Essay: Use of information technology for effective performance management systems in Zambian Public Institutions

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  • Use of information technology for effective performance management systems in Zambian Public Institutions
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The literature reviewed suggested that, much as the concept of performance management systems had been in existence for a long period of time, as early as 1980s, it was only in the early 2000s that organizations begun to reap the benefits of implementing such systems. With Norton and Kaplan invention of the balanced scorecard (Kaplan R, 2010) organizations started to base performance by accommodating many aspects that constituted performance of an organization such as Financials, Internal business processes, customer service and people management. Use of these performance parameters would assess both individual and business performance as a whole.
Integrating Information technology into business processes for example, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, Supply chain Management systems (SCM) and Inventory management, disregarding modernization of people management systems like performance management, could be a misdirected investment. This form of IT implementations in many public institutions and indeed privately owned entities had not yielded positive results, for example in 2004 the local government attempted to install a wide area network across the country to ease operations but despite the investment nothing came forth and to date the installation .
This was a clear indication that regardless of how good a technology might be and how huge the investment could be, if the people working on such IT systems were not efficient, the business cannot be productive, and therefore, the efficiency of any IT system can only yield results when there is a high level of efficiency from people using such systems.
Institutions that had implemented and automated their performance systems benefited from such in terms of cost savings, speed of service delivery, productivity and the quality of services being offered. For example, Airtel (formerly called celtel), within a space of 5 years of business operations in Zambia, assumed leadership in the provision of communication services over Zamtel (a state owned Enterprise) which was a monopoly at the time, this was attributed to efficient people management systems that Celtel had put in place. And a lot more companies such as Larfage, MTN and ZCCM-IH (LUSE, 2015) recorded operational excellence due efficient operational systems.
To ascertain the impact of IT supported performance management systems in organizations; the research investigated use of performance management systems in Zambian public institutions and how such systems had impacted efficiency and productivity.
Both secondary and primary data was used to evaluate performance management systems and also investigate available performance measurement systems used in public institutions. Based on information gathered, a software design model and a software prototype solution was developed. The key results of the project reviewed how web technologies can greatly improve ways of working in public institutions through web interfaces that allowed for performance data input, storage and retrieval. The system prototype also reviewed how an effective and interactive communication system can greatly improve performance in public institutions. It was strongly recommended that to successfully implement an IT supported performance management system, top management should drive the whole process making sure that all stakeholders’ are part of the process, ERP systems should be integrated with the performance management system so that performance parameters can easily be fed into the IT supported performance system.
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1 looked at the project scope, problem statement, the approach and the ultimate outcome of the project. This laid a foundation for conducting the research.
1.1 Scope
As the world advances with the increased use of Information Technology and new discoveries; governments and businesses alike have also kept evolving in the way they operate and conduct business in order to fit in the global village and therefore, increase efficiency, remain competitive and also raise levels of production. It was interesting to note that in the last three years the world over recorded a rapid increase as regards use of Technology (Daher et al, 2014; Haramaik et al, 2014; Macris et al, 2014; Melville et al, 2010) and there was a significant increase in innovations especially in mobile computing. Suffice to say, despite all these developments, third world countries’ remained poor, productivity especially among public workers was low and levels of efficiency were low to sustain government operations, a situation that required urgent intervention. Use of information systems such as ERP tools had to a greater extent helped to improve internal business processes, however, this had not helped to improve efficiency levels of workers and therefore rendering poor performance especially in public service.
In order to change the poor working culture in public institutions especially in third world countries, it was important that institutions such as government appreciated the importance of Information Technology and how they can leverage on the many benefits technology comes with to help improve efficiency, productivity and service delivery and in turn accelerate economic development.
Performance management was one of the effective systems business entities used to improve efficiency levels and productivity of its workers and the same was recommended for government institutions.
To gain more insight of how IT benefited institutions, this dissertation looked at how IT supported performance management systems could be integrated in government institutions to effectively improve performance and productivity of its workers. This was achieved by exploring several aspects of performance management systems and other factors such as:
‘ Application of performance management systems in organizations and availability of such systems
‘ Benefits of implementing a performance management system and exploring available IT design models for performance management.
Further, after gathering enough information on the subject and the survey results, an IT performance model was designed and also an implementation of a prototype system capable of re-aligning workers to high levels of productivity and efficiency.
The beauty of information systems was that they worked to model real-life objects and operations and their application had helped many organizations and businesses to save costs, improve efficiency, productivity and win competitive advantage in business, something government organizations could learn from to help manage public resources. Web technologies and its capabilities were also explored to find out how its rich features could help in automating performance management in government institutions.
1.2 Problem Statement
Zambia’s progress towards management of its economy was slow, with a total area of 752,614 Km??, only 5% of arable land had been utilized (CIA fact book, 2014) meaning 95% of the land still remained unused. While it wass true that the government had employed over 60% of the total number of employees, the economy continued to dance back and forth with its currency weakening due to unstable economy. The performance of every country’s economy and companies largely depended on efficient workforce and management processes. An efficient workforce supported by information technology had the ability to lead any organization to productivity.
Like many other developing countries, Zambia financed its economy from taxes collected from workers and other business units, which was also the case across many countries in Africa. For many years Zambia had been struggling to develop, yet there was abundant natural resources. The major contributing factors to poor economic performance could be alluded to underperformance and poor work culture exhibited in public service. Many public workers failed to fully apply themselves and show commitment with their work because of:
‘ Job security that came with government created jobs
‘ Lack of clear objectives of what was expected of them when they reported for work and thus affecting productivity and quality of services provided to the public, who are the tax payers.
