Essay: Customer satisfaction, loyalty and retention in the restaurant sector

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Abstract
The reason to focus of this research is to find out if the client ability capable in the restaurent sector has each result on client satisfaction and for that matter, client loyalty and client retention. Later sales services frolic a momentous act in client satisfaction. It is extremely vital to categorize the finished qualities, prioritize them and intentionally focus on implementing,these are extremely vital qualities that fulfill client expectations. Extremely manipulated studies have been managed towards understanding the precise acts of afterward sales servises in client satisfaction and afterward sales services crafting an encounter on client satisfaction. In order to attain the best aftermath, the main scutiny methodology adopted in this study.
Questionnaires were utilized to attain data from disparate customers.Findings from the study exposed that, Disparate restaurent sector provides appreciable level of client service; though these finished strategies that exceed client expectations ought to be locale in locale to charm the customers
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Keywords: After sale services, Customer expectation, Customer satisfaction, Customer loyalty and Cutomer retention.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
The importance of after sales service has been known by durable goods manufacturers. Firms present durable goods are essentially offering after sales services. After sales service not only increase competitive advantage and helps in brand positioning but also contributes extensively in profit generation. Customers are very conscious about purchase choice, mostly in sales services. The most important reason is to conduct this study is to evaluate the impact of after sales services on consumer customer satisfaction.
After sales service is an important for differentiating brands somewhat it increases customer loyalty and retention. It is recommended that firms should estimate the importance and the strategic role that after sales services can developing market competitive positions. Previous research in behavioral science has recommended that the time planned of service delivery may affect customer assessment of service and as a result it may also affect customer satisfaction.
1.2 Background
Services have been studied broadly since 1980s. The idea of involving service importance and customer satisfaction has existed for a long time. This Study examine that there are association between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profitability. Throughout a couple of years, there have been studies that have instituted to develop connection amid client satisfaction and client loyalty. Countless studies additionally develop associations amid good skill quality, client satisfaction, client loyalty, and proficiency. (Gr”nroos, 1980) Finally after sales used to express services for those customers who are very able to provide such services (Lim, 2011) After sales services make join among customer desire and after deals administrations. Later arrangements limit is generally (Lele & Karmarkar, 1983) make to as thing activities, centrality, and all activities that sponsorship the thing driven methodology. At last, after deals capacity is an approach to allow a consistent improvement of item outline and value. Deep perceptive of afterward sales as a basis of competitive advantage and company opportunity needs from a anticipated product centric think, in that afterward sales is believed a vital (Lele, 1997) to customer centric view.
Many studies related to customer loyalty, customer expectation since 1990 have been conducted in the area of consumer markets. Such studies have mostly concentrated on relationship marketing, but only a few studies have concentrated on after sales services creating an impact on customer satisfaction. Even nevertheless there are countless studies in the span of services, afterward sales services and afterward sales hobbies normally have signify a flouted span of the association works and merely an insufficient researchers have paid attention on it. For the most portions, subjects connected to afterward sales hobbies and afterward sales services have been given merely manipulated attention in those studies. On the other hand, afterward sales services crafting an encounter on client satisfaction. Customer satisfaction survey questions are not designed to measure loyalty, how the customer will perform. In a survey by Deloitte across different industries, it was found that companies set goals for improving customer loyalty for more advantageous and more likely to increase growth plans than many industries that did not have such a good strategy. Most managers concur that there is a affirmative connection amid client satisfaction and client expectation. According to the researchers, mostly in business cases, price ranked among the most important key factors that consumers were not satisfied with.
One of the reasons could be the difficulty to exactly and consistently measure customer satisfaction. The customers in general fill the surveys about satisfaction level through after sales services. There are different ways of inflating satisfaction ratings, including the formation of questions, timing of the measurement, and the mood of the respondent. Since customers are likely to overvalue their satisfaction in these surveys, the consistency of satisfaction surveys as predictors of repeat purchase can be questioned.
1.3 Gap Analysis
After sales services has been used in the most companies ,which describe services that are provided to the customer after the products have been delivered (Sigala, Rigopoulou, Chaniotakis, Lymperopoulos, & Siomkos, 2008) Every industry should always focus to the customer perceptions and expectations. If there is a huge difference among customer expectations and satisfaction, then there is a gap and in observe, it does not matter whether the gap is based on facts or feelings, but how the customers give customer expectation.
In the consumers mind perception process (Jones, Mothersbaugh, & Beatty, 2002) it has been describe that customers recognize greater risk when purchasing services rather than products, more dependent on information from personal sources, and use price and physical facilities as the most important for service quality. Customers can be unwilling to try new services because of the risks involved (Cannie, 1994) Making and retaining expensive relationship with customer while using every feature of taking, retaining and enhancing customer satisfaction is known as customer sales services management (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010) When industries sell services efficiently it has to make helpful planning for services after sale, like this planning’s is a part of customer satisfaction. After sale service has been important for every industries to battle in the market by using such comprehensive services (Sigala et al., 2008) Mostly customers have different needs some customers want that the services to be delivered to their target place at right time and right place, others industries give value to customers needs and wants, on the other hand poor after sales services create negative impression on the results, and client satisfaction.
Every industries need to improve relationship with customers for increase more efficiency and to improve their sales revenue. To provide good services, it will provide to the customers pleasant sale service to consumer from organization. Properly planned feedback is very important for every industry as they came to know that what customer needs from us. And also know about what type of changes industries should bring into the services, so that they give more value to the customers. hence, services given to consumer after sale are more important to satisfy consumer needs, after sale service is very important for industries to retain customers for a long time period and generate high advantageous relationship with organization.
Many researchers agree that industries can achieve more than their revenue due to after sale service if they provide to customer during a life cycle of a product. therefore, efficiency and sales revenue increases and generate profit may be more than product sale (Alexander, 2002)
After above all discover, Most of the industries are not aware relating to the after-sales ability factors and its encounter towards the client satisfaction. Dissatisfied clients will coil to competitors who can proposal larger afterward sales services.
I recognize the gap that can reason, setbacks in ability transport that client anticipate extra to the company. This Gap is amid client expectations. The intention of this thesis is to concentrating on client satisfaction and client anticipation across afterward sales services. This ideal helps to enhance afterward sales services.
However, most of the industries are not aware about the after sales service characteristics and its impact towards the client satisfaction. Disappointed customers will turn to competitors just for get better after-sales services.
1.4 Purpose statement
The aim of this research is to identify the level of consumer satisfaction through after sales services. The purpose of this study is ascertaining the characteristics of after sales services.
1.4 1 Objectives
The objective of the study is to
‘ To evaluate how after sales services affects customer satisfaction in overall services quality.
‘ To recognize which hurdles occur ,to provide services provision by customer services.
‘ To establish how after sales services impacts customer loyalty.
‘ To understand that supplementary client ability hobbies, clients will stare as Satisfactory.
1.5 Significance of the study
The demand of quality is well efficient point in the services sector for human. When organization offer customers appropriate guarantee conditions then it positively affects the sale and profit because customer becomes satisfied by guarantee assurance. Ensure certification is remarkably costly for customer fulfillment and for affiliation’s ability (Lam, Shankar, Erramilli, & Murthy, 2004) Subsequent overall deal administrations, conveyance and instrument is vital for customer fulfillment
A lot of clients have different needs, some customers want that the product to be delivered to their end of the customer at right time and right place, others give importance to customers’ needs and wants, on the other hand poor supply results harmful thoughts. These unhelpful results due to bad relationship with consumers impact on client satisfaction. Every industries need to improve relations with clients for usefulness and to improve their sales revenue, mechanism of a product without any error results in improved satisfaction of customer this can decrease the chance of harm, any error and assures to customer that the product is expensive, errorless and reliable.
Properly managed feedback is very important for hotel industry. It will be very benificery to know that what customer needs from us. What type of changes organization, they have to bring in the services line, so that they give extra value to the customers. Therefore services given to consumer after sale are more expensive to satisfy customer needs after sale service is very important for organization to maintain customers for a long time and create high profitable relationship with industries. Many researchers agree that industries can achieve more than their profits due to after sale service that they provide to customer for the duration of a life cycle of a product. Moreover, productivity and sales revenue increases and profit production may be more than product sale . Basically our study will benefit the managers of restaurant sector; they can check customer needs towards delivery, service quality and feedback. From the purpose of this they can see how many customers influence through sales services and what the level of satisfaction and what should be appropriately valued. Objective to perform this research study is to find out what are the key factors or characteristics that might persuade customer satisfaction during the provide services after the sale to the consumer and to know about what scope characteristics like delivery, feedback, service quality and guarantee mostly likely to affect customer satisfaction.
