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Essay: Travel and tourism definitions, development & challenges

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  • Subject area(s): Hospitality and tourism essays
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  • Published: September 15, 2019*
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  • Travel and tourism definitions, development & challenges
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Definitions of different types of tourism including inbound, outbound and domestic

Domestic is when you Travel around the UK (your country of origin. An example of this is if you went to Scotland. Domestic travel has become more popular, a study done by visit Britain 16-38 years old took fewer holidays, which was decrease of 1.4 million last year compared to a decade ago, (Visit Britian , 2017)so not as many people are going on domestic holidays because there is new places they can go.
Inbound is when people come visit a country which isn’t their country of residence. For example, if a tourist comes from Canada to the UK, they are inbound to the UK, and outbound tourist from their country.

Outbound, this is when Uk residents are travelling out of the UK to another destination. For example, if you were going long haul to somewhere like Toronto or New York you will be outbound tourist.

Same for short haul, to places like Spain and France on holidays. This means back to the UK will be outbound. Outbound holidays are becoming more popular because there is more to offer and more destinations available. Instead of people wanting to go on bob standard holidays, they want to go more place the Eastern Europe which is one the upcoming destination.

Leiper’s tourist system

The leiper model was created in 1990, this displays the highly important principle of the tourism studies, this model can be used for experiences that tourist have, which is from the start to the finish of a destination.

This is set into two things traveller generating region, and tourist destination region. (Poddar, 2014)

The first one is tourism generating market, this is when the customer will be trying to do their research about what product they want to buy, which can be done in store or online. This is under the push factor; this is what motivates them to go because they want get away from their home settings.

This means a company need to take into account their competitor and how they can create advantage other companies because they won’t customers to go with them and due to everything being available online they want to be chosen so they have to have good deals and something that attracts the customers.

Some of the push factors could be if they want to relaxation or they want to experience different cultures.

The other side to be pull factors, which is tourist destination region this what makes the tourist want to visit. Example of this is through destination region why people want to go that are if they want to visit because it natural built this could be like going to Canada to see Niagara Falls. Also if people want to go for attractions would could be think like dark tourism, or leisure attraction like theme parks.

One of the example of this could be if people want to go dark tourism holidays, the pull factors that make them want to go and see is because they want to learn about this could be places like ground zero, through generating region this allows them to have experience what is like to have a better understanding about what happened, or this could be if someone knew someone involved they can get some closure, and have first-hand experience because you are going to see it instead of reading it online. This is becoming more popular because people want a better understanding about it.

Also on the light side of tourism this could be things like cultural tourism, one of the push factors of this is you get first-hand experience about cultures and history. There are all different places that you can go because there is a lot of destination range this is pull factors, this could be things like you are going out to experience the culture and history to help have a better understanding about it.

Then also relating to transit zone, that in all the different sectors different facilities between travelling to and from places, this could include things like public transport and facilities in between this could be things like facilities like hotels if you need to stay overnight somewhere, or a connecting flight there will be service for you like a lounge or hotels near the airport.

This could also be things like service stations that allows you stop off to get food or go toilet so these services need to be available so they can stop and relax.

The volume and value of the travel and tourism industry to the national and international economy

The tourism sector brings a lot of money into the economy, due to a lot of people going to attraction within the UK, from domestic passengers, and inbound passengers. In the UK 10% of employment is in the tourist sector.

Britain is forecast to have a tourism industry worth over £257 billion by 2025 (Visit Britian , 2013)due more people travelling to the UK for the attractions. In 2013 there was 3.1 million jobs in the UK created for tourism. (Visit Britian, 2013). It is estimated by 2025 there will be more than 680,000 new tourist jobs. (Visit Britian , 2013).

Currently is worth 9.0 percent of GDP (Visit Britian, 2013)which is Gross domestic product. This allows that there will be more jobs available because there is that support.

People travelling to UK helps benefits the economy because people are spending money within the country like domestic trips and also inbound customers so they will want all different facilities available to them.

Since 2013 the place the most money that has been spend by tourist has been in England which is £66.9 million, and also most jobs are available around there. They money that is spent can go towards making service better or opening new ones.