Therefore, if Zambia had to develop, the work culture amongst public workers needed transformation, people were required to have sense of ownership, committed and also present the ability to earn their income through clearly stated and tracked performance systems. It should be noted that, Zambia was a liberalized economy and as such the government was able to compete with the private sector and therefore in order to ensure prudent use of public resources and therefore improve operations, efficiency and productivity; it was important that the government adopted systems that could hold its workers accountable for the committed resources. This had potential to improve service delivery as well as raising the integrity of government operations as people were made to be accountable all the time. Information technology systems have capacity to speed up organizational work flow processes and ultimately improve efficiency.
With the technological evolution taking place worldwide, it was important that government operations through public workers were aligned to ensure improved service delivery.
Information Technology and Information Systems in particular, had proved to be extremely important enablers for successful implementation of change management and subsequently productivity in such institutions. If realistic efficiency and productivity was to be achieved, adoption of IT propelled performance management systems, was the only guaranteed way through which such aspirations could be realized. Therefore, this project looked at how IT supported performance management systems could help improve efficiency and productivity in public service through implementation of a software prototype.
1.3 Approach
In order to implement this project, it was necessary to gather enough information on the subject of performance management systems, their use in public institutions and how such systems could be supported by information technology to enhance performance and efficiency in public institutions. A two-phased approach was used to acquire enough knowledge about the subject and also investigate available performance management systems in public institution through literature search and conduct of a survey.
1.4 Out come
The project aimed to produce the following deliverable:
‘ A description of performance management systems and how such systems could help increase efficiency and productivity of workers in public institutions in Zambia
‘ Identification of available performance management system models
‘ A description of IT integration in performance management systems
‘ Survey results from participants on the use and availability of performance management systems in Zambian public institutions
‘ A system design model for the implementation of an IT supported performance management system for public institutions in Zambia.
‘ An implementation of System prototype for the IT supported performance management system
In summary, the project aimed to produce an IT supported performance management system to aid efficiency and productivity in public institutions. The next chapter aimed to explore related works and literature to broaden understanding of performance management systems and from gathered information designed a suitable model to suit operations in public institutions.
The snapshot in figure 1 below shows the dissertation mind mapping diagram for the work required to be completed.
Figure 1 dissertation mind map’
Chapter 2. BACKGROUND AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Chapter 2 looked at the how much work was done by others on performance management system and provided the roadmap as shown in the mind map below:
Figure 2 Literature Review Mind map
2.1 Background
According to Brignall (2000), use of performance management tools has in the recent past received a lot of coverage both in private and public sectors alike. Brignall (2000), further exaplained that companies competitiveness, no longer depends much on cost and price, rather, the focus was on the development of multidimensional performance measurement models (Brignall,2000) which were regarded as efficient tools used to measure organizational performance. These models were more inclined to non-financial information, and only aimed at meeting the needs of all stakeholders such as employees and customers. This was in contrast with old financial-oriented business measurement methods and techniques which were more focused on meeting shareholder needs. Brignall (2000) reported that as results of such developments, advanced countries like the United Kingdom and Scandinavia came under pressure to become effective and efficient in its business operations whilst placing more emphasis on maintaining the quality of services provided to the public, and ultimately reduced dependence on tax payers.
Koufteros et al (2014) reviewied three performance management system models and discussed how each impacted the performance of an organization. The information provided, brought out each system’s capabilities and how each model impacted performance of an organization at operations level, strategic level and the organization as a whole. The diagnostic performance management technique looked at operational processes in terms of reporting, performance monitoring systems and communication of performance results and this systems was implemented at operations level. Further, Koufteros et al (2014), reported on the interactive performance management system, which was implemented at the strategic level to stimulate creativity and innovation in the organization and increasing interaction and information sharing between senior managers and executives. It was however, emphasized that a dynamic tension performance management system (Koufteros et al, 2014), which was a combination of the two performance management systems be considered as an ideal system for increased organization success. For an organization to remain competitive, it was important that whatever was being done by the top executives is replicated to the operations; this type of synergy is likely to lead into an efficient and productive organization.
Bento et al (2014) asserts to the fact that Information Technology positively impact business processes especially when information processing needs are adequately met through application of efficient Information systems. Further he exaplained that Information Technology capabilities on business processes can only be exploited by ensuring that its application influences customer management capability, process management capability and performance management capability (Bento et al, 2014). In describing application of Information technology to business processes, he categorically analyzes the considerations to be taken into account such as variables that would impact the design of an effective performance management, thereby, recognizing organizational variables such as information processing requirements and capabilities respectively (Bento et al, 2014). Others considerations are variables for the actual implementation of a performance management system such as system variables encompassing system design and information quality and lastly the information technology variables that looks at the technical requirements (business applications usage and Internet usage) of the performance management system and also the technical outputs.
Literature has so far reviewed that the subject of performance management has attracted a lot of attention especially in the private sector and some have already recorded positive results since implementation. However, the concept of performance management is still relatively new in developing countries, it should be noted however, that countries like Tanzania have already started appreciating such innovations. For efficient and productive use of these systems, there is need for IT system models that efficiently support use of IT supported performance management systems.
2.2 Literature Review
Wendell (2014) described performance management as a system that integrates familiar business methodologies with technology. A lot of articles have been published on performance management systems, though there is little coverage on the application of information technology to such systems. Wendell (2014), reported that companies and organizations have invested huge sums of money into ERP systems to automate business processes. He however, argued that these operational and transaction based IT systems, for example; ERP, CRM and SCM systems have at the most, only helped to improve routine business functions and to a greater extent could be a distracted investment. Moving the argument along, there are a number of that have implemented very expensive IT systems but have not been able to realize the true value from their investment, for example the Croatian Hitrorez (??imi??, 2015), system designed to reduce regulatory bureaucracy and aimed to improve the business climate ended abruptly at implementation mostly because of human factors. Cypriot SME case study Christofi et al (2013), also reviewed that lack of preparation of processes and people at ERP systems implementation was a major cause of IT systems failure an indication that performance management systems should be at the center of every IT innovation in an organization. Shin-Yuan et al (2013), argued that it was difficult for businesses to measure the profitability of IT investments; this argument could be valid if priority is put to improving transactional systems overlooking systems to manage the people aspect of the business operations. Shin-Yuan et al (2009), argued that most businesses overlooked one or two issues during implementation of IT systems and mostly the focus was on internal business processes forgetting critical operational processes. Mihalic et al (2009) alluded the failure to ineffective operation of business processes and also related systems such performance measurement systems.
