Essay: INTERNATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

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  • INTERNATIONAL HEALTH POLICY
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TASK ONE: Research and Analyse Healthcare Policy, Provision and Funding in one National Context
A. Critically Assess on the Impact that Social and Cultural Issues have in attitudes towards Healthcare using their chosen Nation as an example
Social issue can be described as the issues which influences and can be opposed by setting number of an individual’s within an organisation while culture on the other hand is an integrated pattern of learned beliefs, behaviours and our basic values which can be shared among groups. Culture is shaped by various-multiple influences and it has a powerful significant contribution to make to health because in all of its forms, is an approach which helps to provides social fabric of communities. Due to the influence rate cultural has on our society, organisations such as the National Drug Preference Alliance (NDPA) has been able to focus their attention to understand the various different cultures which exist within a particular environment so as to enables their staffs work hand in hand to save the society from the use of illegal drugs. Besides that, this organisation has also been able to deliver effective healthcare with experience which has help drug Addicts. Initiative approach to save people of the nation from dying through great attitude towards healthcare sectors has also be taken into consideration to help improve the society form hands of illegal drugs which is mostly caused by peer influences as a result of social gathering which in most cases results in addiction hence serious health problems and crimes.
Secondly, In cases such as Institutionalized racism, stereotyping and dominant group privilege is social issue which affect the society and the environment but with the goals of cultural competences training in healthcare sectors which aims to reduce disparities and to provide optimal care to patient regardless of their ethnic background or cultural beliefs, organisations like the National Drug Preference Alliance Organisation (NDPA) are guide for physicians towards bringing powers imbalance into check through the process of self reflection, self critique etc.
B. Evaluates healthcare policy in one national context and explain the influences on policy formation, including impacts of funding issues. Comparison should be made to other national policies to show how different national policies
NDPA is an organisation which believes so much that drug-free healthy lifestyle will not only protects the society but will enhance stability for both present/future generations in the society and through framework for evaluating performance by the setting of objective, priorities, strategies, resources needed in the achievement of their goals and objective, the NDPA have been able to promote effective policies and with the awareness spread by this organisation, governments in most countries have been able to made drugs as illegal and it has been declared users of illegal drugs can lead to imprisonment along side with penalty.
National Drug Preference Alliance Organisation, legislature also spend much time to ensure the nation is free from the addicts, this is because it has been estimated roughly about twenty-five percent of passengers and eighteen percent of drivers that has been involved in fatal accidents is due to illegal drugs been taken and as a result of this statistics, formation of policy in countries like England is urgent and of important to the society. Besides that, looking into our today environment especially in the United Kingdom, the use of drugs have been considered as a style accessory and due to disaster, damaged it has on human health, government has been able to take many policies into place so as the reduce the consumption of drugs and may awareness programs, legal process is been conducted in every part of country to help prevent the use of illegal drugs and drug victims are also help through retreat centres while in the aspect of funding in country like the United Kingdom here, healthcare policy is funded by the national health services which make it basically free for virtually citizen of the UK who indirectly pays through taxes. While the Nigerian healthcare policy is such that is not free ,the people pay for medical treatments and most cases they buy pharmaceutical drugs from the chemists, in this case the policy established is like pay as you go services. The impact of this on the funding issues does not weight much on the government because its only part funded in terms of salaries to staffs, the effects of these on the population is the risk to better treatments especially for people who cannot afford to pay compared to the sporting national policy where the government pay the sports men the working staffs and provide sponsorship to the sporting ministry.
National Drug Preference Alliance Organisation (NDPA) is an organisation government are always interested in the funding of their policy formation due to their developed authoritative voices in the field of drug prevention and with their international reputation they get helps from politicians, charity, social workers and others trusted organisations etc. And as result of their approach which consist of greater positive attitude healthcare sectors, NDPA organisation has become a crucial organisation for both society and the government

C. Structure of Healthcare Delivery in National Drug Preference Alliance Organisation
NDPA organizational structure in healthcare delivery is a framework which focuses on the lines of authority and communications, allocation of right and duties which are directed towards the achievement of their aims. Such activity includes, task allocation, mission, coordination, supervisions of employee/clients and connections towards employees in the achievement of the organization objectives. Every healthcare sector has their own various structures which helps determines the modes in which their organization operates and performs. NDPA organization for instances has a democratic structure which allows staff to have their say and this also involves a plethora of employee councils and committees views. Besides that their staffs are treated as partners because their options in the achievement of their goals are always taken in consideration. Below is an examples NDPA organisational structure in the delivery of healthcare.

