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Essay: IoT (Internet Of Things) definition, technology, backup strategies & security systems

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IoT refers to an Internet Of Things (IoT). Connecting any device (including everything from telephones, vehicles, home devices and other wearable embedded with sensors and actuators) with the Internet so that these objects can exchange data with each other on a network. It is interesting to note that there is a difference between IoT and the Internet, it is the absence of Human role. The IoT devices can create data about an individual’s behaviors, analyze it, and take action.

The term Internet of Things was proposed by Kevin Ashton in 1999, nevertheless, the idea has been considered since no less than 1991(Xia et al., 2012). The idea of the Internet of Things initially ended up noticeably well-known through the Auto-ID Center at MIT and associated market analysis productions. RFID was viewed as an essential for the Internet of Things current days. In the event that all objects and individuals in everyday life were outfitted with identifiers, they could be overseen and stocked by PCs (Yang, 2014). Other than utilizing RFID, the labeling of things might be accomplished through such advancements as close field communication, scanner tags, QR codes and computerized watermarking.

What exactly is the Internet of Things?

Smart System and the Internet of the Things are handled by a combination for:

  1. Sensors & Actuators
  2. Connectivity
  3. People & Process

What can the Internet of Things do for us?

Some future consumer requests envisioned for IoT sound like science fiction, but some of the more effective and realistic sounding probabilities for the technology include:

  1. Receiving warnings on your phone or wearable device when IoT networks detect some physical hazard is recognized nearby (Eg: smart smoke detectors).
  2. Self-parking automobiles (Eg: Tesla).
  3. Automatic ordering of groceries and other home supplies (Eg: Amazon Dash Wand).
  4. Automatic tracking of exercise habits and other day-to-day personal activity including goal tracking and regular progress reports (think: fitness trackers like Apple iWatch).
  5. Potential benefits of IoT in the business world include:
  6. Location tracking for individual pieces of building inventory.
  7. Fuel savings from intelligent environmental modeling of gas-powered motors.
  8. New and enhanced safety controls for people working in precarious environments.

Literature review

Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the latest major advancements in the Information Technology. Internet comprises of a global system of networks making use of specific protocols (TCP/IP). Internet of Things can be defined as a global network of intelligent objects working in comprehension with each other by communicating and sharing the data and resources with each other to provide a response to the request made by either an object in the shared network or the centralized authority controlling the network. Since, the data is shared in the network, a breach can be made to manipulate the data before reaching the respondent sensor. The following review of the literature show the different works that discuss the usage of globalized IoT and IoT security concerns and measures.

According to Jayavardhana, Rajkumar, Marusic and Palaniswami (2013), the use of IoT where the sensors blend with the environment and information is shared across the wireless network technologies (WSN) represent the modern life innovations. The authors have discussed the shift from static web pages (www) to social networking (Web 2.0) and to the ubiquitous computer web (Web 3.0) through IoT requires a large amount of data shared across the network and hence the research focused on cloud-centric vision. Authors concluded the convergence of the WSN and distributed communication towards the development of globalized IoT network. One of the major applications of IoT is the contribution to the development of smart homes and smart buildings. Hemant G, Subhas M, Xiang G and Nagendar S (2015) proposed an approach to the real-time and reliable development of sensor networks for smart homes. This research makes use of heterogenous sensors and actuator nodes that generate real-time data of the IoT object to forecast the movement and wellness of the object. The authors also discuss about the mitigation techniques to handle ISM band interference to get an optimum performance of the globalized IoT system.

The research reviews above discussed the use of globalized IoT network through centric sharing of sensor data. Fu and Wenyuan (2018) stated the security risks of sensors which are an integral part of development of IoT. The authors discussed the various techniques used by hackers to gain access to the sensor data like Malicious Back-door coupling where the hackers can use transduction attacks using back door coupling can cause the sensors to function unintentionally. The authors also believed that preventing the transduction attacks is difficult as the sensors are the risk barriers whereas the data received at the software are the aftermath. The authors states that IoT systems should treat security as one of the properties of their build rather than just a component in their composition.

The hackers can use some of the tools like Shodan to gain information about ICS or SCADA systems. Dekic (2017) discuss the security challenges faced by Internet of Things like IoT searching tools such as Shodan. The author states that the Shodan contains IP addresses of IoT and cause weak authentication as most of the IoT use generic usernames and passwords which can be easily hackable. Dekic also states that the hackers can break the systems through password hacking techniques like use of brute force or password guessing. According to the author, the cyber criminals will always leave a trace which can be easily resolved but the data can be shared across many hacking organizations by the time the resolution has been made.