From the points raised, it can be said that systems do not get the job done but application of well managed skills with the support of Technology, in this case, an IT supported performance management system. In addition, with the speed at which technology is advancing, company executives should put as top priority IT solutions for managing their human capital. IT supported performance management system (ISPMS) plus operational and transaction based systems are a complete set of business information systems required to make any business to operate efficiently and utilize its IT resources cost effectively and profitably. Due to the competitive nature of business entities especially in the private sector, a number of performance management systems have been developed and now the focus is on recruiting people that have the required skills to efficiently fit in their business strategies to help them meet business goals and remain competitive.
2.2.1 Need for Performance Management Systems
Business processes design and Technology are a core foundation of performance management systems (Angelita et al, 2014). Organizations that have top executives as champions of performance management systems (Angelita et al, 2014) have adequately benefited from other Information systems (ERP, SCM, CRM alike) and their businesses have correspondingly recorded a lot of success. This is something that should be replicated in public institutions to ensure that there is efficiency and productivity in these institutions.
For improved performance and productivity, it is important that before deciding on the implementation of ERP tools, the workforce is well prepared by having them aligned to the organization strategy. It should however, be emphasized that the best tools available for aligning workers to the company vision and mission is through implementation of an IT supported performance management system. Performance management systems enhance organizational communication (Patricia et al, 2014), help organizations to align systems in order to obtain desirable behaviors, create an environment where everyone is accountable for their actions and also plays a role in skills development, these are the benefits public institutions can leverage on to competitively position their public business operations.
Government institutions especially in third world countries do not however, pay particular attention to what constitute performance in terms of organization improvement and sustainability (Louis et al, 2000) rather the focus is on primary objectives as opposed to secondary objectives (Louis et al,2000). With the current scenario, even where performance management systems have been introduced, government institutions focus more on compliance and controls (Louis et al, 2000) instead of focusing on incremental growth. This could be attributed to manually designed performance management systems which present a lot of weaknesses caused by external and environment factors not common to automated systems. To reduce on such effects, it is important that information system models for performance management are developed to compel people especially in public offices to become efficient and productive.
On the positive note, public institutions in some developed countries like Kenya and Tanzania have come to realize the importance of such systems and have begun to reap the benefits that IT enabled performance management systems brings to the organization. In his article Wang et al, (2008) discussed how loss making public enterprises in china transformed after the implementation of a decision support system performance evaluation model, a model that utilized web services and agent technology for performance data processing and analysis. This wave of change in the way enterprises look at business now should be replicated in government institutions especially in developing countries; adoption of IT enabled performance management systems created opportunities for organizations to improve performance results and also helps workers to remain focused on strategy (Patricia, 2013). In some developed countries IT Models have been implemented to support performance management.
2.2.2 Performance management system models ‘ design considerations
Designing performance management system models comes with its own challenges; this is due to the fact that change management is an evolving process which implied that performance management systems should be developed taking into consideration factors such organization culture and the ever evolving business strategies (Venkatesh, 2014). Another consideration in the design is creating synergy between product lifecycle, service relationship and customers (Visnjic et al, 2013), in incorporating each key performance area in the model, there has to be a relationship amongst these three key factors to ensure that the system provides the true benefits to the business and institutions. Creating an effective model for a public institution demands that the political atmosphere is also taken into consideration (Cooke et al, 2011), for positive results, the system should be designed in such a way as creating visibility in the way the systems processes performance results. Salem et al, (2012) exaplained that though a scorecard is more inclined to the financial aspects, the same has the ability to integrate other health factors of an organization such internal and external environmental factors, therefore scorecards are an active ingredient to the successful design of a performance management system. Other factors for consideration in the design of a performance management system are the type of industry and how to integrate the work processes to come up with an effective model. For example one performance model under review was the possibility of re-aligning health services to become business oriented (Walser et al, 2013) taking into consideration organizational integration, information technology integration and also business integration, these parameters were regarded critical to successful implementation of an IT supported performance management system. Fu (2013), pointed out parameters such as resources, uses, practices and performance as some of the key factors that assures success in a firm’s performance. Kaplan et al (2010) highlights the importance of incorporating a performance management system in a partnership business, this is in consistency with the way public institutions operate, line institutions collaborate in the provision of services to the public and therefore as institutions move towards operating as business entities, Fu (2013’s considerations in the design of performance management systems are very important. Diagnostic performance management system, interactive performance management system and the hybrid of the two (Koufteros et al, 2014) as described in section 2.1 are a very good foundational design models for developing a robust IT supported performance management system.
Various development tools can be used to realize the abilities that information technology brings to the management of institutions through use of performance management system.
2.2.3 Performance management and IT integration
As Melville et al, (2004) puts it, Information Technology enables industries to capture a substantive amount of value from their businesses. A demonstration of how IT tools have helped in transforming businesses and increase competitiveness as well as improving efficiency and productivity, lied in the systems design models and their ability to mimic manual processes efficiently and cost effectively. Integration of Information Technology into performance management systems demands that a study of business processes and other factors such as culture, behavior, internal and external environmental factors (Bititci et al, 1997) are put into consideration. (Bititci et al, 1997) suggested that Structure and configuration of the performance measurement system becomes critical to the efficiency and effectiveness of the Performance management process’, this became even more critical in complex institutions such as state owned enterprises as well as public institution. Bititci et al, (1997) further highlighted performance management processes as shown in figure 3, providing necessary information required in the design of performance management systems.
