The link between socio-economic development and rising insurgency in Africa in general and Nigeria, in particular, has been well discussed. This research paper argues that ill-advised socio-economic policies may be a catalyst for domestic terrorism. Social policies related to inequality, poverty likely affect terrorism in many ways. This work envelopes point of view and suggestions which aids the giving of answer to questions connected with the subject of discourse. It also discusses that social welfare policies—social security, unemployment, health, education and economic development system affecting GDP, Per capita income has the potentials to initiate insurgency. This study sustained the opinions that the origin of terrorism can be linked to poverty, marginalization, and clashes of political and social interests, authoritarian rule, or state failure. Supporting this argument, in the country today, the cross-sectional estimation reveals that the nation’s weak socio-economic policies correlate with the number of insurgencies. The findings of this study recommend that reinforcing social policies in the country may serve as restructuring or development objectives as well as battling of insurgency. A number of the recommendations incorporate; permitting amendments in current laws keeping in mind the end goal of inducing development and upgrading the way of life for individuals, making educational training necessary at all levels – from primary school level up to college level, providing productive job opportunity at all levels (in all geopolitical zones of the country) and the genuine inclusion of unemployed hands and youths.
Keywords: Socio-economic development, Insurgency, Terrorism, Poverty, Nigeria, Africa.
Every living society endeavors towards a few determined least way of life. It is opined that the quintessence of any political administration is to achieve the political, social and monetary well-being of its citizens. Developed nations in the world have made one of their premier targets, the advancement or quest for the welfare, safety and prosperity of their citizens. Therefore, policies are put in place and implemented.
Development being labelled as a multidimensional occurrence, which is a core subject, is the approach embraced by decision markers to help its citizens to boost their mental and physical potentials and become useful to themselves and others coupled with taking sustainable and friendly advantage of nature to support their every day needs.
Socio-economic development is a process that tries to single out both the social and the economic needs of a community. It intends to make methodologies that will manage those basic needs in ways that are functional and in the simplest benefits of the Commonwealth as time goes on. The idea is to find ways to improve and upgrade the standard of living in the area while also making certain the local economy is healthy and efficient in sustaining the people present in the region. Financial advancement is not restricted to commercial cities but also cut across both rural and urban dwellings.
Socio-economic development is the primary goal of every well-meaning government, and it is mainly reliant on the level of economic undertakings in a country; the level of economic activities is in turn ensured and enhanced by peaceful co-existence by people.
It is well known that the socio-economic development of a nation is evaluated on the basis of the enduring security, peace and stability status of the state. In the absence of safety, socio-economic development cannot be sustained as it destroys economic, human and social capital. One of the security challenges facing the world today is terrorism.
Terrorism has become a global phenomenon since the 9/11 and a kind of global awakening and enlightenment against terrorism has been created since then. Dealing with increasing threats from terrorism has become a major challenge faced both by developed and developing countries.
Africa is no more immune or insusceptible to the threats from terrorism than any other continent. Terrorism and other forms of violence which pose security threat has become one of the continents of Africa major challenge. Some of these domestic ideologically-inspired violent groups handle periodic bouts of murderous mayhem. Most of these extreme groups have attracted ample media attention. These are most groups like the Lord’s Resistance Army in Uganda, al-Shabaab in Somalia or Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb in Northern part of Africa, and Boko Haram in North East Nigeria. Moreover, it is suggested that a range of socio-economic and political conditions in Africa has given birth to criticisms and disputes that have been utilized by revolutionary individuals to vindicate their choice to violent activities. Nature has revealed that people who are subjected to unjust and undue treatment act in response violently, although sometimes the directs of the aggression are misplaced. Even though Nigeria is the one of the top leading oil producer, recognized as the most populated black nations in the world, and also one of the largest economy, Nigeria remains one of the very most significant and relevant nations in Africa.
1.1. IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH AND SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The existing challenge of terrorism to physical security is threatening the Nigerian public on every front. Some foreign observers have related terrorism in Nigeria to some factors that include, political conflicts and unbalanced development that involves the horizontal inequalities, religious/ethnic distrust, poor governance coupled with leadership failure, and high-level corruption. In the world, today democracy presents nations the chance to rule by democratic principles and standard that ensures a peaceful co-existence.
