1.1 Give 2 definitions of intellectual disability in accordance with a recognised source. Follow prescribed APA format when citing sources.
Intellectual disability is a disability in terms of intellectual functions and adaptive behaviour. This is a consequence of physical and mental unfitness. Intellectual disability is a lack of conceptual skills, social and practical skills.
Intellectual disability is a term in which an individual has limitations in mental and physical functions such as communication, social skills, mental and physical development and learning skills.
1.2 Using a definition of intellectual disability give 2 explanations of how this impacts on the persons adaptive skills.
Explanation 1: Intellectual disability is a limitation to get adaptive skills. If any person has intellectual disability, it effects their adaptive skills.
Adaptive skills are social skills like understanding rules and customs of society, obeying rules, disable to make and retain friendship and understand interpersonal relations. But when somebody has intellectual disability he or she is not able to perform their social skills for example people with these disabilities cannot cope up with their interpersonal relationships. They face problems to lead a satisfy life in the community and work in an open environment.
Explanation 2: people with intellectual disabilities always take more time to speak, walk and take care of their personal needs such as dressing/undressing, taking shower, going to toilet and taking medicines. It takes more time for them to learn in school as well. Their mobility is also not effective. These people with intellectual disabilities cannot cope up with their housekeeping activities for example cooking, cleaning and manage household things. They have lower level of interest in the environment and responsiveness to others.
Using a definition of intellectual disability give 2 explanations of how this impacts on the person’s cognitive ability.
Explanation 1: Cognitive skills can be explained in terms of thinking, learning, remembering, achieving right information on right time and performing tasks of daily living. People with less cognitive skills have complex developmental disabilities. These people always have confusion and difficulty to understand or learn new things. Some people have memory difficulties that impaired their ability to remember. They are not able to solve their problems as they arise. Sometime it can cause frustration to them.
Explanation 2: People with impaired cognitive skills have difficulty to focus the attention to the given task also organising and completing the task. They take more time to response and sometime they do not give any response. They also find problems in verbal and non-verbal communication. These people take more time to process information in their mind and give response to it.
Describe the causes of intellectual disability
Give 2 examples of causes of intellectual disability that occur before birth and describe two main characteristics of the effects:
Example1: x Fragile syndrome:
1. Postponement in growth of body, language, speech and mental status.
2. Big body size with big head, long ears, flat feats and large jaw.
Example 2: Prader- Willi syndrome:
1. Deficiency in eye coordination and eyes do not move together.
2.Very small hands and feet, almond shaped eyes and small turned mouth.
2.2 Give 2 examples of intellectual disability that occur during or immediately following birth and describe 2 main characteristics of the effects.
Example 1: Trauma:
1. Feelings of sadness and angriness, anxiety and stress.
2. Lack of faith on others, less emotional expressions, spiritlessness and defensive reaction to pain.
Example 2: Hypoxia:
1. High rates of breathing, laziness, very much tiredness, inadequate assessment about others.
2. Weakness in eyesight, feelings of hatred, tickling , light-headedness ,head ache and mental fatigue.
2.3 Give 2 examples of cases of intellectual disability that occur during childhood years and describe the impact on the day to day support needs of the person.
Example 1: Epilepsy
Impact: Because of epilepsy people lost their independence and they are not able to drive. People with Epilepsy cannot take part in some amateur activities such as sky diving, bicycle or motor race because they can lead to injuries without paying attention even for a single moment. If these people want to do some easy activities, still they have to be supervised by someone else for instance swimming. Children take more time to understand and finish their school work and they also need instructions from others to complete their tasks. People with epilepsy find difficulties to cooperate and understand with social and employ mental forces. Sometimes epilepsy cause memory loss that is why such people find difficulties to remember household things. They cannot find things on their own places, they start to forget about them.
Example 2. Cerebral palsy:
Impact: Children with cerebral palsy have difficulty to communicate with others either it is verbal or non-verbal communication. They need to use symbolic things to make others understand for example books, pictures and diagrams. So it takes longer time for them to be able to communicate with others. Apart from this children face problem in mobility also. They cannot walk properly without using mobility assistances such as walking sticks. It also take very long time to have their meals, sometime that is stressful for families to keep them safe. During taking shower and other personal cares such children face problems, they have to ask for help from their family members.
Outcome 3: Describe conditions frequently associated with intellectual disability.
Condition 1: Epilepsy: Epilepsy is a disorder in nervous system it can cause loss of sleepiness, consciousness and loss of attention as well.
1. Head injury like damage any specific part of the brain can cause epilepsy.
2. Electrical activities in the brain also cause epilepsy. Many passing signals in our brain help us to think, walk, laugh and concentrate. When there is any disruption in passing the signals then it leads to seizures, because of these seizures consciousness of body and mind is affected.
Main characteristic 1:
Thundering of lips, twitch the face, loss the control on muscles.
Main characteristics 2:
Changes in breathing patterns, blue colour face and lips and pendulous face on one side.
Support needs of the person with epilepsy:
1. Medication: Patient of epilepsy should be provided proper medication at all times prescribed by the doctor. Not even a single dose should be missed because it can cause more seizures.
2. Education: Children with epilepsy should be provide education regarding their illness and precautions how to prevent and maintain epilepsy. They should know about their medicine also.
3. Safety: Safety is very important for epilepsy patients. There should always be someone to support them and provide safety for them. If they are out of the house their family members or friends should be with them.
1. People with epilepsy should be encouraged to go to school and work.
2. They should make friends and visit them on regular basis and be socialised.
3. They should maintain and uphold their dignity.
1. Provide them memory and visual aids to support them to learn more.
2. Give them extra classes in case they miss their periods.
1. Cerebral palsy can be caused by damaged to the brain. It can cause before and after birth.
2. Mutation of genes that help in our brain development.
3. Fetal stroke that can disrupt blood supply in brain.
4. Low birth weight
Main Characteristic 1:
Lower legs turned inward and there is a cross at the ankles like a scissors.
Main characteristic 2:
Weakness in muscles and less movement.
Physical support need:
1. Provide medical aids for support and safety.
2. Support in daily living activities like showering, toileting, personal care.
Social support needs:
1. Regular visits to community and society through transportation access.
2. Make friends for good support.
Cognitive support needs:
1 .Provide a therapist for improving speech and language skills.
2 .To make such people able to learn give them necessary aid and support.
Foetal alcohol syndrome:
This syndrome occurs in baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy.
Main characteristic 1:
Poor growth of the body, while the baby is born or in the womb and problems in thinking, speech, language.
Main Characteristic 2:
Small head and eyes and small upper jaw.
1. Children with foetal alcohol syndrome shold be given assistance in daily living activities.
2. Such children should take to doctors for medical supervision on regular basis.
Social support need:
1. Such people should be provided behaviour management training and support activities.
Cognitive support needs:
1. Give them aids to learn more.
2.Help them in communication
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