In the development country, the increasing need of a land space for agricultural, industrial and residential; and the most importantly urban development needs are required with the growing of population. In other terms, deforestation means that the clearing or felling of forest which covered by the tree plantations in order to accommodate agricultural, industrial or any urban development needs. Deforestation is primarily a concern for the developing countries of the tropics (Myers, 1994) as it is shrinking areas of the tropical forests which cause the loss of biodiversity and it enhances of the greenhouse effects (Angelsen, 1999). The removal of forests involves a permanent end of the forest to make the land available for agricultural, industrial and commercial which the purpose that leading to several imbalances of ecology systems and environment.
According to the statistics compiled by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), there are mostly important numbers of agriculture which cause of the deforestation. There are about 46 percent contribute to subsistence farming while 32 percent on commercial agriculture (WPF, World Preservation Foundation, 2010). The loss of forests contributes between 12 percent and 17 percent of annual global greenhouse gas emissions in the world referred on the World Resources Institute (Conserve Energy Future, 2015). Otherwise, there are about 30% of the earth’s land area or about 3.9 billion hectares was covered by the forests. The estimation was made which the original forest was covered approximately in 6 billion hectares (D. Bryant).
The causes of deforestation
The removal of forests or clear land give impacts to the ecology systems and environment. This matter should be concerns among community in order to save the forests from any anthropogenic activities. The causes of deforestation can be classified into two specific factors which direct and indirect causes of deforestation. Based on a few sources, direct causes of deforestation are relatively easy to define in a particular area (Panayotou, 1990), while indirect causes which are usually the main factors of deforestation that cause most disagreement and the ones which are the hardest issue to quantify (Bhatnagar, 1991) (Mather, 1992). Furthermore, there are direct causes of deforestation which are expansion of farming land, logging and fuel wood; overgrazing, air pollution and so on (Sumit Chakravarty).
The expansion of farming land for agriculture
Tropical forest is the one of the most valuable treasure in the world. There are about millions of people that live in the forest and lives with the nature life. According to Wilkie et al., 2000, as the land degrades people are forced to migrate, the exploring a new forest frontiers increasing the deforestation. Deforestation can be eliminate by the expansion of agricultural land. As it is the one of alternatives to solve deforestation problem in the worlwide. Otherwise, expansion of agricultural land also is a main source of deforestation contributing around 60 per cent of the total tropical forest in the world (Sumit Chakravarty). Shifting agriculture is known as a slash or burn agriculture which clearing process of forested land were done for raising or growing the crops. The growing of the crops was done until the soil is compacted of nutrients and the site of it was overtaken by weeds. Then, clearing process have been made.
Logging and fuel wood
Logging can be defined as cutting and moving the woods from the stump to somewhere outside the forest in which purpose of clearing the land. Actually, logging does not a major cause of deforestation, but it can seriously degrade the forests (Putz, Blate, Redford, & Fimbel, 2001). In the Southeast Asia, logging is more intensive and quites destructive. As we know, logging provides a space to access roads that follow on settlers and the log scales which it can help finance the cost of clearing process and preparing land for planting of crops. Specifically, logging thus catalyzes deforestation (Chomitz, P., Luca, & Thomas, 2007).
Fuel wood is also not a major factor of deforestation in the humid tropics, although it reduced forest area with existed of some populated regions in that particular area with their activities. In other words, fuelwood gathering was considered to be one of the cause of deforestation in the humid or dries tropics and forest degradation such as in El Salvador (Repetto, 1990).
Overgrazing can be described as a source of contributing to soil erosion in which it commonly happen in drier areas of the tropics where the pastures degraded by overgrazing. For example, in Qinghai, China, clear cutting and overgrazing was occurred which turned it into a large areas like a desert (Sumit Chakravarty). Certainly, overgrazing are causing large areas of grasslands into a desert which clear without any trees or other organism.
Air pollution is the substances that getting from particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into the Earth’s atmosphere which causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms or the natural or built environment. Scientifically, air pollution may come from an uncontrolled anthropogenic activities or the natural sources. Based on few case study, air pollution is associated with degradation of some European and North American forests which the syndrome of it was called as ‘Waldsterben’ (Sumit Chakravarty). There are about 80 per cent of all West German trees exhibited damage. It also rose to 52 per cent in 1987 (Raloff, 1988), and also it was reported that half of the trees was dying of Waldsterben in the Alps (Lean, 1990).
Moreover, the indirect causes of deforestation can be detemined such as overpopulation and poverty; economic causes, undervaluing the forest and so on (Sumit Chakravarty).
Overpopulation and poverty
Overpopulation and poverty are inextricably linked with deforestation. The role of the population in deforestation is debatable issues in this worldwide. Population density is affect on deforestation which also give an impact to this controversy issues. Based on several study shows that poverty and overpopulation among countries are contributing to the major cause of deforestation or loss of growth of forest. Generally, many NGOs or other agencies belived that they can solve this problem or issues by encourage the development around that area. Certainly, it cannot be happened with cutting or logging the trees for that purpose. Moreover, there a few research also believed that rapid population growth in this world contributing a major indirect causes of deforestation and over arching.there more people that prefer food and space of a land requires for agriculture and habitation. According to Colchester and Lohmann, the growing population in rich industrialized nations are therefore responsible for much of the exploitation of the earth and there is a clear link between the consumption in rich countries and deforestation in the tropics (Colchester, 1993). Furthermore, many people claimed that deforestation is affected mainly by the uneven distribution of wealth among population.
Economic causes contribute to deforestation
Several sources claimed that the relationship between the development of the countries and deforestation is a complicated issues and dynamic processes. As we know that development may increase the productivity of a land. At the same time, it will reduce the need to clear the forests to meet food requirements. Higher prices for crops and lower prices for farm inputs also spur faster of the deforestation (Chomitz, P., Luca, & Thomas, 2007). The increses of wage also stimulate deforestation (Barbier, 2004). Otherwise, poor farm households or commercial loggers less incentives to take an action in order to protect environmental effects from the deforestation.
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