 feet from the ground The form changes from a square to an octagon and the height from this gallery to the top of the tower is 118 feet and the third stage to the top of the final is 94 feet, thus making a total height of 280 feet. Above the first gallery in niches cut in the pillars at the corners of the octagon are carved stone figures representing different races and costumes of Western India and higher still are figures representing the communities of Bombay State including the Parsi, Memon, Gujarati, Maratha and Kathiawari communities. It is said that during the construction of the building which took nearly 10 years, not a single accident occurred despite the hazardous heights.

2.3 – Case Study 2

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