1.6 Problem Discussion
In this study different researchers have different opinion. Client services deliver one important factor by that firms display to the needs and desires of its customers. By offering reliable and good services, a company verifies the satisfaction level of consumers and increase customer loyalty. Services quality provides a successful ways to segregation and competitive advantage. One way researchers have found to improve consumer perceptions of service quality is through after sales service.
Because of the poor after sales service, many problems occur in different companies. Consumers mostly decrease high quality services because of poor customer services and unresolved customer complaints. The consequence is disappointment to the client, and defeat of recap sales follows. It is additionally present that afterward sales ability can be utilized as factors which raise the sales revenue, after the marketplace is not sufficient. (Homburg & Garbe, 1999) Mostly, different countries challenged alongside weakening margins, it is vital role to find new methods of retain profits by bestowing a new trusted of skill in supplement to sale of conspicuous product. The worth of afterward sales ability is not merely vital for manufacturers but is weighty for distributions.
1.7 Research Hypothesis
The present study will explain After sales services creating an impact on customer satisfaction. Theproposed research question is how can enhance after sale services for increase level of customer expectation and customer satisfaction?
H1: There is relationship between after sales services and consumer loyalty.
H0: There is no relationship between after sales services and consumer loyalty.
H2: There is relationship between after sales services and customer retension.
H0: There is no relationship between after sales services and customer retension.
H3: There is relationship between after sales services and customer satisfaction.
H0: There is no relationship between after sales services and customer satisfaction.
1.8 Explanation of theoretical framework
There are lots of variable that encounter in afterward sales services, but we select 3 reliant variables and 1 arbitrating veribles is client anticipation, that are once more and once more recap in works those are the following:Customer satisfaction, client loyalty , client retention.
In works we debate the researcher point of sights and comprise a synopsis of the articles we find this variable that is once more and once more utilized in all articles so we selected these variables and we debate the connection of that variable. These factors we apply generally on services sector of Pakistan.
1.8 1Theoretical framework
CHAPTER 2
LITRATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction:
Many researchers have been conducted studies recently to highlight the relationship of customer satisfaction and quality of good services (Bitner, Brown, & Meuter, 2000) Customer expactation is one of the competitive advantage factors and basic element for forecaster of customer satisfaction, brand loyalty and financial performance.
The use of most modern technology in delivering the service quality is very important for the hotel industries. (Ding & Straub, 2008; Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1994) The manage or indirect renovation and adjustments in the marketplace demand to be modified by the technologically advance firms and the combination of outstanding technology. After sale ability is an rising understanding in countless associations are extremely vital on client satisfaction. Client are gratified their needs and increases effectiveness, If customer are not satisfied then they have to lose the market share. The after sale values includes timely delivery of the services to customer, good contract terms and time, improved service quality, proper feedback from consumer about the whole services and work according to most common recommendations of the consumer. All these after sale values are considered important part of after sale service, and during proper usage of this values organization can increase customer satisfaction and enhance the efficiency of the organization (Shaharudin, Yusof, Elias, & Mansor, 2010).To provide good services to the customer on the right time at the right place and also fullfil the customer needs ,desired and wants ,to influence the overall satisfaction.Its very important, is to deliver services on customer demaand at the right time and right place.
2.1 Delivery:
Many organizations provide delivery services to its customer at their doorsteps. For example Nestle Water .They note all the information of customers and deliver the product to customer doorsteps. Delivery of the product characterized by two dimensions , speed and reliability(Lee & Cunningham, 2001) and ensuring that right product at right time in right quantity from right basis to delivered to right person at right price . Most of organization have no strategic plan to give good services to the consumer . That’s why mostly consumer suffer.
2.2 Feedback:
Customer feedback measuring is very important these days. Mostly industries are client oriented for that reason they desire to understand concerning client needs in the product or service.Such data can be extremely helpful as develop services according to customers. Its will b extremely functional for clients, that’s why they are able to buy produce and services. After a client is dissatisfied alongside the product or skill, subsequent there are two choices obtainable to the clients. The early one is to depart the productor services and selected each supplementary produce or services that are available. The subsequent option is to make proposition or complaints for the alike produce or services.This reply from the clients is extremely vital for the association to enhance services.(Barlow & M”ller, 1996)Feedback can be collected through different actions like comment, cards, through telephone ,Questionnaire or through internet (Sampson, 1998)
2.3 Service quality:
Service quality is one of the main category where organization face many problems these days, this setback is generally in ability sector whereas customer oftentimes complaint concerning the quality of service.It happens after customer use the services and touches uncomfortable alongside it. To retain and gratify customer is most vital thing in afterward sales services. It is compulsory that services quality ought to be elevated (Cronin Jr & Taylor, 1992)
2.4 Service quality dimensions and performance elements:
The helpful perceptions and attitudes of the target clients towards the quality basics presented by the industries, leads to both attraction of new clients cheers to word-of-mouth (WOM) link and recommendations of the continuing clients, as well as to progress of the connection of the stable alongside its present clients by making them supplementary loyalty and devoted. In supplementary words, Later denoting to finished ability quality perceptions, it is noticed that a colossal body of the works (Rust & Zahorik, 1993) is in line with (Spreng & Mackoy, 1996) results,claiming that finished ability quality perceptions convince WOM contact, recommendations, as well as Loyalty. In this context, client satisfaction has been the subject of a colossal body of works (Parasuraman et al., 1994) because of its impact on client behavioural aims and attitudes (Anderson and Sullivan,1993(Rust & Zahorik, 1993); Cronin and Taylor, 1992). concerning behavioural goals, Zeithamlet al.(1996) ) counsel that favourable behavioural aims are generally in the form of clients referrals and recommendations,customers,enthusiasm for re buying as well as customers willingness to expend supplementary money alongside the specific firm or to wage extra for the produce of this company.
Because of the present discover focuses on two aspects of behavioural aims and as alot has been said concerning the rebuy intention it is vital to investigate additional suggestion feature. Referrals or recommendations embody one form of WOM contact, and denote to the affirmative interpersonal contact concerning product and ability offered , Because of the present discover focuses on two aspects of behavioural aims and as alot has been said concerning the re buy intention it is vital to investigate supplementary suggestionfeature. Referrals or recommendations embody one form of WOM contact, and denote to the affirmative interpersonal contact concerning product and ability presented (Wheiler, 1987). This kind of contact, nevertheless casual and unstructured, it is extremely competent and consequently powerfully desirable as a marketing output. A lot of models describe in the literature(McDougall & Levesque, 2000);(Lam et al., 2004) reveal that WOM is a consequence of client satisfaction. alongside these lines, the appropriate works suggests that there is a affirmative association amid referrals and loyalty and dedication Heskettet al., 1994). Moreover, as it is very important in the literature (e.g. Wilson,1994), because of the reduced risk that the beneficiary as a new customer gains by the referrals, they perform as very strong motives for buying the service, and as such they must be integrated among the most efficient and usefull marketing tools. For these reasons, it is asserted that referrals in finished are alongside alongside the company’s vital intangible resources Though, after the worth of referrals they are institute to craft difference amid the assorted services categories. Additionally, the noted chance by the client afterward challenged alongside buying a product or acceding a skill is an vital factor that influences the worth and the efficiency of referrals (Murray, 1991;Roselius, 1971).
In finish, preceding studies connected to satisfaction, the volume of the people are focus on satisfaction as the effect of the presenting of the core ability that endowed by the hotel industry. On the supplementary hand, there is yet question as to the relation amid the rather faithful and creative services generated finished satisfaction and their encounter on satisfaction. This is the question that this exacting discover activities to address as it has been clashed that the softly more important act of competitive primacy necessitates a re conceptualization of instituted thoughts like that of the scale of the services presented in the restaurent services sector, in the form of merchandising sustain or client support.