El Mouaatamid, Lahmer and Belkasmi (2016) discuss in their research, the layered architecture of IoT and the classification of attacks on IoT based on the architecture. The author discusses the attacks like Layered classification and Goal based classification on WSN and RFID. Babar et al (2011) classifies the attacks on IoT into five namely Physical, Side channel, Cryptanalysis, Software and Network attacks.

The vulnerabilities and security attacks of IoT which were discussed above can be prevented by using some security techniques. Zhang and Kitsos (2009) recommends the use of higher transmitted power as it has higher resistance against jamming making the hacker to use a stronger jamming signal which would make the hacking hard. Mpitziopoulos and Gavalas (2009) in their research found a new technique called Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) which in turn uses the WSN and RFID systems to reduce unauthorized interception of signals and their jamming using multipath effect. Zhang also found that the communication between RFID and WSN nodes can be eavesdropped and recommended the use of data cryptography. The wormhole attack uses independent MAC layer protocols and is immune to cryptographic techniques. This is considered as one of the dangerous attacks. Maheshwari (2007) researched the countermeasures for wormhole attack and categorized them into two approaches namely Bound Distance or Time and graph theoretic.

The attacks on Internet of Things are of wide range and have different scopes. The intention of such attacks by the hackers may vary from sheer fun to the destruction of the individual or the organization. The major attacks are focused on RFID sensors and WSN nodes should be identified quickly and necessary preventive measures need to be followed. Furthermore, the developers of IoT should take consider security as an integral property of the development phase and include security measure like FHSS and cryptography for the secure transmission of signals in a cloud-centric globalized network of IoT.

Methodology & Specifics:

Though IOT is changing the ways of technology which are built on cloud and Big data are changing the Business model. It connects through devices across various networks to build a much-connected world. IoT helps in making things different by saving time, money and efficiently. Although it can withhold all aspects of the business, it varies in its implementation depending on the size of the organization. Large organizations use large methods, whereas smaller organizations require a clearly defined and attention.  As IOT is still new and entering all industries and should travel long to become a main stream.  Though everyone assumes IOT as big game changer for the industries, it is complex to understand and control. To drive this service needs methodologies and strategies such as Strategy Execution and Solution delivery.

According to Gandhi, Mohal & Kearney (2016), “But before an organization can achieve the promise offered by the Internet of Things, its business and technology leaders need to overcome some key challenges”.  There are few methodologies that helps in implanting IoT are Ignite Internet of Things Methodology and IoT Methodology.

Ignite Internet of Things Methodology. Jacobson, Spence & Weing says that Ignite is an enterprise methodology for a major player in the Internet of Things, (2017). This method has two major practice areas (Jacobson, Spence & Weing.,2017) strategy execution and solution deliverable.

Strategy execution. This is where objectives are identified, initiation and strategy is been defined. This makes the organization to adapt the defined strategy and process of implementation begins.

Solution delivery. This phase is providing solutions to the users, and it involves whole project life cycle which consists of planning, building and running (Jacobson, Spence & Wei ng).

Ideally, this ignite methodology is based on real-world experience and this includes all elements or aspects of IoT.

The IoT Methodology

In compare to Ignite Methodology, IoT is simple to understand, which is highly inspired on lean startup and design thinking (Jacobson, Spence & Wei ng). This method involves step-by-step process co-create, Ideate, Question and Answer, Map IoT OSI, prototype and Deploy which involves all the users and stakeholders to ensure proper communication in identifying potential problems or risks. Communicates with project managers in gathering requirements for designers and developers. Once the initial process has begun and moves forward concepts will be transformed into requirements and these requirements are linked to business models, concepts and which is called as Open System Interconnection.  This method uses “Use standardized toolkits to build prototypes and iterate toward minimal viable products”, (Jacobson, Spence & Wei ng). This prototypes are come into picture once the IoT Canvas and IoT OSI model co-create and co-evaluate a solution which are sued by stakeholders and developers.

Both these methods are various forms of available practices which are difficult to reuse and share. (Jacobson, Spence & Wei ng). Though these methodologies are designed and developed for IoT, it requires new practices and methods to hold on momentum and for expansion.

Findings, Analysis, and Summary of Results

According to Fumihiko et al. (2018), if there is a network structure which pioneers in innovation and has an organization from outside, it might affect the organization financially and the innovation results would be less. To get better results, comparing two companies is much more effective than considering factors from multiple companies. The company should increase their implementation of technical standards in a rapid level, this would ensure maximum profits from a technological perspective. To achieve this there are multiple analysis captured by Fumihiko et al.’s (2018). They are:

Object of Analysis. From analytics stand point all the IoT patents from the Japanese data center are explored and analysis is done. The analysis was conducted to find if two companies are applying jointly for IoT patents. Fumihiko et al.’s (2018) found from their research that there were 921 patents in total which were join applications from two or more companies.

