Essay: STEEPLED analysis of agriculture industry in India

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  • STEEPLED analysis of agriculture industry in India
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Social factor

  • Since its independence in 1950s, foreign aid has made a significant contribution to the agricultural progress in rural India.
  • Increasingly since independence, India has been sharing its agricultural technology with other developing countries.
  • India is one of the oldest civilizations with a kaleidoscopic variety and rich cultural heritage.
  • More than 60% of the India’s population’s dependent on the agriculture.
  • The last ten years of development in the agriculture sector in India, show that the lower government investment in agriculture and market driven system has adversely affected the livelihood of rural India.

Technological factor

  • The last few decades have witnessed a visible transition in the industrial landscape of India.
  • Technology has helped society to cut across the traditional boundaries for getting converted into an emerging information society.
  • The Government’s long-term vision on “Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Agriculture Sector” aims to bring farmers& researchers, scientists and administrators together by establishing a system known as “Agriculture Online” for the exchange of ideas and information.
  • Farmers can find out the chemical composition of their land through lab testing to know how fertile their land is and what should they grow to make maximum profits.
  • The irrigation needs in Indian agriculture, emphasis has to be given to promote the proven cost-reducing micro-irrigation technology of drips irrigation which helps conserve water reduces fertilizer inputs & an ensures higher productivity With all the benefits that technology can provide in agriculture sector.

Economic Factor

Economic factors extended to a large numbers of area which are as below:

Micro finance:

Micro finance scheme has been introduced by National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), the apex bank for agriculture and rural development in India, to improve the access of the rural poor to formal institutional credit and other financial products.

Agricultural finance:

  • Credit: Availability of adequate credit is vital for every sector and agriculture is not an exception. In India, Commercial Banks, Cooperative Banks, and Regional Rural Banks (RRB) are responsible for smooth flow of credit to agricultural sector.
  • Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme was introduced to provide adequate and timely support from the banking system to the farmers for their cultivation needs. This scheme has made rapid progress and more than 645 lake cards issued up to October 2006.
  • The ‘Farm Credit Package’ announced by the Government of India in June 2004 stipulated doubling the flow of institutional credit for agriculture in ensuing three years.

Environmental factor

  • The correlation between Indian agriculture and monsoon .
  • Rains is the life blood for India agriculture sector. the country is one of the world’s largest producers and consumers of everything from sugar ice vegetables, soya beans etc.
  • Agriculture sector employs around 60 per cent of the total workforce in India an contributes about 17 per cent of the India’ GDP.
  • In India, monsoon is crucial for summer sow crops, like, soybean, rice, cotton an sugarcane. With only 40 percent of farmland irrigated, the vast majority of India’s small farmers depend on monsoon to water their seeds.
  • Insufficient rains this year have cause acreage of all major crops to lag behind in term of year-on-year (Y-o-Y) estimates, halting prospects for bigger harvests of rice, oilseed and sugar cane. All of major agro states of India, including Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana kept waiting for rain in the month of June, which ultimately arrived in the last week of June, but indeed with a very weak progress.

Political factor

  • Political influence on Indian agriculture is very much widespread. It ranges from incorporation of new policies for the farmers to the steps taken on their welfare and development.
  • Political factor is often related directly with the central government that is in power. Some of the factors influencing the agriculture are shown below.
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY): Economic reforms initiated since 1991 have put the Indian economy on a higher growth trajectory. Annual growth rate in the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has accelerated from below 6% during the initial years of reforms to more than 8% in recent years.
  • Agriculture policies: The beneficial impact on agricultural situation in India of a host of well-intentioned government policies has not been as great as originally envisaged. the whole, has always cast agricultural development in the shadows of industrial growth.
  • Recent government policies affecting Indian Agriculture: In the recent Union Budget (2007-08), agriculture has got considerable attention with the various policy initiatives from the side of finance ministry.

Legal factor

Legal factors include various laws, reforms and new policies drawn up by the government for improving the current scenario of agriculture sector. Some of the important aspects of legal factors are discussed below.


Provision has been made in a number of, states for constructing, improving irrigation works. The legislative measures passed in Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Orissa Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra provide for the irrigation works.

Crop protection:

The Destructive Insects and Pest Act, 1914, passed by the central Government provided for means against the entry of diseases from other countries into India. Suitable provisions also exist in the Act for preventing the spread of plant pests and diseases from one state to another in the country.


The law envisaged the statutory control of the prices of three fertilizers, namely ammonium sulphate, urea and calcium ammonium nitrate; provided for the registration of dealers in fertilizers; and for restrictions on the specifications of fertilizers in relation to the maximum and minimum of various important constituents.

The State Governments have been authorized to fix the price at which the fertilizers mixture may be sold by a manufacturer or a dealer.

Soil and water conservation:

In order to prevent soil deterioration owing to erosion, most of the states have enacted legislation, empowering their governments to take up early anti soil-erosion measures.


In many states, there are other Acts which have an indirect bearing on the subject of soil and water conservation dealing with the preservation and protection of forests, etc.

Ethical factor

  • The production, transformation and distribution of agricultural products are generally accepted as routine aspects of daily life around the world. Therefore, such activities have rarely been addressed within the realm of ethics.
  • But food and agriculture, and the economic benefits that derive from participation in the food and agriculture system, are means to ends that are inherently ethical in nature.
  • Only on a few occasions has FAO considered ethical values, although they are embedded in the preamble to the Organization’s Constitution .
  • Without these ethical values, the most important of which are considered below, FAO would have little reason to exist.

Demographic factor

  • The history of agriculture in India dates back to the Rig-Veda. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output.
  • Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 13.7% of the GDP(Gross Domestic Product) in 2013,about 50% of the total workforce.
  • The economic contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP is steadily declining with the country’s broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India.

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