2.5 Customer satisfaction:
Customer pay to your pocket money . Consumers is very important for every industry.Industries are more customers oriented they have to satisfy their customers needs ,the satisfied customer enhance the level of retain more customers, which results in high sale earnings, higher efficiency and profit to the organization. Customer satisfaction is associated with good after sales services to the customer and financially established performance of the organization(Loveman, 1998)
The factor of customer care is very much service oriented as most goods are enthusiastic at the same time as services are experienced. To satisfy a customer, the supplier needs to have the those services which satisfy customer needs, which customer requires through after sales services.(Davidow, 2003)If the customer perceives a service in a positiveway, but estimated less, then the customer is satisfied, People and organizations that use professional services are usuallyset to pay high fees for the services, because of the ambiguity, importance, and risk involved. The customer wants to know that they get the required concentration. A service firm that is able of project a helpful image and supportthat image with import is likely to success (Liljander & Strandvik, 1997)
Customer Satisfaction Customer Perception = CustomerExpectation
The customer want to know how the service will be act and that is added to his/her expectations. Customers have previous experiences and based on those experiences, customers suppose a service to be delivered in a positive way, which can be measured company fulfill expactations.Most of companies fulfill customer expactations and most of is not .
Mostly clients anylsis services according to industies values with which they are well-known and those do not essentially relay to the service that is performed(Cotts, 1995), and (Oliver, Rust, & Varki, 1997)It is important for the supplier to learn, to think as the customer does and be aware of why a customer is buyingspecific supplier’s products. This will make it easier to perform in a way that influence the customer to purchase services from that supplier. (Koskela, 2002)note that many managers require the intensity of understanding about how their customers run and make their money. Often companies focus on mechanics but ignore social relationships. Barsky (1995) notes that customer satisfaction is a feeling and can affect the customer’s attitudes towards a product or a service. In a different environment, it is very important to remember that it is the people who work together (Maister, 1997).
Attitudes are important for the supplier as there will become a strong relationship between satisfaction and expectation.
2.6 Customer Loyalty:
(Oliver et al., 1997)defines customer loyalty as follows:
Customer loyalty is a extremely held commitment to re purchase and preferred those service again and again in the future.According to Liljander and(Cronin Jr & Taylor, 1992), customer satisfaction and repurchase decision intentions create a positively connection. They discovered that it could be extra favorable to focus on affecting customers’ experiences than changing their expectations in their scutiny set-up. (Rust & Zahorik, 1993) have learned client lifetime worth and the significance of client loyalty by listening to their complaints, anticipating their setbacks, and understanding why clients move to competitors. Clients stay faithful because of the worth they accord from the supplier.
Customer retention way long-term an long live connection alongside a client (Cannie, 1994), (Berger & Nasr, 1998) situation that preceding scutiny presenting a little facts that good ability quality and client satisfaction affirmatively alter the customer’s behaviour. Customers, after their have no ability setbacks have the strongest levels of loyalty intentions. on the supplementary hand, their aims to wage extra are not extensively higher than customers who are experiencing ability setbacks that are resolved satisfactorily.
Therefore, firms keen to enhance services, chiefly afar the wanted service-level, ought to do so in a cost-effective manner. Firms aiming for client loyalty change their offerings to clients to fit client demands. Produce or services are held to clients alongside minimum difficulty and at hostile prices. Fulfilling client demands can be expensive,but its additionally extremely vital factor. These firms in finished gaze at the lifetime worth of the customer. The client could additionally have to wage supplementary for bestquality ability.
2.7 Customer Expectations:
Customer expectations are thinking considering skill transport that give out as benefits or proposition points opposite that presentation is judged. Knowing what the client expects is the main and plausibly most vital pace in grasping good quality service.
In this Thesis we furnish a assembly for thinking considering client expectations.The meaning and kinds of anticipated skill, that factors that encounter client expectations of skill, and present subjects pondering client ability expectations.Different clients grasp disparate kinds of expectations considering service.The anticipation result the hopes and wishes of these clients ,without these hopes and wishes and the believed that they might be fulfilled, clients ought to perhaps not buy the dating service.
2.8 Activities In After Sales Services:
According to Levitt (1983), the sale of a product is merely the onset of a seller-buyer connection whereas the long-term connection amid the two parties is the key for long-term prosperity influence the fact that after-sales services are frolic vital act in a firm to stable competitive gains and to amass profits. There are a number of classifications hobbies inside aftersales services, is to uphold client uphold, product prop, and ability (Goffin & New, 2001) After sales has many times confidential as a business network process, due to the fact that it has a direct impact on the overall business performance and the competitive advantage (Egonsson, Ly, & Bayarsaikhan, 2013) The hobbies inside a company can be endowed across alternative channels and actors, or across several channels and actors parallel. Internet has additionally endowed at after-sales ability channel that has made it probable for firms to have extra stroke points alongside its client, consequently it is extremely easier to present the attention of client care. According to (Saccani, Johansson, & Perona, 2007)after sales could be seen as a business, contain of multiple activities.
Profit is the affirmative degree of difference amid subsidiary revenue and subsidiary cost. Later sales ability is measured a main basis of business efficiency as well as the main factor of presentation evaluation of associations (Dimitriades, 2006)Accepted is the fact that profit create positively link with after sales services is greater than that generated based on sales and sales activities of those product display to point of sales Levitt (1983), for this reason after sales services protected consumer loyalty, enhanced revenue based on enhanced consumer satisfaction .
To make sure enhanced business profitability therefore, organizations are estimated to invest on after sales services as method for enhanced word of mouth communication among satisfied consumers, for improved consumer perception, loyalty and revenue.
2.9 After-Sales Services, Quality and Customer Perception:
After sales services have great cost inference even at this, consumers are demanding high quality at low prices. Quality, hence is a key source of services differentiation between firms in the market place and gives competitive advantages to organizations that are highly quality aware(Mosota, Okibo, & Nyanga’u)and (OKO & Onuoha, 2013)It incorporates the organization’s ability to meet the specific needs and requirements, such as delivery on time of exactly the right quality, packaged properly, including service to customers before, during and after a purchase.(Inghilleri & Solomon, 2010)Customer services, according to(Rowley, 2002), are sequenceof activities designed to influence the level of customer satisfaction, that is the feeling that a service has met the customers expectation. It is also an satisfactory performance for the quality of service in restaurent expects to deliver to its customers, and can frequently explained with respect to delivery and availability of product(Anyadighibe, Awara, & Esu)
From the position of an overall sales process development, after sale services plays an important role in an organization’s abilityto make income and generate revenue (Selden, 2000) From that insightful, customer services should be included as part of an overall approach to organized success. Customer service experience can change the actual perception of customer has of the organization Micah, (2010). services performance and client service are closely linked in any quality programme the greater the attention to services quality in production, the less demand on the customer service act to correct following problems. moreover its usual functions, customer service can perform as an early warning system to detect product quality problems. Customer surveys measuring product performance can also help spot quality control or design difficulties; and of course detecting problems early, then the level of fulfillment is automaticlly increase. So that’s why also avoide embarrassment and headaches Takeuchi and Queich,(1983).
The quality of customer service after the sale is very important as the quality of the product itself (Rust, Danaher, & Varki, 2000)A broad majority of high tech firms managed to grow successfully during the recent economic recession by developing their after sales services. In high technology sector, more than any other industry, after sales activity is very often a highly profitable business Vardot (2010), but has greatcost suggestion associated there to it. After-sales services include not only the customers’ its management ,but also the maintenance operations perform, the extra parts planning and logistics, and all the operations with a long-lasting effect on customers satisfaction(Viardot, 2004),(Erasmus, 2010)For firms that have marketing strategy, after sale services cannot be measured without help of the product or services in terms of market share and profitability.
Whitney, Dayal and Vender Ark (2002), in a study of the restaurent services, show that finished satisfaction indicated that the services sector made extra profit alongside its $9 billion after-sales than alongside its manage $150billion to furnish delivery.
Different companies, such as Dell, Lexmark have conducted research on the needs and loyaltyof their customers regarding after-sales services. All the surveys display that although price is important to customers, the key issues are quickness of delivery, reliability, and availability of different menu choices and maintenance services Viardot, (2010). The beauty of after-sales services, they can double profit margin contrast to the profitability of the goods sold, particularly in an environment that is economically depressed like Nigeria. But this is limited by the incapability of firms to create favourable balance between the marginal cost of operation (implicit and explicit) and actual and or predictable marginal revenue. This work is interested in the management of the cost implications of after sales services as factor of quality of offer and method to customer favourable perception, loyalty and revenue and business profitability.