From the above structure been put into place National Drug Preference Alliance Organisation are been able to classified their employees according to the functions been performed by them in the organization and each individual are expected to serve their specialized roles, like the chief member or director controls all the functioning of the organization while the subordinate control sub organization and they all function effectively in the achievement of their goals and objectives. While that of the NHS in England is an organisation which involves the following:
From the above structure, NHS trusts are able to define their hierarchy within the organisation although this structure are subjected to change as development take place to improve the system and any changes been done always reflects on their chart as soon as possible. From the above chart develop, NHS are been to establish how their organisation operate and their goals is been obtained so as to meet up to present and future needs.
Analysis of the Organisations involved in Healthcare
The National Drug Prevention Alliance organisation is one of such organisation with most developed authoritative voices in the field of drug prevention, they believe that prevention is better than cure and that waiting for a problem to get worse before trying to get it fixed may be too dangerous, they are affiliated with Positive Prevention Plus (PPP), their involvement in healthcare is to save the addicted ones and to promote effective policies which help prevent, create awareness through the giving of education and knowledge regarding drugs consumption and its problems caused in the society. National Drug Preference Alliance Organisation also supports laws, justice system that reinforces drug-free and wholly healthy lifestyle, they also endorsees efforts so as to maintain and improve situation within the society and community and they welcome various kinds of disciplines in their fields for effective management on healthcare services.

Translation of Healthcare Policy into Practice
Is a valuable initiative for services to health that will enable organisations to be able to give efficient care to patients, cost effective and to improve patient’s satisfaction, besides that, healthcare policy translation can best be described like integrated care, clinical or critical pathways which are main tools used in the management of quality healthcare and standardization of care processes within most organisation. Clinical or integrated care practice guidelines/ protocols, partnerships between organisations, modes for incorporating research which is based on normal and usual questions and implementation of strategies which allows the translation of policies to be practice within an organisation. Although many funds are required to be able to translate policies into practice and future research is also needed on the translating of healthcare policy into different area like theoretical approach good strategies for nurse, quality empowerment approaches etc.
Counselling sessions for drug users, referring drug users to specific experts for help, working in partnership with other bodies to help drug users and prevent the use of drug through different types of educational programmes, creating awareness on drug imminent danger, they provide shelter and rehabilitate drug users

C. Analyse Practical Barriers to the Provision of Healthcare in their chosen National Context.
Healthcare is a set of services which is provided by every healthcare sector for the treatment of physically and mentally ill individual. But barriers involved in the delivering of these services to the patient or consumers are also another process which affects health-approach to services and communication in all level. Examples of some of these barriers which are found in healthcare organisation like the National Drug Prevention Alliance Organisation are as follow:

I.) Linguistic and language barriers:
Is obstruction which people faces in the understanding of one another due to the differences in language they speak, this aspect of barriers in an organisation like the, NHS trust, NDPA influences and compromises the quality of medical care patient are to receive, due to the difference in language impedes communication process between a healthcare providers and a patient. This can lead to decreased in patient satisfaction, longer stay in hospital for patients, lack of preventive healthcare services, non compliances with treatment etc. As a result of the effect this barriers has in healthcare sectors, most organisation have try so much to create awareness for the need for better language support services in healthcare, trained interpreters are also put in place to help healthcare providers communicate with patients whose first language is not English. Many other interpreting charity organisations also come to help e.g. CITAS community interpreters in Hammersmith and Fulham still certain language interpreters are difficult to get sometimes
II.) Cultural barriers:
Is seen as the wall between two people because it identify different many health beliefs and behaviour, customs, practitioners beliefs and behaviour which are culturally-based for instances, Muslim female do not allow male medical practitioners to attend to them especially when it involves exposure of their private parts. Jehovah’s Witness don’t consent to blood transfusion. Dues to the various beliefs of culture many Africans people who have immigrated to the western world still have misperceptions about western medical treatment and their reluctance to discuss their understanding, preference for cultural practice to western medical doctor can also lead inaccurate diagnosis and delay in the provision of effective healthcare services to them. Certain sect in the Caribbean still believe that drug [weed] is good for them and regard it as a gift from God and should be drank like tea leaf.
III.) Socio economic barriers:
Is a barrier which includes poor education, lack of health funds and as result of no funds major of the people find difficult to afford private health services while the geographical barriers involves rural area where facilitates to health care services are limited.