As mentioned earlier, Africa is no more immune to the threats from terrorism than any other continent. Most terrorist activities in Africa are aimed specifically at African governments. Examples of anti-government terrorist groups in Africa are, the Radical Islamic Maitatsine and “Boko Haram” in Nigeria, or the pseudo-Christian Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda; others clearly seem to have a more worldwide agenda; for example, the al-Qaeda cells all along the east coast of Africa, and the Northern Africans and Sudanese, who have come back to their home countries from training and participating in the insurgency in Iraq.
Evidence abound that Nigeria is entangled in a firebox of insecurity preceding to scores of deaths of innocent and harmless civilians, foreigners, some members of the nation’s security personnel, elected officials and many government workers. The insecurity challenge has assumed formidable dimensions leading to loss of lives, properties and investments. The number of violence such as abductions, ritual killings, carjackings, suicide bombings, religious massacres, politically-motivated slaying and violence, ethnic clashes, etc., has increasingly become the regular signature characterizing life in Nigeria since 2009.
Against this backdrop, this research will review the socio-economic conditions that has precipitated or otherwise had an implication on the proliferation of ethnic militias and terrorist group in Africa with Nigeria as an exclusive focus. The research also reviews a handful of important themes related to political violence and terrorism in Africa (Nigeria). The study made would center on domestic and international trends, and the means through which politically violent and terrorist groups finance themselves, coordinate, function, and communicate (both internally as well as externally).
1.1. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to analyze the implications of socio-economic development conditions and the proliferation of ethnic militia /terrorists group in Africa with a particular interest in Nigeria. This goal will be pursued through the following objectives
1. To analyze the status of socio-economic Development as it relates to Nigeria
2. To examine the implication of social-economic policies on insurgency and terrorism
3. Explain various factors liable for regional imbalances and their socio-economic implications
4. To make useful recommendation for better socio-economic policies.
1.2. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In a study of this nature, certain questions come to mind.
1. What are the causes of rising insurgency, ethnic militias and terrorism in Africa?
Secondary research questions would include:
2. What are the factors responsible for the socio-economic crisis and their implications?
3. How does poor socio-economic development relate to rising insurgency in Africa?
4. How does insurgency in Nigeria relate to poor socio-economic development?
1.3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study adopts qualitative and quantitative method, which involves the extraction of primary data, and secondary information from the publications of Central Bank of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics and other trustworthy reports on the subject. The sourced data were analyzed using descriptive approach upon which conclusions were drawn.
The data that was sourced relates fundamentally to socio-economic development and rising insurgency in Africa with specific emphasis on Nigeria. The intention was to explore purposively by applying evaluation procedures in the study so as to draw a conclusion about the subject of study.
The method that was employed for data collections includes a visit to relevant agencies websites, internet surfing, and observation. Also, data was sought from reports and publications of ministries and financial agencies and Newspaper and online media publications. Furthermore, online source and electronic database from relevant organization and agencies were used.
1.4. THEORETICAL APPROACH
This section examines the conceptual and theoretical basis of this study. The conceptual/theoretical framework merely describes the corpus knowledge, which governs and provides the link between the problem under investigation and the wider dimension of the study
Here, the study proposed to adopt the social cleavage theory relying on “Marxist Approach.” The choice of this method is influenced by the fact that it systematically considers the entirety of the society, while taking into consideration the inter-connection of social affairs, class conflict and the organic relation between the substructure (the economy) and the superstructure (politics).
However, there exist three major schools of thought that have dominated theoretical debate on terrorism. The first school thinking is the Psychology approach which focuses on personality, psychopathology and psychosocial traits of a ‘terrorist’. The second is the Orthodox—Realism and Liberalism approach that focuses on non-state actor terrorism. Thirdly is the Critical terrorism studies approach that focuses on state terrorism.
These theoretical studies espouse a general point of view on terrorism, neglecting the class analysis of terrorism. It is a fact that terrorist acts are underpinned by socio-cultural economic and institutional context.
This study seeks to fill knowledge gap by using an interesting but rather neglected theoretical discussion of Karl Marx’s ‘Historical Materialism’ in explaining the reasons for the trend of terrorism and ethnic militancy in Africa (Nigeria). The research work is fulfilled giving particular attention to what gave rise to the usage of terror, and what are the functions of social groups in the use of terror in the state, using Boko Haram and ethnic militias insurrection in Nigeria as a potential case.