2.10 Services :
(Kotler, Jatusripitak, & Maesincee, 1997) defines ability as follows: Service is each deed or presentation that one party can proposal to one more that is basically intangible and does not consequence in the ownership of anything. Its creation could or could not be tied to a physical product. (Mathe & Shapiro, 1993) define ability as follows: Service is all of the hobbies undertaken by the stable to furnish worth in use above period, measured by increased client satisfaction alongside a palpable product orsequence of products. Producing and ability procedures have public characteristics, but most services are crafted at the client boundary.
2.11 After-sales services and retail management:
As a word ‘after sales’ has been utilized the most, to express services that are able to the client afterward the generate have been held (VITASEK, Manrodt, & Abbott, 2005) The comparable services are from period to period are furthermore yelled ‘field services. ‘After-sales services’ are mostly (Lele & Sheth, 1987) referred to as client services activities ,meaning all hobbies that prop the product-centric transaction. Furthermore, the word ‘after-sales services’ has been approached in the works below two large perspectives. Later denoting to skill bestowing companies,after-sales services are being indulged as one amid countless supplementary skill agents endowed by them (Oliva & Kallenberg, 2003). On the supplementary hand, afterward denoting to palpable goods, they are usually observed as operative hobbies of a slight or all associates of the allocation shackle .Such services are the transport/delivery to clients, the connection, the product-related training, the hot line and counsel by the assistance desk, every single overhauling skill and even the reprocessing process.The theory of allocation services quarels that the merchandise of explicit produce or services is to be observed embodied in a collection of allocation services (Betancourt & Gautschi, 1998) According to the particular theory, these services convoy the merchandise owning one of the two main constituents or retailing and can be tear more into five clusters, namely assortment, information,location and ambiance and ‘assurance of instant product transport at the wanted period and in the wanted form’ (Betancourt and Gautschi, 1988From the above services, merely the last is being gave as an ‘after-sales’ abiility, as, time-wise, it follows the buying-selling interaction. The main four services, denoting to ‘in-store’services, are frolicking a supplementary or less supportive deed in the client buying decision whereas the fifth can be observed as value-adding skill to customers.
All these services are being oftentimes grasped below a questionable quality level as they are being indulged whichever as a ‘necessary evil’ or as low revenue intentions gave in the worth chain.While the above methods can be connected, it is clashed here that both these perspectivesare rather slender in scope because of their limitations. This is because both give a peripheral meaning to the services gave and they different them from the ‘core subject’ of the connection, that stays the main skill endowed or the tangible-product vended, respectively. This contemplate, that focuses on an oftentimes undifferentiated palpable good or abiility, and grips the rising services as being of minor meaning, leads to a cut finished worth proposition and subsequently a connection alongside manipulated potential.
However, the shift from the product-centric to the customer-centric contemplate of marketing thinking seems to have adjusted the perceptions of this craft by commencing, sluggishly but steadily, to elevate it to a critical instrument alongside momentous implications for the finished giving of the firm. Such an method provides the most finished basis alongside sound implications encompassing, amid others, the endowed competitive supremacy (C. Armistead & Clark, 1994)and the achieved customer satisfaction and long-term relationships (Cespedes, 1995) Thus, in line alongside the trusted of connection marketing, whereas firms battle to retain the relations alongside their clientele alert, the intangible giving can be proved to be tremendously priceless as an agent of the finished offering.
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
3.0 Chapter Overview
This chapter will show the overall detailed discussion on the techniques and methods that are used to achieve the objectives of this study. The need of this methodology is briefly discussion about previous studies so that its importance can be realized to the firms. Therefore in this view theoretically research approaches and philosophies have been discussed in detail alongside with research methods and the approach, philosophy and method that has been chosen for this research is also been given. Every study has to deal with positive ethical issues which can enhance the results of the study and the problems related to current study are also describe in this chapter. Additionally the selected sample size and techniques employed in the study is also mentioned which further helps the reader in the methodology of the study. Data collection, one of the core points of the study is also acknowledged in this section along with the results that were from the collected data by applying statistical analysis like regression, correlation, descriptive statistics scatter plots and frequency tables.
Aims and Objectives
Research Aim
The aim of this study is to measure the after sales services creating an impact on customer satisfaction at restaurent.
Research Objectives
The major objectives of this study is,
‘ To measure the impact of after sales services on Customer satisfaction
‘ To measure the impact of after sales services on customer loyalty
‘ To measure the impact of after sales services on customer Expectation
‘ To measure the impact of after sales services on customer retension.
3.1 Methodology
This study is to analysis the customer satisfaction,customer expectation towards after sales services.The main objective of this study is to understand the service quality of delivery, which are the after sales services that are offered to customers. Its create an impact on their overall satisfaction and on their customer behavioural to re- purchase product.For this study we will discuss about the research strategy , research plan , and sampling plan used in this study.
Morever selected methodology will be described in this chapter. It is very important to select effective methodology for examine the facts of the after sales services creating an impact on customer satisfaction at restaurent sector. Methodology is Systematic and theoretical study of the body of methods requested tothe earth of discover and benefits related alongside a division of knowledge. Methodology includes the thoughts such as scutiny paradigm, in this theory ways, scutiny ways and theoretical model. The intention of this chapter is to describe the overall methodology that isused for the collection of data and analyzing the amassed data. For the present scutiny discover scutiny design, data collection methods,sampling methods and data analyzing methods described in this chapter. For the fulfillment of scutiny gap as well as making reliable andvalidate consequence, an exploratory scutiny method is used. In this discover exploratory discover is suitableapproach, because the continuing theory is investigating, exploratory scutiny suitable when researcher focuses on obtaining new setbacks , next they have capicy to gain precise and deep understanding of present issues.
The intention of this scutiny is to conduct quantitative compute is that researcher is trying to confirm the effectiveness of the motivational tools. So, for this particular patriotic, author needs to apply statistical methods or to use quantitative methods so that we have quantitative figures as proof. This way is recognized as deductive approach.
3.2 Ontology & Epistemology
Concerning paradigm there are seven disparate aassumptions. Concerning vision disparate methods of discover were described by Epistemology Approach (Bryman & Bell, 2015). Further about the environment of reality deals alongside the trusted of vision delineated by ontology (Creswell & Clark, 2007). Morever at this point of the positivism paradigm seems most appropriate because data amassed across observation and investigation, so seven assumption believed according to the positivism being learned in this paradigm.
3.2.1 Positivist Ontology & Epistemology
In positivism, regards seven assumption apart from researcher opinion and culture biases,research is singular reality, if any hypothesis rejected researcher will unsuccessful.(Creswell & Clark, 2007). Overall data collection through questionnaire researcher to the different customers give own opinion did not affect results because researcher did not give their own point of view during data collection and analyses. Formal style of data collection was used. Deductive theory and closeended questionnaire were used in this study.
3.3 Overall approach
3.3.1 Inductive approach
Research approaches have two types . First is inductive approach and second one is deductive approach. The aim of induction approach is to generate new theory throughout examination and investigation. In induction approach data collected without assumptions. And this approach associated with qualitative research. Normally inductive methods used in qualitative approach and generate theories for research (Bryman & Bell, 2015)
3.3.2 Deductive approach
The deductive way check the connection amid theory and data collection. The researcher accumulates data established on hypothetical and a hypothesis established on these considerations. The steps are facile to pursue whereas the early pace is the theory, subsequent pace hypothesis, third pace data collection, fourth pace findings, fifth pace hypothesis confirmed or declined and the sixth and final pace is the revision of theory (Brannen, 2005) The inductive way has an opposite as contrasted to the deductive, whereas the believed behind this way is to form theories established on the data cumulative (Yang, Al-Shaaban, & Nguyen, 2014)
3.3.3 Theoretical approach taken
This research takes a deductive approach, simply because this research is based on previous theories which we are going to verify the significantly impact the performance of restaurent services.The research questions for this research are derived from theories and previous research . Also to be able to fill the existing research gap a deductive approach is in this case the most suitable.