For international travel and tourism is one the biggest the sectors and it helps to connect everyone, and offer a lot of different opportunities this could be things like employment. In 2017 there was 7% raise of international tourism which was a total of 1,322 million (UNWTO, 2018), and in 2018 this is looked to increase.

The most popular places that are visit in France and United States and Spain, they are in the top three. A lot of people like to visit France because it has things like Disney land and the Eiffel tower. Things that can affect tourism is thing like terrorism which can cause a decline in people travelling to that place.

In Europe in 2017 there was 671 million visit to Europe (UNWTO, 2018) which was 8% increase since 2016 (UNWTO, 2018) because now there is more to offer more people are coming.

When a terrorist attacks happened visit number drop dramatically and people didn’t want to go there and which can result in loss of a lot money because of cost and lives lost.

From my research I can see is, Paris it is still a popular place and visitor’s numbers and starting to grow again, because in 2017 the numbers were the highest they have ever been in the last 10 years, this shows the obdurate growth because people aren’t scared to travel there anymore, this has impact because Paris picked themselves back up.

Development of the travel and tourism industry:

The historical context of the travel and tourism industry

In the 14th century is when the first time the word tourism came around. (Westcott, 2018 )

In 1841 is when Thomas cook was founded however they didn’t offer package holidays then the only thing that was offered was the rail, that you could go from Leister to London borough. In 1855 this is when they hosted their first ever tour.

In 1903 this is when the first plane was plane was working which was done by two American brothers. This when the planes carried on getting improved and the first commercial flight flew in 1914.

Then in 1963 this is when planes were becoming more established and when the Boeing was created (Harrison, 2017), and they have been use them ever since and been changing them which helps established the airline industry.

In 1865 this is when they first opened their high street store, which helps establish travel agents if you wanted to book you had to go there because there was no internet which means it a lot easier now because we always have access to it.

Then in 1927 this is when the first air package was put together.

The first package holiday was created in 1970 (Harrison, 2017)and it’s been improving since, however back then people didn’t have as much money so not everyone could afford it.

Then in 1969 there was act put through which was the development of tourism act, this would allow them to use funds from the public so it can be put towards creating things like hotels and attractions and currently on update them, this is what allowed to create the sites we have today because social media is huge part of today so this allow sites like Visit Britain.

What help to establish travel between Europe would be the creation of the Euro Tunnel which allows you to bring your own cars to travel to France and Belgium from London in a tunnel under the sea, this was made in 1994 and it allowed travel to be cheaper so they didn’t have drive hours or fly or go on a ferry, after it was started there was a decline in people using ferry, and still today they working on improving it and prices that are affordable.

The growth of the contemporary travel and tourism industry due to advances in transport technology, infrastructure, globalisation and consumer-led demand Challenges

Transport technology there has been a big growth in the transport industry and made it easier to travel. This can be as the oyster card system and which you can now top up online, and things like online book in at the airport which can be done just on your phone and you can do it before you get there.

Other services could be like UBER which has become more popular because you can just book it from your phone.

They are also looking into autonomous cars and trains this is when they drive themselves. This is also things like electric cars that can help the environment, and environmental cars.

Challenges and issues facing the industry from social, economic, environmental and political perspectives

Environmental this is things like weather, which could things like hurricanes and monsoons. During hurricanes flights can be stopped flying there if it not safe to. The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June to November, usually peaking in September. (Curley, 2018).
There have been 20 hurricanes in the past and the most recent one hurricane Michael which is going on now and another one was hurricane Matthew (2015) and hurricane Katrina which result in over 1833 dead (CNN, 2018) and in damages there was 125 million, this was one of the biggest hurricanes they have had since.

One hurricane that hit Jamaica in 2016 was hurricane Matthew, which resulted in a lot people being evacuated since it resulted in flooding’s.
This resulted in over 4000 Flights were cancelled before the hurricane happened so it stopped people from being there.

So weather can have huge impact, because it can stop flights in not safe to travel or people will need to be evacuated home and can cause a lot damage and lives lost and money because of damage and getting up back and running.