This model is useful for a better review and analysis of the subject under discussion for it tends to offer better explanations on the origin of present day terrorism at the behest of the class antagonism intrinsic in contemporary global capitalist society.
It is vital to make it bold that the history of all hitherto existed society is the history of class struggle. Marxists believes that the oppressed, demoralized and the downgraded which incomprehensibly produces or bears the weight of making useful assets try to change business as usual when it gets to be cognizant.
Impoverished countries teeming with poorly educated, unemployed masses qualified by a widening gap between the rich and poorly combined with low literacy rates are fermentation tanks for dangerous and violent militants. The low levels of economic and social development increase the appeal of political extremism and encourage political violence and instability. The role of socio-economic inequality or class conflict was found to have played a noticeable part in incident analyzes of political violence revolving round Iraq’s insurgency.
Mostly on the grounds that open deliberation on the vital influence of economic conditions stays uncertain, there has been little consideration given to the part of social arrangements. For example, studies recommending that poverty and inequality goad terrorism infer however but did not contend that social program or policies may alleviate both and subsequently diminish terror. A couple of debaters contended that ineffective welfare programs or policies in a few settings may reinforce religious gatherings or groups instigating fundamentalist radicalism and, thus, terrorism. But the comprehensive consequence of such statements—more terrorism in settings with the ineffective welfare programs or policies – has not undergone scrutiny. Even though, some comment put forward that social coordination might have the negative influence, might displease and converge some groups making provision for them means to gather their momentum towards political radicalism and voilent ends which turns afterwards to terrorism.
The Nigerian rich and influential citizens, very few and always at the corridor of power, amass there wealth from oil ever since it was discovered back in the 1970s. The mentality, outlook, methods, orientations and activities of the ruling class have determined the voracious relations to oil, the crass and amoral plunder that has ensued. They further noted that the state is controlled by a dependent comprador ruling class that is accumulative, parasitic, violent, exploitative, client list, corrupt, profligate and unproductive being a neo-colonial capitalist peripheral economy.
With this perspective, one can conveniently say that militancy in Nigeria and rising terrorism in the African continent is associated with the consciousness of exploitation being perpetrated against the people, and the struggle to change the status quo.
Terrorism can be described as a weapon of the poor. Poor and poorly educated individuals are more likely to participate in terrorism, as they are more likely to see the increase in costs as small relative to the potential benefits
It is stressed that the aim of this study is to provide an exhaustive explanation of the fundamental causes of rising ethnic militias and terrorism in Africa and Nigeria in Particular.
1.5. STRUCTURE OF CHAPTERS
This study envelopes five dedications in five chapters. Firstly and importantly, this study discusses many literature on the socio-economic effects on terrorism and appraises a number of approaches taken by scholars. The literature that encompasses various theories of terrorism has taken the world of scholars as far back as the 1990s. Most of the insights to articles and issues on Terrorism can be traced to the world effect of U.S. September 9 attack orchestrated by Osama Bin Laden. Subsequently, the research considers the concept of socio-economic development and how it determines the socio-economic attitude of the people. Third, the notion of terrorism in developed countries is x-rayed alongside those in developing countries. Fourth, the literature considers terrorism in Africa and socio-economic development. Fifth, the insurgency situation and socio-economic development in Nigeria, Finally, data needs are addressed in the conclusion.
1.6. DATA ANALYSIS
The study intends to apply charts, tables, figures, pictorial presentations to give visual/graphical additional explanation to the findings.
In addressing the issues presented in this study, this write up will be separated into sections. The articles will include, theoretical concerns which will remain the heart of the study, examine the nature and origins or reasons of the proliferation of insurgency in the state, discuss the interface between socio-economic policy and development. Featured in the study is the efforts being made to deal with the issues and recommendations on how to mitigate insurgency to uphold sustainable and or viable socio-economic development in Nigeria precisely and in Africa as a whole.
1.7. DATA SOURCE
The secondary data were obtained from National Bureau of Statistics Bulletin and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin.