Figure 3. Performance management processes
Source: (Integrated performance measurement systems: a development guide’, International Journal Of Operations & Production Management, p. 525)
Bititci et al, (1997) identified Integrity of the performance management system and deployment as two critical design considerations and listed four critical levels of a performance management system such as Corporate, Business units, Business process and activities as being fundamental for a viable system. Further, five system concepts were identified such as system amplification which looked at objectives from higher levels to lower levels of the system, Transduction (Bititci et al, 1997), that is; deployment of higher level business objectives to lower levels, attenuation which looked at the communication process from the lower levels upwards and recursion to take care of the repetitive aspect of the systems thinking (Bititci et al, 1997). Similar to such an implementation was a web based performance management also presented by Bititci et al, (2014), the system provided an interface between business processes and numerical data. The numerical data which was fed into the WePMS (Bititci et al, 2014) was obtained from other sources such as spreadsheets, databases and ERP systems. The strength of this design was that data from different business systems was presented to the quality analysis system which then aggregated the results and then presented on the web page. It was however, noted that human interaction with the system was not clearly defined, if the target was to improve worker performance, more emphasis should have been placed on how workers interacted with the system, this model however, laid a good foundation for developing a high worker productivity centered system as opposed to the WePMS which focused on efficiency of business processes and partially human resource performance. Figure 4 shows the WePMS architecture.
Figure 4. Web based performance management system model
[Source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443570210450310]
Automation of performance management systems saw its application even in institutions such as prisons. A performance management system implemented at the Orleans Parish Criminal Sheriffs (Michael et al, 2005) was an interesting model that monitorered performance of both inmates and employees, the system kept a record of all inmates and was able to measure how each inmate performed, further all jail operations were automated and staff performance was measured using the automated performance management system. The Performance-based Management and COMSTAT (Michael et al, 2005) collected large quantities of data which analysed and described each department’s performance on a daily basis. To support Mithat et al, (2009) arguments on performance management, key performance indicators were critical to the adoption of a design model for the performance management system implementation, these parameters allowed workers to easily see their boundaries of work and expectations, it equally created room for creativity and innovation. Another design consideration for performance management systems was integration with existing computerized business operations.
2.2.4 Integration of PMS Systems with other business Variables
For an effective performance management system; organizational and performance system variables (Albento et al, 2014) should be given consideration. Under organizational variables emphasis should be placed on information processing capabilities of the system (taking into consideration the organizational structure and decision making processes) (Albento et al, 2014) as well as the information processing requirements (Albento et al, 2014) meaning the scope and size of the information to be processed. Albento et al, (2014), proposed a model able to address PMS requirements by segmenting organizational variables and performance systems variables which took into consideration system’s factors such as system design and the quality of information to be processed, in this integrated model, Albento et al, (2014) looked at the technology requirements of the design taking into consideration technical properties such Internet use as well as use of the ERP applications. By paying attention to these variables in the design, organizational performance was impacted positively. The model in figure 3 by Albento et al, (2014) demonstrateted how organizational systems variables could be integrated into performance management system and its impact on business. Figure 5 shows an integrated performance management architecture.
Figure 5. An Integrated performance management system
Source: [STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: IMPACT ON BUSINESS Journal of Computer Information Systems, 54, 3, pp. 25-33]
The need for IT supported performance management systems received a lot of attention from software developers and already there were organizations already developing off-the-shelf software applications to support performance management systems.
2.2.5 Off-the-Shelf Performance management Software applications
As the demand for high performance and productivity by organizations increased, a number of software companies begun to develop commercial software applications to support performance management.
Figure 6 shows a snapshot of an off-shelf performance management system.
Figure 6. Example 1 of Off-the-shelf performance management suites
[Source: http://www.peoplestreme.com/performance-management-1.shtml]
One such application is the peopleStreme performance management software suite, this application enabled organizations to manage company performance through alignment of employees to organization strategy and thereby ensuring that every employee was aligned to the organizational goals and objectives. The halogen performance management software had features to support employee performance at every level and also identify other behavioral characteristics of employees and therefore distinguishing each employee through performance results ranging from higher to lower performers.
Figure 7. example 2 : off -the -shelf PMS
[Source:http://www.halogensoftware.com/]
Unlike the PeopleStreme and halogen performance management system software suites, the performance management as a platform suite had segmented interfaces covering every aspect of what constitutes business on an organization besides, it had beautiful interfaces. The screen short is as shown below in figure 8:
Figure 8. Example 3 of off-the-shelf PSM software
[Source: http://www.corporater.com/en/solutions/individual-performance-management.html]
This was evident of the direction which all organizations were taking in managing businesses as well as ensuring optimal performance from its human resources.
With the meager resources that most third world countries commited to run institutions, it was important that these management innovations were introduced into state run institutions to ensure accountability, high efficiency and also productivity. It was however, noted that due to variances in the way government operated, the off-shelf software in this situation could not be the best solution for transforming the work culture in public institutions rather, adopting a hybrid design model that looked at current work processes and integrate features from the already existing systems (off-the-shelf software) to imitate business processes that supported current business operations. Another aspect was that of measuring performance in public institutions, in addition to Hasnan (2012) view on performance measurement systems, measuring performance posed a challenge due to some elements that could not easily be measured, though important to the overall performance of the organization. Hasnan (2012), highlighted complexities such as lack of actionable elements that proved difficult to quantify, due to corporations wanting to be competitive in the way they operate and in a bid to enhance employee performance. Various tools had been introduced all aimed at improving worker performance such as the balanced score card, performance pyramid, Blue ocean strategy and also the EFQM model all measurement systems aimed at helping organizations to maintain their vision and mission for their organization. For public institutions, it was important that their work output was quantified through use of a technique that allowed each employee to be given a target. This had clear set out goals and objectives, the common techniques used as proposed by Kaplan and Norton (2010) was the balanced scorecard with the advantage of looking at several aspects of business such as financials, internal business processes and customer service and business learning and growth. These parameters were important to the implementation of a performance management system. Public institutions needed SMART objectives and goals that allowed each employee to clearly see their contribution to the running of public business affairs, this had potential to remove the notion of working to get paid rather, work to add value to public business operations and personal growth. Institutions had benefited from the advantages brought about by effective use of a performance management system.