Social satiations

Poverty, this is a big problem around the world especially in the less developed countries. This can be caused by either the economy, social and political elements. For example, in Africa poverty is a big problem it the poorest country. They do not have all the resources they need which includes food, and clean water and living on the streets.

Exploitation, Thailand were known for human travelling, child prostitution. So, they warn people to be careful where then the travel there. Sexual attacks are very high in popular tourist destinations, so they ask you to be careful while out, while ordering drinks in case people try spike them. Over, all they still say you can travel the country, you have to be careful and read their advice before going.

Political – This could also be things like civil unrest. Unrest, this effects tourist because people can hold demonstrations which can affect the traveller’s health.

For example, last year it was advised to not travel to Gambia because of the political conflict I there. Travel agents were suggesting to not travel their, however they can travel at their own risk. During this time, it was advised to not go to country, Foreign and Commonwealth Office will put out statement to not travel to the country.

This could also be like Brexit after it was decide the pound value dropped and people are t uncertain what are going to happen.

Terrorism can be either social or political. Terrorism is a big threat all around the world, even if there is not a high threat people have to be aware, the FCO have guidance and advise on every country on their website, and will put out statements when things are happening.

If attack is happening the might stop travel there, for example during the terrorist attacks in Turkey they cancelled many flights going there and people still have been uneasy and put of from travelling there. After a terrorist attack numbers of visit to those destinations can have a huge decline.

Then also economic. This can be things like how much money is brought into the economy by travel and tourism which is one of the biggest sectors and creates a lot of different jobs.

The structure of the travel and tourism industry:


Different sectors of the travel and tourism industry: accommodation services, visitor attractions, events and conference services, passenger transport services, tourist information and destination management services

Accommodation is an establishment which provides somewhere for people to stay, there are many types of accommodation.

Hotels is a serviced accommodation so they do it for you. Things like camping, glamping and caravan is non service means you look after yourself, like cooking, cleaning.

There are many different types of accommodation for example there is hotel which can range from 1 star to 5 stars. Hotel can be independent but then some chains have them all over the world. They will offer different services some basic but some luxury (budget, standard or luxury). They offer food and drink. Premier inn and travel lodge, these offer good value for money.

Few other examples are guest house, or chalets or guest houses.

Natural attractions include beaches, lakes and landscapes. They are often owned by the national trust. These are things like parks and farms and woods and houses.

The Uk have a lot of historical areas. They are often owned by the national trust and the English heritage. There a thing like stone hedge and also have galleries and museums, also Buckingham palace and more.

Purpose built

Sometimes they might also be historical, however they were man made. These are things like museum, theme park like Alton towers and Thorpe park. Waterparks, sea life they are all over around the UK, and then also around the world and London eye and big ben big attractions in the UK

Events and conferences services.

Multipurpose venue this is when the venue hosts a lot different types of events this could be like concerts, comedy shows, trade exhibitions & public exhibitions, sports and more.

An example, of this is o2 and Alexandra palace, which can host all different events.

Alexandra palace is located in London, and they host things from concerts, to shows on ice and sports and conferences.
Public exhibitions are open to everyone; however, trade exhibitions are for people who interested in that business or industry. These are events.

Trade fairs, this are normally held in London annually, which is the world travel market. It isn’t just for Uk residents people overseas come to see it. In the last few years it had been moved to East London in Excel. This gives companies to find out any changes or development to the industry. Also,

There are things like World travel market and also a road show. These will be at different locations during the year.

Public exhibitions are open to everyone; however, trade exhibitions are for people who interested in that business or industry.

A lot hotels offer conference events, this conference can include packages like accommodation and rooms they can hold the meetings which is normally paid by the company.

There all different passenger transport providers, there is air, rail, sea and road.

The tourism industry heavily relies on transport, since it gets their customers from A TO B. There are many new transport links which are available, which includes things like high speed trains however one big thing is aircrafts. This also means people feel safe to fly, and more services offered to It attracts them to travel there.

Cars, they are dominating in road travel. You can also hire a car, through a company, and airlines also give you that option. The major ones in the UK are Avis and Europcar. This links with them because they will get some of profit if they book it through them as one of the extras.


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