2.1. TERRORISM IN AFRICA AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
From ancient times, terrorism—random and systematic intimidation, coercion, repression, and destruction of human lives and property—is used by groups and states as an instrument of psychological and physical violence in the struggle for power within and among nations. The misuse of viciousness by both powerless and strong actors looking to progress practical or nonexistent political, social, and economic objectives, has turned into a perpetual component of present global life.
Prior to the appearance of Colonial control in Africa, the different groups, Empires, Kingdoms, et cetera, were at distinctive levels of advancement. However, the financial and social model of association was simple. They filled the need of that period. It took the epochal occasions of subjection, colonialism and neo-colonialism to establish the foundation for today’s under-development of these social orders.
Africa has innovative social standards that could help in the fostering of the demonstration of change painted previously. In its public lifestyle, which has been inserted, that went before provincial control and has kept on opposing the assault of globalization. What Africa social standards have over the Western’ is the communalization ability. Customs in the Western world is being perceived as far as division, freedom, and conflict. African societies see being as communal. Persons have personality simply because they fit in with a group there; opportunity lies in the solid abilities, benefits and immunities that get from collective skills, opportunities and groups that are derived from collective life.
It is reported that when Europeans first came to an area considered to be Africa in 1440s, they came as merchants seeking to trade with Africans. This was sequel to the national limitations to its economic expansion imposed on the European (capitalist) ruling class, who later resorted to imperialism which is a doorway to fortify the political and economic control at home and abroad. He further asserted that, between 1500 and the 1860s, European merchants and colonists introduced terrorism into Africa by forcefully shipping away millions of people from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe and America in connivance with the traditional rulers (feudal ruling class).
From estimation, about 15 to 50 million African migrated via the Atlantic forcefully, which remains till today a record. In West Africa, in late 1920s and 1930s, British colonial heads began to alter their policies and promoted economic development and by the 1940s, economic development was supported by efforts in education and the social services. These systems, especially in the rural regions, included proficiency programs otherwise known as literacy programs and in addition, practical abilities were included. Mass proficiency program started to be given enormous funding and support, however, the term was seen as excessively constricted with its connectivity strictly towards education and was exchanged with group advancement. By 1954, the British authorities adopted the term social development to describe their efforts. The new mandate linked social welfare and community development to the economic development efforts in the colonies.
Terrorism has likewise been utilized amid numerous local state and non-state battles in Africa all through the last half century. Cases of fierce non-state on-screen characters incorporate the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) in Algeria, the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) in Eritrea, and the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa – to highlight only a couple – which consolidates terrorist strategies within their modes of conflict waging.
Fears about Africa’s advent as a terror safe house are unrealistic to die down at any time in the near future. Islamists in the African region can exploit the way that a large number of the landmass’ nations have porous borders; feeble and corrupt central governments; undertrained and underequipped militaries; prospering medication exchanges that give a relentless wellspring of salary; and tremendous, untamed spaces that are so expensive thus far from major American army installations like those in the Middle East and Afghanistan—that it would be troublesome for the U.S to mount powerful counterterror endeavors regardless of the possibility that the war- tired Obama administration decided to do so.
It is documented that contemporary and historical scholarship on terrorism in Africa, particularly in the early post-colonial years, has highlighted topics of global terrorism (which rose most prominently during the 1970s) and in addition domestic occurrences where terrorism was utilized. They further stretch that contemporarily, Africa has assumed a part in a few prominent terrorist occasions and developments that began in different parts of the world. They listed the Israeli case; where four terrorists hijacked an Air France commercial jet bound for Paris from Tel Aviv, after a stopover in Athens, on 27 June 1976; after flying to Benghazi, Libya, the Air France flight was diverted to Entebbe, Uganda, where President Idi Amin collaborated with the terrorist hijackers (two from Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and two from West Germany’s Baader-Meinhoff gang) in holding the hostages. Proceeding with, they viewed that while this occasion was immediately determined via a strike led by Isreali’s military forces , it on the other hand, showed how conspicous the point of intercession of global terrorism and the continent of African as a whole is.
In the interim, the former Head of Libya, Muammar Gaddafi, was surely understood as regards his backing of hostile to Western terrorist associations – giving backing through some structure to the Red Army Faction (RAF), Irish Republican Army (IRA), the Red Brigades and in addition bunches in Africa and different locales. His association with the 1988 bombarding of Pan Am Flight 103 (also called the Lockerbie bombing) brought about wide United Nation sanctions.