3.4 Philosophical Approach
Overall three approaches according to the philosophy of research which are Positivism, Interpretivism and Realism. Positivism and Interpretivism are discussed below as Realism is the combination of two philosophiesi-e Interpretevism and Positivism.
3.4.1 The Interpretive Paradigm
According to the researchers , Interpretivism paradigm believes on the deep understanding of a concept and explores the understanding of the world in which they live. Interpretivists believe that true knowledge can only be obtained by deep understanding of subject. In this study author has not selected interpretive paradigm because exact literature is available on this topic and we can verify the theory by taking previous assumptions,rather than generating a new theory.
3.4.2 The Positivist Paradigm
According to the researchers this paradigm believe that true knowledge can be contain through observation and experiment (Guba & Lincoln, 1994) Positivism is additionally yelled systematic Method. A forceful debate is obtainable on the subject of employing positivist paradigm that whether it is appropriate for communal sciences. (Hirschheim, 1985)So in this study of after sales services, researcher aims to test prior assumptions so positivist paradigm is good to follow in this study.
3.4.3 Philosophical Approach Taken
For this study, we will selected positivism as the study aims to check the theory by collecting the data from respondents without getting personally involved in the process of data collection and particularly researcher is conducting this study for restaurent services sector. So such kinds of studies are taken into account by adopting positivism.
3.5 Research Methods
3.5.1 Qualitative Method
Qualitative study focuses on words moderately than the quantification in the collection and overall anylsis of data. The purpose of these two strategies is to collect suitable data , however the strategies differ after it comes to how to collect the data.
3.5.2 Quantitative Method
Quantitative study is a technique which used for dimensions, its mostly in numericle form. The most common approach is to use surveys and questionnaires.A quantitative approach works alongside numbers and statistics as qualitative studies works alongside expressions. This discover will use the quantitative method because researcher has consented that the momentous encounter on client satisfaction of restaurent services sector and whenever researchers target to examination or confirm a discover, quantitative method is helpful and counseled method.
3.5.3 Methodological Approach Taken
This study based on quantitative methodology. The study conducted was targeted those consumers of a restaurent sector, those customers which are mostly preffered to going restaurent and want to have good services regarding to restaurent.The primary objective is to select the sample selection for this study involved finding a standardized group of consumers who are going for good services, where requiring to give after sales services. With this requirement, the sample was selected randomly.
This study use quantitative approach where informations are gathered from questionnaire. Instrument utilized through questionnaire which containing closed ended questions. This study utilized hypotheses assessing to ascertain the impact of client satisfaction and client loyalty. The intention of this thesis is to rise deeper understanding of the main hobbies of afterward sales ability concentrating on client satisfaction amid afterward sales providers alongside disparate sizes.
3.6 Research Design
Research design can be described as a design for giving the responding target and objectives. It provides the structure to establish the identified problem and avoid those problems. (BAN, JIANG, NING, & YIN, 2009). Explore Strategy means that the explore overall problems through collection and interpretation of data in a organized order and describing that data in the same order. So, for this specific study, researcher utilized the strategy for scutiny that is decribe below;
First of all, researcher has selected his span of attention and accordingly a case is selected that needs to be learned in real. This discover is more clarify according to the education and construction of thesis.A Quantitative Investigation in to afterward sales services on client satisfaction. An wide review of literature that was available on the variables, researcher has explained in this study in the form of previous studies show by different researchers, is done. There were a lot of studies that were conducted to check the impact of these verriables on satisfaction available.These studies were so important to be discussed to express the importance and significance of these charcteristics.
When applying these design, it is essential to particularly define what is being measured and what population is investigated (Dhawan, 2010)This investigation involves a study of organizations after sales offers and its contribution to customer satisfaction. Therefore, it generally focuses on discerning and analyzing the organizational hobbies, deeds and intentions. It cannot be perceived as exploratory because the subject has been learned beforehand and there is a clear described setback. Fundamental research design has to be disqualified as well due to the reasoning that neither after sales nor costomer satisfaction is dependent on each other. There might be a connection but they are not interdependent variables. Hence, descriptive research design is the most appropriate form of study for this research.
3.6.1 Sample
We will conducted randomly survey from different people. For this study, respondents were selected by applying a sampling technique which is known as ‘convenience sampling’. Questionnaires were hand delivered to those respondents and were collected after the successful completion by the respondents.A population is the entire group that the research focuses on. A populace encompass of all agents people, item or objects whose characteristics are being studied. In quantitative scutiny, It is the demand to example is one that is nearly consistently encountered. And sampling constitutes a key pace in the scutiny procedure in communal survey research.The populace was approximated to involve all groups of clients retail, confidential, official, Company etc.In this scutiny we go across the preceding studies , next we will choose to uses a non probability sampling strategy. in view of the fact that this study is a multiple case research and the aim is to get a lot of understanding within the area of after sales services.
3.6.2 Respondent rate
A total of 220 questionnaire we were conduct randomly survey from different people.Success rate of these forms were 83.3% as these forms were filled accurately. 200 questionnaires were received back out of 220 which is really a good number and reflect a seriousness of customers to address the issue mentioned in the objective of the research. Moreover, mostly customers are very keen to know about the final results and recommendations of the study.
3.6.3 Data collection
Researcher use different types of sources out of primary or secondary method. Primary sources are the data and information that are collect data for the purpose of solving problems .Primary data collects particular and up to date information. on the other hand, it is costly and often hard to find (Cowton, 1998) On the opposite, secondary sources are the existing data and information that has been collected for another purpose than solving the problems at hand .Secondary data enhance reliability of research finding that take a primary data resource method, give alternatives for primary research methods and could probably solve research problems (Bell & Bryman, 2007)It is also price well-organized as well as has high accessibility ,suggests that secondary and primary data are not substitutes for one another. Due to quantitative approach, problems of earlier studies, after sales as having a relation or effect on customer satisfaction. Due to the nature of this study the researcher decided to collect secondary data in form of a questionnaire survey. Secondary data in terms of information and background history has also been used in this research in order to get a deeper understanding about this topic.
3.6.4 Data analysis
For the reason of data scutiny, a aid was seized from the multimedia that is SPSS (Statistical Package for Communal Sciences) 16. Data was went in in multimedia SPSS-16 and assorted examinations were requested to check the validity and reliability of the instrument as well alongside the aid of replies consented in return of this survey. Relationship between the dependent and independent variables was also checked and some other statistical tests were also applied to strengthen the study, which were further presented into the data analysis section.
Validity & Reliability
To check the reliability of the instrument, Chronbach’s Alpha benefits were computed alongside the aid of multimedia that are gave in the subsequent serving alongside methodical explanation and interpretation.
3.6.5 Coding
Data collection instrument was developed on 5 point scale (from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree) and they were asked to rate the statements as per best of their knowledge and feelings as well.
3.6.7 Data Presentation
In this portion, aftermath display the amassed data is gave and proper clarification is additionally given for the aftermath of data that we consented afterward appropriate analysis. SPSS 16 multimedia was utilized to assist the intention and to conduct the methodical scutiny alongside alongside the tabular and graphical presentation of data and results. For illustrative kind of inquiries, tables were made for every single question and a little of the inquiries were delineated graphically alongside the aid of bar charts and histograms.
3.7 Limitations
The major limitation of this study was the lack of time because we are the student and we have limited time. The sample size of this study was small. This study concentrates only on the impact of after sales services on customer satisfaction,perception among restaurent sector. Methods are used for this research study like group discussions. Respondents are filling the questionnaire. The main limitations of this study are
‘ Questions could not be fully understood by those who responding them.
‘ Complex inquiries are tough to use as answers will come to be to convoluted and answerers might not comprehend
‘ Answers incline to be manipulated in data that can consequence in low validity
‘ Due to limitations resources and period the intention discover will be delimits to the pursuing level.
3.8 Ethics
The purpose of the study is made clearly simplify to understood by the readers and the respondents and we will take prior permission should be taken for the video or voice recording.
‘ The privacy of the respondent kept protect till the end.
‘ All information provided would be held in confidential. Result should b fair without any biased behavior.
‘ Time adjustment will be made in order to avoid any disturbance in the flow at research site.
3.9 Chapter summary
In this chapter, major philosophies, approaches and methods of research has been discussed with rationale of the selected philosophy, approach and method of research for this study. Data collection, analysis, coding, limitations and ethical consideration of research are also been discussed in this chapter.