2.1.1. Application of performance management systems in Organizations
Many organizations that had implemented performance management systems reported significant reduction in operational costs, increased profit margins, improved customer satisfaction, increased worker motivation and high levels of productivity. In a white paper ‘getting the most out of your performance management system’ (Patricia et al, 2014), the report indicated that from a number of organizations that had implemented a DDI’s performance system, many companies recorded an ‘average dollar value of positive change’ (Patricia et al, 2014), equivalent to $750,000 within a space of 3 years, which clearly indicated how effective these systems were and their ability to modernize business operations. Three critical questions also needed to be answered prior to implementation of a performance management system such as the organization’s need for performance management system, business operations and also the employees’ need as regards use of the performance management system. These were three critical success factors in the adoption of a performance management system. Public institutions, being faced with many operational challenges required a complete systems overhaul to improve operations which if a cost effective IT supported performance management system was implemented could accelerate change management. Other critical considerations in the installation of a performance management system were ensuring availability of an effective communication system; thus communicating the business case or overall picture of what needed to be done, roles and responsibilities, skills, organization alignment, clear measurements systems. With all these parameters, an organization was expected to be highly efficient and productive. Organizations were adopting performance management systems to aid efficiency in other ERP systems, for example in supply chain management, such systems helped organizations to select suppliers and distributors. Therefore, not only did these organizations look at resource capacity of their business clients but also their capacity to perform (Parthiban et al, 2013). Macris et al (2014), exaplained that lack of performance management in public institutions led to governments’ dependent solely on non-governmental organizations for support, a notion that needed urgent redress and ensure that third world economies were sustained through re-enforcing worker performance by introduction of performance management systems. Notable countries to have implemented performance management system were New Zealand, whose concept was also adopted in the US and UK. In their model, a Manager was given enough powers and access to resources but then was accountable for the results (Macris et al, 2014). In his article, Pollanen (2014) reported that as a result of introducing a complex performance measurement and control systems, by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (US Congress, 2012), all companies in the United states trading on the Stock exchanges were required to comply to legislated control over financial reporting (Pollanen ,2014). Demartine (2014), also exaplained how power and control should be viewed as an obstacle to organizational innovation, rather diagnostic use of the actual control systems, which emphasized interaction between control leaders and the people being led. Lack of integration between strategic, operations (Mansor et al, 2013) and the very individual level is seen as a major hindrance to implementation of an effective performance management systems in public institutions and organizations. If performance was to be assured in public run institutions, there was need for involvement of all stakeholders from the strategic level to the individual level and all given an equal platform on say what they think about their own performance and that of an organization in adopting a particular performance management system. The model in figure 9 provided the framework of how an effective organizational performance management system should look.
Figure 9. control systems in diagnostic performance management system
Source: [Integrated and Open Systems Model: An Innovative Approach to Tax Administration Performance Management’, Innovation Journal, 18, 3, pp. 1-29, Business Source Complete]
To transform the work culture in public institutions, a mechanism was required that would provide clear communication channels for all stakeholders, this entailed developing a system that allowed for increased communication amongst workers
2.3 Terms
APAS: Annual performance Appraisal System
COMSTAT: A system used for analyzing large quantities of data to come up with daily performance, it was implemented at the Orleans Parish Criminal Sheriffs.
CSO: central statistics office
DDI’s performance system: Development Dimensions International; an organization that looks at performance management issues
EFQM: European Foundation for quality management
ePMS: electronic Performance management system, a web based performance management system for managing organizational and worker performance
ISPMS: Integrated Performance management system
PMS: Performance Management System
SMART: this is an acronym used as a criteria for setting key performance areas and key performance indicators, when expanded they mean that when setting objectives for performance, objectives should be Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Relevant and Time bound
SME: Small to Medium Entrepreneurs
SOEs: State Owned Enterprises
WePMS: web based performance management system
Chapter 3. THEORY
3.1 Introduction
Chapter 2 looked at how performance management systems have evolved over time and the role Information technology played to make these systems effective.
The researcher approached the subject by considering coverage in academics, industrial application, IT design models and existing practical implementations. This was achieved through an online search to gather more information pertaining to general use of PMSs and IT supported performance management systems thereby, appreciating what other experienced authors have said about such systems. This necessitated a balanced view point and clear understanding of the subject matter. This chapter addressed the challenges being faced in Zambia’s public institutions by investigating issues in the current performance management systems
3.2 Zambia’s Economic outlook
A global view of Zambia’s economy (table 1) showed that the country was struggling to improve and stabilize its economy and of the main reasons for this performance was attributed to poor performance by both state owned enterprises (SOE) and poor employee work culture.
Table 1. Zambia’s macroeconomic outlook
[Source: http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/countries/southern-africa/zambia/]
It was learnt that most privately owned companies like MTN, Airtel, Barclays Bank, Stanbic Bank, had high efficiency and productivity compared to parastatal institutions. Being the economic policy formulators, public institutions had capacity to promote high efficiency, but the complex nature of operations made it difficult to efficiently utilize its resources for improved economic performance.