These kept going until 2003/2004 when Libya consented to pay Two million and Five hundred thousand pounds (£2.5000.000) to the group of every casualty in return for closure the UN arms and air ban. The same source reported, the role of the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) in Egypt in the Islamist belief system that now rouse numerous neo- jihadist assembles today. It included that in the 1960s, MB theologian Sayyid Qutb established the framework for the religiously defended viciousness that has more than once conveyed what needs be today in different terrorist developments, Al-Qaeda being yet one case.
A percentage of the grounds recorded as explanations behind the Africa’s rise as a dread safe house for Islamists basics are; Africa’s Islamists can exploit the way that large portions of the continent’s nations have porous borders; frail and corrupt central governments; undertrained and underequipped militaries; prospering medication exchanges that give a consistent wellspring of wage; and limitless, lawless spaces that are so substantial thus, far from major American army installations like those in the Middle East and Afghanistan—that it would be hard for the U.S. to mount viable counterterror efforts.
Notwithstanding terrorist bunches, there are additionally unpredictable governments that have utilized the strategies of terrorism in (for instance) a ruthless shutdown to counter opposition in Zimbabwe, or the Eritrean government’s backing (as per a late UN report) for terrorist plots against African front-runners that gathered in Ethiopia. Different examples are recorded beneath, for instance President Omar al-Bashir of Sudan is the first incumbent head of state to be prosecuted by the International Criminal Court for unlawful acts against mankind, while in the newly independent South Sudan, and locals are requiring an atrocity examination. Likewise, In Senegal, mobs ejected in the avenues to dissent President Abdoulaye Wade’s endeavor to carry out some amendments to the national laws with the political undertone of extension of tenure of office and his polical years of administration.
Since its introduction to the world in the 15th century, the historical background of terrorism in Nigeria is one which is firmly connected with the advancement of free enterprise. It is accounted for that the historical backdrop of Nigeria can be summed up as the historical backdrop of utilizing state terrorism by the British state for strong intrusion and forceful invasion. Prior to the provincial guideline, distinctive ethnic assemblies and social orders that formed the present day Nigeria, existed in tribes, emirates and empires. In the north, there exist Islamic Sokoto caliphates (of Borgu, Sokoto, Kano, and Kanuri); while in the West, there exist the Yoruba kingdom, and East has the Igbo group.
The expansion of towns and urban communities ensuing upon the familiar colonial economy propelled the development of fiscal reserves. After independence, the provincial masses in the real rural areas consistently suffered neglect due to the rapid and economic development of urban areas in a viable prospect platform. Therefore, the wonder of urban predisposition turned into the standard in the nation’s match towards improvement. This has likewise realized the hole between the rich and poor in the general public. The country division contains a large portion of the neediness and the vast majority of the ease wellsprings of potential development; however, the urban region contains the greater part of the articulateness, association, and force. This disjuncture being developed arranging has been a noteworthy machine gear-piece in the wheel of advancement in the nation.
It is an all inclusive global affirmation that financial geometrical achievement is the essential objective of each goal-driven government with good agenda, and it is chiefly reliant on the level of monetary attitudes of a State; the level of economic undertakings is however upgraded by tranquil harmony of individuals populating the territory. What this implies is that where there is no peaceful co-existence among the people in any nation, economic progression may not be possible. In short, in the nonexistence of guaranteed security, socio-economic growth may be a nightmare for it is a channel for economic doom couple with serious menace the entire populace and public resources.
According to documented information, the effect of Boko Haram activities has led to serious lethal manifestation in the economic status of the affected areas. The unity of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is unsecured due to the militancy activities in the oil producing region of the country. In the same vein, existing infrastructures and the peaceful environment has been destabilised by the security issues in constituent regions of Nigeria. It has ridiculed the economic prospect of the country and repelled the prospective investors. In other words, it has blocked the creation of employment and the spread of healthy lifestyles. It is important to note here that socio-economic development is to be closely associated with environmental protection and improvement, to ensure harmony between man-made and natural environment, to conserve biodiversity.
Lately, clash in Nigeria proceeded all through the Northern part of the nation, with Boko Haram and related performing actors conferring several assaults, reportedly bringing about more than a thousand losses in 2013 alone. This brutality apparently overflowed into neighboring Cameroon, Chad, and Niger.