Chapter 4
Data Anylsis
4.0 Analysis:
Spss16.0 is utilized to examine the data. This way is selected for two reasons. It is closer to the method in that quantitative data scutiny is grasped out in real scutiny nowadays days. It helps equip the researcher alongside a functional transferable skill.
4.1 Reliability test:
Consumer satisfaction
Cronbach’s Alpha No of items
.730 12
Interpretation:
In this analysis, Confident outcomes occur which prove through the value of cronbach’s Alpha. It proves that reliability of data. The value of cronbach’s Alpha is .730 in customer satisfaction by compute variable. Twelve items used for compute variable. .7 shows the positivity in results and its above then .7.
Customer Expectation
Cronbach’s Alpha No of items
.671 3
Interpretation:
In this analysis, Confident outcomes occur which prove through the value of cronbach’s Alpha. It proves that reliability of data. The value of cronbach’s Alpha is .671 in customer expectation by compute variable. Three items used for compute variable. 7 shows the positivity in results and it’s approximately touch the figure of .7.This consequence shows the positivity in result.
Customer loyalty
Cronbach’s Alpha No of items
.784 6
Interpretation:
In this analysis, Confident outcomes occur which prove through the value of cronbach’s Alpha. It proves that reliability of data. The value of cronbach’s Alpha is .730 in customer loyalty by compute variable. six items used for compute variable. .7 shows the positivity in results and its above then .7.
Customer retain
Cronbach’s Alpha No of items
.806 5
Interpretation:
In this analysis, Confident outcomes occur which prove through the value of cronbach’s Alpha. It proves that reliability of data. The value of cronbach’s Alpha is .806 in customer retain by compute variable. Five items used for compute variable. .7 shows the positivity in results and it’s above the .8.This consequence shows the positivity in result.
After sales services
Cronbach’s Alpha No of items
.735 5
Interpretation:
In this analysis, Confident outcomes occur which prove through the value of cronbach’s Alpha. It proves that reliability of data. The value of cronbach’s Alpha is .735 in after sales services by compute variable. Five items used for compute variable. .7 shows the positivity in results and its above then .7.
After sales services attributes:
Cronbach’s Alpha No of items
.683 4
Interpretation:
In this analysis, Confident outcomes occur which prove through the value of cronbach’s Alpha. It proves that reliability of data. The value of cronbach’s Alpha is .683 in after sales services attributes by compute variable. Three items used for compute variable. 7 shows the positivity in results and it’s approximately touch the figure of .7.This consequence shows the positivity in result.
4.2 Descriptive Summary:
Customer satisfaction
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Customer satisfaction
200
2.50
5.00
3.9960
.49951
Interpretation:
The above given table is descriptive statistics of customer satisfaction. Descriptive statistics always drawn on scale variable to check the minimum, maximum, mean value and check the std. Deviation. From the table, valid respondent is 200; all respondents gave data and no one is missing. Minimum value of data is 2.50, maximum is 5.00, median is 3.9960and std. Deviation value is .49951.
Customer expectation
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Customer expectation
200
1.00
5.00
4.1467
.80036
Interpretation:
The above given table is descriptive statistics of customer expectation. Descriptive statistics always drawn on scale variable to check the minimum, maximum, mean value and check the std. Deviation. From the table, valid respondent is 200; all respondents gave data and no one is missing. Minimum value of data is 1.00, maximum is 5.00, median is 4.1467 and std. Deviation value is .80036.
Customer loyalty
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Customer loyalty
200
1.50
5.00
4.1807
.69722
Interpretation:
The above given table is descriptive statistics of customer loyalty. Descriptive statistics always drawn on scale variable to check the minimum, maximum, mean value and check the std. Deviation. From the table, valid respondent is 200, all respondents gave data and no one is missing. Minimum value of data is 1.50, maximum is 5.00, median is 4.1807 and std. Deviation value is .69722.
4.3 Frequencies:
Gender
Frequency Percent
Male 133 66.5
Female 60 30.0
Missing 7 3.5
Interpretation:
The above given table is frequency distribution table of gender of respondents. Total 200 respondents had given the response that is 100%. The male respondents have (frequency= 133, percent=65.5%). The female respondents have (frequency= 60, percent=30.0%). Missing Value (frequency= 7, percent= 3.5%).
Age
Frequency Percent
15-25 61 30.5
25-35 53 26.5
31-50 56 28.0
50 & above 25 12.5
Missing 5 2.5
Interpretation:
The above given table is frequency distribution table of age of respondents. Frequency distribution table is always drawn on categorical variable to check the frequency, percent, and valid percent). Total 200 respondents had given the response that is 100%. The respondents of age 15-30 have (frequency= 61, percent=30.5%). The respondents of age 25-35 have (frequency= 53, percent=26.5%). The respondents of age 31-50 have (frequency= 56, percent=28.0%). Missing value in this table is (frequency=5, percent=2.5%).
Profession
Frequency Percent
Yes 129 64.5
No 61 30.5
Missing 10 5.0
Interpretation:
The above given table is frequency distribution table of Profession. The respondents of yes have (frequency=129, percent=64.5%).The respondents of NO have (frequency=61, percent=30.5%). Missing value of profession have (frequency=10, percent=5.0%).
Qualification
Frequency Percent
Less than graduation 78 39.0
Graduation 53 26.5
Master 44 22.0
MPhil 10 5.0
Missing 15 7.5
Interpretation:
The above given table is frequency distribution table of qualification of respondents. Total 200 respondents had given the response that is 100%. The less than graduation respondents have (frequency= 78, percent=39.0%). The graduate respondents have (frequency= 53, percent=26.5%). The Master respondents have frequency= 44, percent=22.0%) The MPhill respondents have (frequency= 10, percent=5.0%). Missing value in this table is (frequency= 15, percent=7.5%).
Salary
Frequency Percent
Less than 15000 61 30.5
15000-30000 29 14.5
30000-45000 55 27.5
More then 45000 20 10.0
Missing 35 17.5
Interpretation:
The above given table is frequency distribution table of salary of respondents. Total 200 respondents had given the response that is 100%. First one is less than 15000 respondents have (frequency= 61, percent=39.5%). Second one is 15000-30000 respondents have (frequency= 29, percent=14.5%). Third one is 30000-45000 respondents have frequency= 55, percent=27.5%) And the last one is more than 45000 respondents have (frequency= 20, percent=10.0%). Missing value in this table is (frequency= 35, percent=17.5%).
Favorite restaurant
Frequency Percent
Bundu khan 44 22.0
Option 34 17.0
Ze grill 48 24.0
Others 69 34.5
Missing 5 2.5
Interpretation:
The above given table is frequency distribution table of Favorite restaurant of respondents. Total 200 respondents had given the response that is 100%. First one is Bundu khan respondents have (frequency= 44, percent=22.0%). Second one is Options respondents have (frequency= 34, percent=17.0%). Third one is Ze grill respondents have frequency=48, percent=24.0%) And the last one is others respondents have (frequency= 69, percent=34.5%). Missing value in this table is (frequency= 5, percent=2.5%).
Customer retention
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Customer retains
200
1.20
5.00
4.0600
.75262
Interpretation:
The above given table is descriptive statistics of customer retention. Descriptive statistics always drawn on scale variable to check the minimum, maximum, mean value and check the std. Deviation. From the table, valid respondent is 200; all respondents gave data and no one is missing. Minimum value of data is 1.20, maximum is 5.00, median is 4.0600 and std. Deviation value is .75262.
After sales services
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
After sales services
200
1.20
5.00
3.5600
.91443
Interpretation:
The above given table is descriptive statistics of after sales services. Descriptive statistics always drawn on scale variable to check the minimum, maximum, mean value and check the std. Deviation. From the table, valid respondent is 200, all respondents gave data and no one is missing. Minimum value of data is 1.20, maximum is 5.00, median is 3.5600 and std. Deviation value is .91443.
After sales attributes
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
After sales attributes
200
1.25
5.00
3.7112
.90542
Interpretation:
The above given table is descriptive statistics of after sales attributes. Descriptive statistics always drawn on scale variable to check the minimum, maximum, mean value and check the std. Deviation. From the table, valid respondent is 200; all respondents gave data and no one is missing. Minimum value of data is 1.25, maximum is 5.00, median is 3.7112 and std. Deviation value is .90542.