3.3 Zambia Public Workers
The 2011 central statistics report (Labour CSO report, 2011) showed that Zambia had a total labour force of 652550 with the private sector employing 60% of the work force. However, the 2014 CSO labour report showed that the government alone had a total number of 751,000 employees and 250,000 were employed by the private sector (Labour CSO report, 2014). It was evident from these reports that the government expenditure in terms of salaries and wages tripled within a period of 3 years.
Zambian civil service paid its workers from taxes collected from various tax categories such as PAYE, VAT and also other revenue streams. The area of concern was that there were other areas that needed financing by the government for example, road infrastructure projects, health care, Agriculture, education and the general running of government institutions. This placed a lot pressure on the available meager resources. Suffice to say, Zambia was blessed with abundant natural resources could be utilized to support the economy. However, this could only be achieved if there was an efficient system to help increase efficiency and productivity. In the business world, IT played a key role in aiding innovation.
It was evident that companies that integrated Information technology in their performance management systems had high operational efficiencies and growth was visible.
With the Web applications becoming affordable and capable of providing excellent functionalities to suit business needs. Public institutions could benefit from such systems for cost saving, efficiency and productivity.
3.4 Application of Technologies
Almost every modern business including SMEs used web technologies, Daher (2014) reported many web 2.0 technologies that found their significance in educational systems such as collaboration tools, communication tools, social media networking tools, productivity tools and media sharing tools. Businesses were now able to hold meetings using communication tools and this has helped to save operational costs. Private organizations and public institutions could take advantage of these tools to improve efficiency and productivity and in turn lower the cost of doing business. Hramiak et al (2013), reported on how web logs had transformed the way teachers worked in learning institutions making it easy to recruit anyone from any location in the global village. He further argued that despite many more challenges that existed in the use of web technologies, there was an unprecedented growth in the use and acceptance of such technologies. A number of public workers used web 2.0 technologies through social networks mostly at work, and therefore these social activities could easily be turned into productive tools that could eventually improve performance of public workers. At the center of web 2.0 technologies were server-side and client-side technologies commonly implemented in what is known as the three-tier Architecture.
The common technologies that have been employed in the development of server-side technologies included PHP, Java, C#, ASP.net, JavaScript, Python, Perl and many more and various communication protocols including web browsers are employed on the client side. With an increased easy with which these technologies are used to develop applications in line with the concept of web 2.0 (to enable user to customize web content), it becomes relatively easy to develop applications like a performance management system to aid efficiency and productivity in public institutions.
3.5 Use of PMSs in public institutions – Survey
Following literature review, the researcher had to investigate use of performance management systems in public institutions in Zambia.
The first consideration to the process was selecting a survey authoring and analysis tool. SurveyMonkey.com, datawinners.com and sogoSurvey.com were reviewed, surveymonkey did not provide the nice interfaces as compared to sogoSurvey and datawinners. The data winners tool had good interfaces and analysis components except most components were only available in commercially licensed version and hence the decision to settle for sogoSurvey.com, which offered good GUI interfaces, relatively easy to use and enough components for a free account.
The snapshot for sogoSurvey.com is as shown below figure 10
Figure 10. Snapshot of sogoSurvey.com website
Having identified and learning how to use the survey tool, the next stage was reviewing available techniques for information gathering and processing as explained in the next section.
3.6 Methodologies
The researcher considered available information gathering techniques and methodologies such as the Delphi-technique (Davidson, 2013), quantitative and qualitative methods, regression analysis, Quassi-Experimental (Gough, 2014) and meta- analysis. However, the qualitative (Aleca et al, 2009) methodology was adopted and regarded as the most appropriate technique to collect the required information. The qualitative technique necessitated production of survey questions (Riedl et al, 2014) to help solicit for information from Zambian public workers on the use of performance management systems, systems effectiveness and IT integration in such systems.
With this technique, it was possible to get an overview of how public institutions perceive performance management systems and the extent to which these systems if available have been exploited, the methodology also helped to come up with parameters and boundaries to form the basis for the design of a proposed IT supported performance management system.
3.7 Preparations prior to undertaking the Survey
After reviewing available methodologies, the next step was to design questionnaires using SoGoSurvey.com, an online survey design authoring tool.
The first set of questionnaires developed was piloted to 2 respondents within the writer’s work place and 8 questionnaires to one of the target groups (the government ministries) for feedback and the following are the observations which were made:
‘ Out of the 10 questionnaires distributed online, only 3 participants responded
‘ Feedback received from participants indicated that the subject of performance management was relatively new and was confused with performance appraisals
‘ The target group was hesitant responding to online surveys for fear of their contact details especially the email being misused despite assurance that the research was being conducted with high level of confidentiality
‘ Some participants felt questions were difficult to understand
The pilot survey is shown in appendix B in the appendices section
3.7.1 Action taken to increase participation
‘ Since some participants were skeptical using online questionnaires, a provision for printed questionnaires was made to allow for more participation.
‘ To ensure that participants understood the system under review, questions pertaining to performance management were clearly explained to ensure that respondents understood what they were responding to.
‘ Systems in public institutions were not standardized, the same department in a different location could have a different way of measuring performance. To ensure that the results were reflective a bigger sample was required and therefore a decision was made to distribute 150 printed questionnaires and 45 online and also interview selected individuals in addition to responding to printed questionnaires
‘ A maximum of 3 participants was allowed per department in any particular ministry to ensure that critical positions participated in the survey.
‘ Though the process was time consuming, to ensure respondents understood the questionnaires requirements, a number of respondents were taken through questions deemed difficult and a number of them were able to respond.
Further, a participant’s information sheet was also prepared to ensure that the respondents were ready to take the survey and also cleared of issues which were not clear to them.
When the writer was satisfied with participants preparation and together with the DAs advice on questionnaire design; an online survey was activated and printed questionnaires distributed.
The target sample size was 150 but only 115 was captured, a bigger sample size was required, going by the large number of employees in the public institutions and the complex nature of the institutions.