TASK TWO: Assess the impacts of Public Health issues and Contemporary issues in Healthcare on Provision and Demand of Healthcare in their chosen National setting.
A. National and International Public Health Campaign
According to Jeffrey K.S “public health campaign is an effort to persuade a defined public to engage in behaviours that will improve health or refrain from behaviours that are unhealthy”. This approach to healthcare help people to stay healthy and avoid getting illness because it’s about prevention of diseases rather than treatment and they multitude of reasons why public health is been campaign. One of the purposes of this approach is to increase awareness of recently discovered diseases as well as other diseases that are harmful to human health such as tuberculosis, obesity, tobacco and alcohol, drug recovery, sexual health, immunisation etc.
Public health campaign in aspects tuberculosis is also another approach to healthcare which has created awareness all over the world so as to control this spread of this disease and also ensure effective treatments are given to affected persons. WHO (World Health Organisation) has also play a major roles in the campaigning of this diseases so as to raise awareness and understanding of health issues in our society, they direct and coordinates international health within the United Nations systems of which UK is a member. Besides of that, the national health services in the united kingdom have provide funds for people who are unable to afford their health services, charity organisations are of immense help to people of various medical needs, such needs are met, doctors, nurses, psychologists, occupational therapists and community carers is also in place structurally to attend to medical needs which have actually made the united kingdom health services highly effective.
Impact of National and international public health campaigns for healthcare
One of the impacts of national/international public campaign for healthcare is that campaign organizers are able to use a particular framework in organizing thousands of people to support universal healthcare while in responses to their effort, state legislature are also able to pass healthcare legislation which incorporate human right principles. And through national/international public-health campaign more people are also aware and enlighten on the international issues which are possible in healthcare case in most communities.
National and international health care campaigns has also enable natives from various cultures to be able to understand the importance of healthcare especially hindering diseases which are silent killers to human health such as tuberculosis, therefore creating awareness on diseases of such is a process which helps those affected to get treatment on time and also prevent such from getting to a critical stage. Charity organisations also pressurise government decisions on pressing issues of concern.
Promotion of Public Health issues and how well this is achieved
Health is a positive concept which emphases social/personal resources and physical capacities so therefore health promotion is not just a responsibility of health sector but rather is a process which goes beyond healthy-life style to well being of an individual needs. Besides of that, healthcare industry takes the nation’s major financial resources so as to facilitate effective quality control and improvements under immense pressure. Media such as television, radio is also one of most means which is very popular in the promoting of health issues to the public and through the use of the approach various areas of concerns is been made known to the public. Charitable organisations also use this mode to place adverts for captivating captions, to solicit for supports and get across their message to the public.
Public campaign is also another way that is in use to promote health issues; many charitable organisations employ workers or volunteers to go on the roads to talk to people regarding their respectable charities. The use of leaflets and fliers; many campaigners, charitable organisations and health institutions also uses leaflets and fliers to create awareness on related issues of concern ,they send people on the roads to give leaflets ,fliers are also dropped in places like churches, mosques and other public places. Gestures; workshops, food banks and lunch time organising are areas that health promoters get to their targets
b) Identify current international or national health issues and how national policy accommodates these issues and the practical responses to these issues in their chosen national context.
Pertussis which is also known as whooping cough is one of most health-issue which has risen in England and many other countries in some part of the world. Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease which is caused by Boredetella pertussis bacterium and these bacteria often produce a toxin which paralyzes parts of the human respiratory cells which could lead to inflammation in the respiratory tract in human body. This health issue is a major problem in the developing countries and the World Health Organisation has been to estimates that perussis causes about 89,000 deaths world wide as at 2012. While between January 1st of 2014 and 6th of January 2015 in Australian according to Dr Rosemary L ” there were a total of 4,606 cases of pertusis which was notified to the department of health and human services which represents a 56 percent increase in cases compared to the same time in 2013″.
The national immunisation programme which the government established for all new born babies was recently launched and made a serious case of importance, the UK government recently re launched the immunisation campaign out of the concern that whooping cough does not start spreading again. Lots of money was put in place to sort this out. The world health organisation has also been involved in creating awareness about whooping cough, prevention and treatment facilities provided to hospital in poorer countries. Charitable organisations also have programmes to raise fund and create awareness against the spread and for total eradication of the disease. Volunteers have gone as far remote areas to help on health education and treatments, most charities are also supported by the government in UK financially.

Conclusion
From carrying out this task, I have been able to understand more clearly on the important of healthcare policy which is a process that help as an individual or an organization to be able understand the contemporary issues which affects our health and the society as well as the approaches needed to promote effective health services to the relevant publics. The ways by which pressure groups and charitable organisations have been able to influence the decisions of government by putting pressure on public officials to make sure that their voices are heard.

References
Buse K, Mays N, Walt G. (2005) “Making Health Policy, Understanding Public Health”, Series Open University Press.

Betancourt, Joseph R.; Green, Alexander R.; Carillo, J. Emilio (October 2002) “Cultural competence in health care: emerging frameworks and practical approaches”, (PDF). New York, NY: The Commonwealth Fund.
Dr Rosemary Lester, Chief Health Officer, Victoria, Australia. (2015) “Increase in pertussis”, cases – 6 January 2015, Issued to: Clinicians and Public Health personnel.

Franz barachini. (2009) Cultural and Social issue for knowledge sharing. Journal of knowledge vol 13,
Pp 98-110.

Future Impact of Tuberculosis | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/facts_6216508_future-impact-tuberculosis.html#ixzz1vVOEcyBC

Jeffery .K. Springs: Public Health Campaign.

NHS Trust: www.England.nhs.uk/about/structure

National Drug Prevention Alliance: www.drugprevent.org.uk

Oxford Dictionary: www.oxforddictionary.com

World Health Organisation (WHO): www.who.int

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