A diversification of social-economic and political conditions in Africa – beyond any reasonable amount to describe at this juncture – gives birth to protests which have been utilized by aggressive groups to validate their response towards brutal activities. Key utilization of terrorism in Africa has been joined into more extensive clash frameworks, for example, rebellions, civil wars and different types of political violence.
2.2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
2.2.1. THE CONCEPT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
For better understanding of socioeconomic development, we may need to understand the meaning of social and economic development separately. The term “development” is defined in different ways and various contexts. It is defined as a state in which things are improving. Development is a complex word, which has surrounded itself with vast interpretations colored with conceptual preconceived notion.
The term “development” in international parlance, therefore incorporates the needs and the means which provides better lives for people in poor countries; It take account of not only economic growth, although that is crucial, but also human development—providing for health, nutrition, education, and a clean environment.
It can also be defined as a planned and comprehensive economic, social, cultural and political process in a specified geographic area that is environmentally focused and aims to continually improve the welfare of the entire population and all its individuals . This definition identified three components that include social development, economic development, and environmental protection. An early definition of development had focused mainly on economic advancements, national income growth that usually was calculated by a change in the per-capita gross domestic product.
These definitions from the economic perspective have been considered as a narrow approach to defining development. The reasons were that factors such as full employment, universal social services, and a social safety net were not captured in the development theory. Empowerment should be adequately clustered with the formation of development encompassing spaces for individuals in a society to have a gross span of choices and active involvement in decision-making coupled with being elements in the wheel of change.
Development, therefore, is a multidimensional issue that revolves round human kind. It is an instrument to enable people to exploit their innate abilities in areas of maximum importance to the development of the society with high inclination towards using nature’s in-built resources to meet human needs. When considering the factors and indicators of development, social and economic organization cannot be underestimated most especially when it is at the phase of transformation and emergence in every society. It is born out of human efforts a conventional standard. The term socio-economic development itself is a combination of social development and economic development.
Society discerns better ways to fulfill its aspirations and it develops organizational mechanisms to express that knowledge to accomplish its social and economic aims and objectives; the process of discovery widens human consciousness. Organization in the area of social concept is a doorway to development.
Social development also refers to the complexity of social dynamics. (The interplay of social structures, process, and relationships), and focuses on;
1. the social concerns of the people as targets of development;
2. The people-centered participatory approaches to development; social development is about inclusiveness, social justices, and the common good; indicators of social development provide comparative information about areas such as income, poverty, employment, job security, education, health, crime and civic participation.
However, economic development, an endless and firm motives, is a willful attitude of government and the masses that support and admonish the fostering of well being of individuals in every area of the society. Economic development can also be referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in an existing economy. All these incorporate enormous areas without exempting the development of human skills and experience, basic framework, area effectiveness, social addition, literacy, security, and additional resourcefulness.
It is also described as the process of raising the level of prosperity through increased production and consumption of goods and services. It is the expansion of economic capital of States for the standard of living of their citizens. Economic development is usually known to show the achievement of a State as regards economic development.
The aspects of socio-economic development as it concerns poverty, unemployment, development of roads and bridges and facilities like hospitals, educational institutions are quite common and frequently appears in newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals.
The term socio-economic development has been variously defined and described by scholars and academics. However, one thing that seems common to all the definitions is that change in the overall welfare of the community is the anchor of socio-economic development.
Online network glossary described it as a method that brings about alteration in locations where people live, work, and share things in common while factoring in social, economic and cultural effect as well as social, political, economic and cultural wants and needs. Socio-economic development is is assessed by considering a range of narrow and broad indicators, such as per capita income, life expectancy, education, and the extent of poverty. They equally noted that the socio-economic development consists of methods initiated by exogenous and endogenous factors that describe the sequence and path of the development.
The goal of economic development is to improve the social and material well-being of all individuals and social institutions with the aim of achieving the highest possible level of human development. It consequently involves the combination of economic and social development factors. High quality of social and economic life should only be perceived as progress if it is rights-based and minimally affects. Socio-economic development is to be closely associated with environmental protection and Improvement, to ensure harmony between man-made and natural environment, to conserve Biodiversity.
It can be conveniently said, in conclusion, that socio-economic development is a multifaceted phenomenon and man-centered.
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