3.7.2 Survey Response and Analysis
Of the 115 survey participants, 80.9% opted to use printed survey questionnaires, 18.3% online and 0.87% face-to-face interviews (figure 11 and table 2). The information reviewed that workers in public institutions are still comfortable with manual processes, and intervention measures needed to be applied.
Figure 11. Information gathering process
Table 2 information gathering by percentage
Questions 1 to 6 allowed respondents to provide information about themselves. This was necessary to ensure the authenticity of participants and not to compromise the required responses. This also provided the demographics of participants as shown below in
Figure 12.
Figure 12. Category of people interviewed
Table 3 interviewed public workers
From the statistics shown in the table and graph above, it was discovered that out of the 115 respondents, 83% were permanently employed and only 11% working on contract, the remaining 6% fell in other categories. Meaning the targeted 80% of public employees targeted to be interviewed participated in the survey.
Question 5 addressed participating ministries. Out of 27 government ministries, 14 participated as shown in figure 12. This was an adequate number bearing in mind that operations in public institutions are related and thus 50% coverage was enough to provide reflective feedback.
Figure 13. Total surveyed government ministries
Question 7 and 8 looked at the period of employment and also level of service; i.e. whether they were in management or not. The responses received showed that 80% of the respondents where in management and only 20% were in lower ranks. The expected results were that there was equal participation at all levels, nevertheless, this was still ok since there was high participation from policy formulators who could easily drive the change.
3.7.2.1 Availability of PMS systems in public institutions
Question 9 to 18 addressed issues pertaining to availability of a performance management system in public institutions.
56.5% of the respondents agreed that performance management systems existed in public institutions, 33.3% disagreed that such systems do not exist whilst 12.2% were not sure. -Figure 14 shows the graphical representation of the results obtained.
Comparing the responses received, it was evident that no clear and standard system for performance management existed.
Figure 14. Performance management system availability in public service
3.7.2.2 Performance assessment approaches
To test user understanding of a performance management system, a question was asked to find out the type of performance assessment system in use. The results recorded indicated that 77.4% of responses received use a top-down approach implying that supervisors were the ones who appraised workers under them, 7.83% used the self- evaluation approach, 1.74% peer evaluation such as 360?? degrees system; meaning the peers assessed each other and 5.23% indicated that such systems did not exist in the respective institutions. Figure 14 shows the graphical representation of the results recorded.
Figure 15. performance assessment approaches
Table 4 performance assessment approaches
These results provided an indication that workers were aware of the existence of such systems but needed an approach that could provide translate their use into productivity by the integrating IT into performance management systems.
3.7.2.3 Effectiveness of Existing PMSs
Key to the proposed design of the IT supported performance management system was to know the effectiveness of existing systems. To that effect, respondents were requested to rate the effectiveness of the existing systems.
Figure 16. Effectiveness of current performance management systems
The results recorded indicated that 35% answered that systems are very effective, 9.5% said they are effective whilst 15.6% said they were fairly effective. 22.6% of the respondents were not sure about the systems effectiveness and only 16.5% said the current performance management systems used are not effective. Results are shown below in table 5 and figure 13
Table 5 Effectiveness of current performance management system
3.7.2.4 Performance management system mostly used
The responses received showed indicated that a structured system approach is used by 31.3%, the achievement of set performance parameters approach scored 15.7%, individual performance aggregated targets scored 2.61%, altitude and behavioral traits system scored 26.96% and systems not listed scored 23.50%, an indication that there is no standard performance management system in public institutions. Results are as shown in figure 15.
Figure 17. Performance measurement systems in use
From the results obtained, it was difficult to measure performance as there was no standard measure of what constitutes high efficiency and productivity.
3.7.2.5 Rating of existing PMS systems
Respondents were requested to rate their respective performance management systems. 4.8% rated them as being very good, 14.3% rated them as being good, 28.6% said fair, while 38.1% and 14.3% stated that the current systems were poor and very poor, respectively.
Figure 18 represents the results obtained and table 5 shows raw data and the percentages.
The interpretation of this feedback was that over 71% of the respondents were not happy with the existing systems due to reasons as some highlighted such as lack of punitive measures for underperformers. It was also noted that if the public service was to promote productivity in institutions, they needed right and qualified people in position to work and deliver on objectives
Figure 18. Rating of existing performance management systems
Table 7 performance management rating
3.7.2.6 Availability of performance data
For an organizations to see how it has been performing and encourage workers it was important to show performance results, therefore, the researcher posed a question to find out if results were made available to the workers and the corresponding survey results are shown in figure 19 and table 8. The responses received indicated that 45.8% agreed that performance data is made available, 16.6% indicated that data is not available and 37.5% were not sure whether data is made available.
If workers were allowed to view performance results, there is a high probability of improving performance through taking remedial actions and also rewarding high performers in times where productivity is high.
Figure 19. Availability of performance data
Table 8 availability of performance data in public institutions
3.7.2.7 Rating of an IT supported PMS
Respondents were required to rate how an IT supported PMS could assist in transforming the work culture in public service. From the responses, 42.9% strongly agreed that such as a system could help improve performance, 33.3% agreed that efficiency and productivity would improve and 9.5% fairly agreed while 9.5 were not sure. However, 4.8% disagreed that such a system would not improve performance. The result obtained reviewed that over 70% of respondents were in support of an IT supported performance management system and were of the view that implementing such a system would improve worker efficiency and productivity. Figure 20 is a representation of the results obtained from rating the extent to which an IT supported performance management system would improve efficiency and productivity.
Figure 20. Rating of an IT supported performance management system
The rating on the need for an IT supported performance management system coupled with other responses received showed that in as much as PMS systems existed in public institutions, they had not impacted performance in a positive way. The more reason why a standardized and robust IT systems was required to actuate these systems to enable employees to become efficient.