4.4 Histogram
Customer satisfaction
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is histogram of customer satisfaction. Histogram is always drawn on scale variable to check the normality of data against the variable ‘Customer satisfaction. On x-axis, customer satisfaction is given and frequency is mentioned on y-axis. The height of the bars shows the frequency of the each given category. And the curve had drawn on the chart shows it’s around normality. This curve is in bell shape that shows its normality. This bell shape curve is neither positively or nor negatively skewed. So the assumptions of the normal data fulfilled. And the data of customer satisfaction is approximately normal.
customer expectation
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is histogram of customer expectation. On x-axis, customer expectation given and frequency is mentioned on y-axis. The curve drawn on the chart displays its normality. This curve is in bell form that displays its normality. This bell form arc is neither affirmatively or nor negatively skewed. So the assumptions of the normal data fulfilled. And the data of client anticipation is precisely normal
Customer loyalty through Environment services
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is histogram of customer loyalty. On x-axis, customer loyalty is given and frequency is mentioned on y-axis. The curve drawn on the chart shows its normality. This curve is in bell shape that shows its normality. This bell shape curve is neither positively or nor negatively skewed. So the assumptions of the normal data fulfilled. And the data of customer loyalty is exactly normal.
Customer retain through customer services:
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is histogram of customer retention. On x-axis, customer retention is given and frequency is mentioned on y-axis. The curve drawn on the chart shows its normality. This curve is in bell shape that shows its normality. So the assumptions of the normal data fulfilled. And the data of customer retention is exactly normal.
Restaurant concept through after sales services
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is histogram of after sales services. On x-axis, after sales services is given and frequency is mentioned on y-axis. The curve drawn on the chart shows its normality. This curve is in bell shape that shows its normality. So the assumptions of the normal data fulfilled. And the data of after sales services is exactly normal.
After sales services attributes
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is histogram of sales attributes. On x-axis, sales attributes is given and frequency is mentioned on y-axis. The curve drawn on the chart shows its normality. This curve is in bell shape that shows its normality. So the assumptions of the normal data fulfilled. And the data of sales attributes is exactly normal.
4.5 Bar chart
Gender:
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is bar chart of Gender. Bar chart is always drawn on categorical variable to check the frequency of data against the variable Gender. On x-axis, gender is given and frequency/count is mentioned on y-axis. The height of the bars shows the frequency of the each given category. Two categories of gender are that one is male and other is female. Male frequency is 130 and Female bar shows that female frequency is 55. So we conclude that male respondent is more than female respondent.
Age
Interpretation
The above given diagram is bar chart of age. On x-axis, age is given and frequency/count is mentioned on y-axis. The height of the bars shows the frequency of the each given category. Three categories of age are that 15-25, second 25-35 and third are that 35-45, and 50 & above. 15-25 age respondent 60. 25-35 age respondent 55 and 35-45age respondent 55, and 50 above age respondent 25, So we conclude that young generation respondent more as compare to others age group.
Profession:
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is bar chart of profession. On x-axis, working professions given and frequency/count is mentioned on y-axis. The question is, are you a working professional? Two categories of profession are that one is yes respondent frequency is 127. Second option is No and frequency of No is 55.
Qualification:
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is bar chart of qualification. On x-axis, qualification is given and frequency/count is mentioned on y-axis. Four categories of qualification are that one is less then graduation and respondent rate is 77. Second group is graduation and respondent rate is 55. Additionally third group is master, which respondent frequency is 50. Last one group is M Phil and it respondent rate is 10.
Salary:
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is bar chart of salary. On x-axis, salary is given and frequency/count is mentioned on y-axis. Four categories of salary are that one is less 15000 and respondent rate is 40. Second one is 15000-30000 and respondent rate is 30. Additionally third one is 30000-45000, which respondent frequency is 50. Last one is more then 45000 and it respondent rate is 18.
Favorite restaurant:
Interpretation:
The above given diagram is bar chart of favorite restaurant. On x-axis, favorite restaurant is given and frequency/count is mentioned on y-axis. Four categories of favorite restaurant are that one is Bundu khan and respondent rate is 43. Second one is Options and respondent rate is 35. Additionally third one is Ze grill, which respondent frequency is 46. Last one is other and it respondent rate is 85.
4.6 Regression
Necessary Statistics
Summary ANOVA
R Square Adjusted R square Frequency Sign.
Customer loyalty .118 .114 26.591 .000
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t
Sign.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.965 .203 14.636 .000
Customer loyalty .247 .048 .344 5.157 .000
Dependent= customer satisfaction
Independent= customer loyalty
Interpretation:
The above tables are the output of multiple regressions. Mainly regression is used to check the one relationship and percentage in one compute dependent variable as customer satisfaction and used one independent variable as customer loyalty for get different results. The sig. value of product quality is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 that shows that there is direct relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. There H1 is accepted and Ho is rejected. Now check the value of adjusted R square is that .114 that’s shows that 11% change will occur independable variable. R square value is .118 and frequency is 26.591.

Necessary Statistics
Summary ANOVA
R Square Adjusted R square Frequency Sign.
Customer retention .081 .076 17.349 .000
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t
Sign.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 3.231 .187 17.303 .000
Customer retention .188 .045 .284 4.165 .000
Dependent= customer satisfaction
Independent= customer retention
Interpretation:
The above tables are the output of multiple regressions. Mainly regression is used to check the one relationship and percentage in one compute customer satisfaction and used one independent variable as customer retention for get different results. The sig. value of customer retention is .000, which is less than 0.05 that shows that there is direct relationship between customer satisfaction and customer retention. There H1 is accepted and Ho is rejected. Now check the value of adjusted R square is that .076 that’s shows that 7.6% change will occur in dependable variable. R square value is .081 and frequency is 17.349.

Necessary Statistics
Summary ANOVA
R Square Adjusted R square Frequency Sign.
After sales services .026 .021 5.198 .024
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t
Sign.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 3.685 .141 26.166 .000
After sales services .087 .038 .160 2.280 .024
Dependent= customer satisfaction
Independent= after sales services
Interpretation:
The above tables are the output of multiple regressions. Mainly regression is used to check the one relationship and percentage in one compute customer satisfaction and used one independent variable as after sales services for get different results. The sig. value of product variety is .024, which is less than 0.05 that shows that there is direct relationship between customer satisfaction and after sales services. There H1 is accepted and Ho is rejected. Now check the value of adjusted R square is that 0.21 that’s shows that 2.1% change will occur in dependable variable. R square value is .026 and frequency is 5.198.

Necessary Statistics
Summary ANOVA
R Square Adjusted R square Frequency Sign.
Customer loyalty .118 .109 13.234 .000
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t
Sign.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.965 .203 14.593 .000
Customer expectation -.008 .087 -.013 -.097 .923
Customer loyalty .255 .099 .356 2.565 .011
Dependent= Consumer satisfaction
Mediating= customer Expectation
Independent= customer loyalty
Interpretation:
The above tables are the output of multiple regressions. Mainly regression is used to check the one relationship and percentage in one compute customer satisfaction and used one independent variable as customer loyalty ,mediating as customer expectation for get different results. The sig. value of customer loyalty is 0.000, which is less than 0.05 its mean have direct relationship with customer satisfaction. Customer expectation sig. value is .923. Which is more than 0.05, its shows that there is no relationship between customer expectation and customer satisfaction as in dependable variable is customer satisfaction. There H1 is rejected and Ho is accepted. Now check the value of B value is that .255 that’s shows that 25% change will occur in dependable variable. Adjusted R square value is .109 and frequency is 13.23.
Necessary Statistics
Summary ANOVA
R Square Adjusted R square Frequency Sign.
Customer retention .117 .108 13.011 .000
Customer expectation .005
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t
Sign.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.940 .203 13.991 .000
Customer expectation .133 .047 .213 2.838 .005
Customer retain .124 .050 .187 2.485 .014
Dependent= Customer satisfaction
Mediating= customer expectation
Independent= customer retention
Interpretation:
The above tables are the output of multiple regressions. Mainly regression is used to check the one relationship and percentage in one compute customer satisfaction and used one independent variable as customer retain,mediating as customer expectation for get different results. The sig. value of customer retain is .014, which is less than 0.05 its mean have direct relationship with customer satisfaction. Customer expectation sig. value is .005. Which is best value, that shows that there is direct relationship between customer expectation and customer retention. There H1 is accepted and Ho is rejected. Now check the value of adjusted R square is that .108that’s shows that 1.8% change will occur in dependable variable. R square value is .117 and frequency is 13.011.