This shows that there is good agreement between companies in terms of research in the fields of IoT. The research also extracted the names, numbers of all applicants and the associated company. From the result, adjacency matrix was built, and this adjacency matrix was analyzed using social network analysis. This relationship between company’s network indicator and their results were analyzed. Most of the patents in IoT field were related to Network information, Big data, Artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, software technology etc.

Network Analysis Indicators. Social network analysis was used to verify the research related to IoT patents. This analysis is based on analyzing social structures which uses network and graphical theory. Network analysis concentrates on granular level by connecting all the nodes in a network and links it to different media like social media networks, messaging service etc. Through Socio-grams points are used to represent nodes and lines are used to represent ties.

By using social network analysis, Fumihiko et al.’s (2018) were able to generate socio-matrix all from raw unformatted data. They also used relational databases to store some of the features of network. Some of the GUI packages which are used widely are NetMiner, Guess, Pajek, Gephi, Ora, SocNetV, Cytoscape. For indicating network breadth, degree centrality is used. Dividing degree with maximum degree which is put as percentage is known as normalized degree centrality.

For indication the relationship with far distant organization constraint was used. The investment of ego in people is measured by using constraint. Density was used to indicate the strength of a narrow network. It also refers to all the connections within the members. Betweenness was used to find the relationship between ego and brokerage which involved the ego of a broker and ego of an actor.

Results. Analytic methods are used for network analysis indicator and correlation analysis. The total registered patents for this research are calculated based on how many got approved by using correlation analysis. The results from this analysis is shown in the below table 1.

Network Indicator Total number of registered patents Operating profit ratio

Degree Centrality 487 -0,006

Constraint -427 -0,297

Density 164 0,383

nBroker 164 0,383

Normalized ego betweenness 138 0,394

Table 1. Coefficient of correlation between the network indicator, registered patents and profit ratio Fumihiko et al.’s (2018).

Discussion. All the results are from the hypothesis created and results based on the correlation analysis. The innovation network breadth cleared most of the network indicators and this shows the relationship between network indicator and all registered patents. But from this research there was no relationship between profitability ratio and breadth of a network.

This shows that there were number of companies involved in patent collaboration from the results in network analysis indicators. Many global companies are putting their investments in the research which has a wide selection of topics from social networking to artificial intelligence. With growth of technology, more and more researches are performed towards innovation with collaboration from many companies. With this kind of collaboration from many companies, each company is able to profit their investment by limiting the resources used in this R&D space.

Conclusion

This paper has described the definition, technology, backup strategies and internet security systems. We have focused on Internet of things (IoT) which described, sharing the data over the wireless networks with in the standard TCIP/IP protocols. While sharing the data there can be data breach which means manipulating the data before reaching destination network. In this paper we have discussed about security precautions in avoiding data breach, with different works of usage in globalized IoT and IoT security concerns.

Study of IoT methodologies made us simple to understand the concept of IoT and the evolution of IoT from static web pages to social networking through ubiquitous computer web. In explaining the evolution of IoT we have made a point of the security concerns and the different methods which hackers use to breach the data.

ISS include various backup strategies which is a part of internet of things (IoT). These backup strategies include on-premises backup, remote backup, clod backup. Here, we have described how the data can be secured, transferred and backed up. With the internet evolution, organizations like Amazon, Microsoft are practicing cloud backup. With the use of cloud backup, we have learned the pros like reliability, scalability, budget savings, data recovery and data access. Practice of IoT in the organizations and working on developing the IoT has laid a platform for these backup strategies.

So, these different methods of IoT can be performed focusing on the Strategy execution, where initiation and strategy are defined and solution delivery, where providing solutions to the users, and it involves whole project life cycle

Future recommendations

For an organization, focusing on the future development and to follow an approach to success need visualization. I recommend organization which are in the wireless market to mainly focus on internet system security where we have learned different ways to secure, transfer and backup the data. Also, the protocols on how the network communication is done securely. By using these ISS methodologies, organizations have the reliability and can save a lot of budget with more efficiency added to business.

Organizations which are in banking, insurance, medical, customer-based domains spend lot of annual budget in securing the data and constantly works on developing technologies to secure data. Focusing on Internet of things (IoT) and its security approach can define the ways of securing data compared to different approach. With the internet evolution I strongly agree, believe and recommend organizations to follow the IoT which includes IoT system architecture, IoT enabling technologies, IoT communication and networking protocols, IoT services and applications

IoT communication and networking protocols, these are the protocols which has defined the way two networks has to communicate. Designs of these protocols has developed the secure way of transferring the data over wireless networks. In-depth exploration, More technological work how to robustly capture the impact and outcomes involvement in research including further economic analysis and scope of an organization is defined by the implementation of the ISS and IoT.

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