Necessary Statistics
Summary ANOVA
R Square Adjusted R square Frequency Sign.
After sales services .106 .097 11.720 .000
expectation .000
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t
Sign.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 3.000 .211 14.197 .000
Customer expectation .178 .042 286 4.219 .000
After sales service .072 .037 .132 1.955 .052
Dependent= customer satisfaction
Mediating= expectation
Independent= after sales services
Interpretation:
The above tables are the output of multiple regressions. Mainly regression is used to check the one relationship and percentage in one compute customer satisfaction and used one independent variable as after sales services,mediating as customer expectation for get different results. The sig. value of customer retain is .052, which is less than 0.05 its mean have direct relationship with customer satisfaction. Customer expectation sig. value is .000, Which is less then .005, that shows that there is direct relationship between customer expectation and After sales services. There H1 is accepted and Ho is rejected. Now check the value of adjusted R square is that .097that’s shows that 9.7% change will occur in dependable variable. R square value is .106 and frequency is 11.720.
CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION
5.1 Discussion:
In this research evaluate finished presentation of afterward sales services on client satisfaction.It is impossible to evaluate presentation lacking data collection , describing and clear descriptions of targets and goals. The goal to carry out this study is to find out what are the key factors or characteristics that enhance client satisfaction across the services endowed afterward the sale to the customers.
Satisfied client is like an affirmative encounter for each association sector. The manager have to be cognizant that how to gratify the client and become his loyalty and retain the customers. Profitability is the core goal of every single association, they incline to maximize it.Overall afterward sales services crafting an encounter on client satisfaction,good quality of services comes early in the mind of customers.Quality of the services is depends on the customer’s purchasing manipulation ,and actual outlines in the resort industry.industry. Moreover commercial and manufacturing conditions additionally frolicked an vital act towards afterward sale services.
This chapter debates the finished hypothetical and useful ways of the study. The chapter summaries the findings of the discover and locations them in relation to the preceding body of vision of client satisfaction, the significance of afterward sales services, and client satisfaction and client loyalty, specific in the context of services. This discover display hypotheses are studied, and their uphold is assessed in the light of the results. The research is assessed in its craft, inner and external validity, and reliability. Furthermore, the limitations of the discover and propositions for upcoming study are presented.
5.2 Conclusion
It is important that the every industry to adopt a good after sales service management to and efficiency to give out the consumers. This research eveluate the afterward sales services crafting an encounter on client satisfaction alongside distinct reference to hotel industry in pakistan. Many researchers concur that the afterward sales serivce plays a main act in fulfulling customer as well as rising the loyalty of consumer. The discover discovered that afterward sales services client loyalty , client retaintion, afterward sale services were considerably autonomous and combined predictors of client satisfaction.The discover additionally exposed that clients rate to furnish good services to enhance loyalty and retain of clients for recap the sales.In additionaly, it have to always retain the lead period at the minimum attainable as to encounter the needs and wants of the customer. A good allocation arrangement is needed to safeguard that the product can grasp the client at the right period and place. Here, a good attitude towards working jointly finished after overall good services process alongside the client is demanded so that the client will be happy and charmed alongside the service.Finally, feedback from client concerning the quality and ability of the product is vital to change the product line and ce according to needs and wants of customers. All departments be it Marketing, Finance, Procedures and Human Resource have to work jointly to accomplish the duty, vision and goals of the industies.
This Studies additionally display that there are association amid client satisfaction, client loyalty, and client retaintion. In restaurent sector generally focus on new clients, as they craft assumption across feedback that present clients are satisfied. Though, this is not vitally the case. Our discover examines the connection amid aftersales services, client satisfaction , client loyalty and client retetion.Based on the main findings ofthe works study in the industry context, it comes out that after-sales ability quality alter satisfaction, that in coil affects on client retention purchasing.
Basically our discover will benefit the managers of restaaurent sector connected to resort industry check client trend towards transport, ability quality and feedback. From this, they can discern what generally impact client satisfaction and what ought to be properly valued.
5.3 Recommendation:
Different suggestions for upcoming scutiny are given below, for those researchers who are interested in deep understanding of the three main hobbies of afterward sales services are client satisfaction client loyalty and client retaintion. Related to preceding scutiny can be led seizing the focus on clients expectations , in order to understand the afterward sales services crafting an meet on client satisfaction.Due to limitted period and adequate level of resources, this kind of investigation should discover both factions of the client and seller relationship.We will give proposition is to choose on a quantitative scutiny method on this case as it can cover larger example of
Organizations.Future researchers can discover and develop the theory of three hobbies of after-sales services by investigating supplementary industries and discovering disparate aspect to it. As this discover as well as preceding intellectual researches has pointed out the meaning of afterward sales services in resort industry.
Future discover could focus on factor like client needs, client loyalty, product differentiation and worth of product that additionally enhance client satisfaction. Finally, we counsel that the upcoming researchers seize the investigated scutiny ideal and apply it in a new context. As a proposition, in a disparate demographic locale or sophistication, in order to subsequently make a evaluation amid the disparate locations and sophistications that has been learned previously.

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Questionnaire
After sales services creating an impact on customer satisfaction
Contact information
Name: __________________
Gender:
‘ Male
‘ Female
Age
‘ 15-25years
‘ 25-35years
‘ 35-45years
‘ 50 plus years
Are you a working professional?
‘ yes
‘ No
Qualification:
‘ Less than graduation
‘ Graduation
‘ Master
‘ M.phill/MS or higher
Salary:
‘ Less 15000
‘ 15000-30000
‘ 30000-45000
‘ More than 45000
Respondent’s Responses about a Restaurant Service
Please think about a restaurant you have visited at least twice and you are familiar with.What is the name of this restaurant?
‘ Bundu Khan
‘ Options
‘ Ze grill
‘ Others
Rank the facilities and services using following scale.
Strongly agree=5 Agree=4 I don’t know=3 Disagree=2
Strongly disagree=1
SR# Statements SA
5 A
4 IDK
3 D
2 SD
1
Customer satisfaction
1 High quality of services satisfied me
2
At this place, the facilities (building, dining area, waiting areas) are very attractive and comfortable.
3 Professional and neat appearance of employees appealsme.
4 Friendly and patient server influences me to visit.
5 Consistent services appeals me to visit more in specifics restaurant.
6 Respectful and courteous employees satisfied me more in restaurants.
7 Reasonable and discount prices satisfied me
8 I am satisfied when employees treated same with all customers without favoring some.
9 Excellent food appeals me to visit more.
10
I will recommend my friends to visit that restaurant which satisfied me their services.
11 Professional and friendly dealingattract me to visit.
12 Timely serve food satisfied me.
Customer Expectations
13 Attractive menu enhance my satisfaction level.
14 Ambient condition of restaurant built strong image about restaurant
15 Good food enhances my expectation level.
Customer loyalty
16 Hot and fresh served food influence me to visit.
17 Cleanness of restaurant satisfies me.
18 Availability of sauces, utensils, napkins, retains me to visit more.
19 Clean dining area of restaurant satisfied me
20 Perfectly clean crockery enhances my satisfactory level.
21 Comfortable parking area is my preference to visit more.
Customer retention
22 Overall quality of services in restaurant satisfied me?
23 What level of courtesy do you receive from our Customer Service team?
24 Website/customer portal provide a pleasant experience to me.
25 Good after sales services influence me to visit more.
26 If problems about services resolve on time. It will enhance my satisfactory level.
Rank the facilities and services using following scale.
Not important=1 Somewhat=2 Unimportant=3 Important=4 Very important=5
After sales services
Q: 27when going to a restaurant which criteria are important for you?
SR# Statements NI
1 SW
2 UNI
3 I
4 VI
5
Restaurant concept
1 Dinning Environment
2 Food Quality
3 Service
4 Price
5 Convenience
Q: 28how important was performance on these attributes for our services?
Attributes
1 Value
2 Overall quality
3 Purchase experience
4 After sales services

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