3.7.2.8 General respondents feedback
To further solicit for more feedback from respondents, a provision was made to allow them to give general feedback regarding use of performance management systems. Table 9 shows the results representation in form a pie chart.
General feedback regarding use of a performance managements system in Zambian public institutions
1.0 ‘we need to modernize the performance management system’
2.0′ Performance management system is not institutionalized though it is very good’
3.0 ‘Access to these facilities to be broaden to lower levels’
4.0′ Although performance management systems are used, not so much credence is given to it because results of the performance appraisal rarely if at all have any impact on the job of a person deemed not to be performing well. Immediate supervisors cannot institute any punitive measures to an officer not performing hence the whole appraisal becomes redundant.’
4.0. ‘WE USE ANNUAL APPRAISAL SYSTEM ANNUALY TO EVALUATE PERFOMANCE’
5.0 ‘performance management is just done because its routine and not that it is supposed to be used to improve how work is being done’
Table 9 general feedback on the use of performance management system
3.8 Conclusion
Chapter 3 looked at the current scenario regarding Zambian economy and how a properly managed IT supported performance management system can be utilized to support the economy and ensure that every worker was worth the pay.
Chapter 4. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
4.1 Introduction
Having carried out a research on performance management systems and the survey which was conducted, it was clear that a number of alternatives do exist for the implementation of performance management systems. However, there is no single system implementation that can be regarded as the best system
4.2 Results Analysis
Chapter 3 looked at various types of information gathering processes and ultimately adopted the qualitative methodology for information gathering and creation of survey questionnaires and the actual conduct of the survey. Having laid the baseline under which the investigation was conducted, a pilot survey was conducted and later delved into the actual conduct of the survey. The way public institutions operated in Zambia reviewed that:
‘ There was no standard performance management system, or rather an effective system in place that supported efficiency and productivity and consequently affecting service delivery and economic growth.
‘ Each ministry could have one or more systems in use for managing performance making it difficult to manage workers and clearly see what was achieved in a particular assessment period.
‘ Even if workers were periodically appraised, no remedial action was taken to help improve worker performance or productivity neither was there a measure to show how much each worker had contributed to the overall performance of a government unit.
4.3 Implication of the Survey results
Arising from the results of the survey, and the understanding that existing systems could not assure efficiency and productivity in Zambian public institutions, the recommendation was that an IT supported performance management be implemented to allow for:
‘ Standardization of performance management systems through creation of a web application that is able to integrate all performance management systems
‘ A common web Interface to communicate goals and objectives for all ministries and track performance of all ministries through that one portal
‘ An effective communication tool that would allow for interaction and real-time reporting system
‘ Storage of performance data in a central repository database, to aid planning and decision making and for easy reference
‘ All public institutions were recommended to have clearly stated performance areas under which they operated and monitored through the automated performance management system.
‘ There was need to set up an Interface within public institutions specifically to manage employee performance in public institutions
Detailed below were the requirements for the proposed solution. The prototype system had fictitious names and position for testing purposes.
4.4 Specifications
The requirements for the IT prototype system was a system that would support three key components of the performance management system including performance manager, user management and reporting and communication system. Detailed functionalities provided by this system was as discussed in the following sub-sections.
4.4.1 Employees
The prototype performance management system was designed to allow employees to logon to the PMS portal and carry out the following functions:
‘ Accepting a performance contract
‘ Updating performance contract through reporting of work progress
‘ Viewing of a performance contract
‘ Viewing of a performance record
‘ Viewing of allocated resources
4.4.2 Director/Snr Manager
On top of other responsibilities on the performance management portal, the director or senior manager was required to perform the following functions on the system:
‘ Setting departmental of targets
‘ Allocation of resources
4.4.3 Line Manager
The line manager had the following responsibilities on the system:
‘ Preparation and assignment of tasks
‘ Distribution of resources to direct reports
‘ Monitoring performance of direct reports
Figure 22 below shows the use case diagram for the performance manager. The design presented how employees were to interact with the performance management systems and the types of tasks each role was required to perform. The assumption for the prototype was based on three fictitious positions in public institutions in public institutions from director or senior manager, line managers and the direct reports and provided the flow of information in the system.
[Source: specifications and design document, John Nkhoma, 2014]
Figure 21 performance manager use case diagram
4.4.4 Communication system
The communication system provided an Interface for the communication of performance information between employees.
Figure 22 Design for the proposed communication system
4.4.5 Public service
The public service component was designed to be the overall controller for the performance management system and had the following functionalities:
‘ Alignment of goals from the ministries and approving of goals and objectives from the ministries
‘ Monitoring of global performance
‘ Allocation of resources to the ministries.
Figure 24 below shows the Use case diagram for the public service component:
[Source: specifications and design document, John Nkhoma, 2014]
Figure 23 public service component use case diagram
The requirements needed to be succinct in order to represent the way public institutions operated but provided an improved and efficient way of how work was required to be carried out. Figure 24 below was UML class diagram for the performance management system.
The diagram was a representation of the required components for the performance management system and comprised all the components for implementation. As was alluded to, the design was done in such a way that other developers could easily implement a solution in any of the object-oriented programming languages such as PHP (as the adopted language). Java programming language, python, depending on availability of resources and the deliverables.
[Source: specifications and design document, John Nkhoma, 2014]
Figure 24 UML class diagram for the performance management system
4.5 Alternative systems
The proposed prototype adopted a Three-tier- Architecture namely the front-end (Client-side of the application), Application server (Apache webserver) and the backend (MySQL database). And another consideration was on the type of hardware and Operating system platform to host the application and the development tools to use.
4.5.1 Application Server
Apache HTTP server, Microsoft’s IIS server, lighttpd and Sun Microsystems’ Java System webserver were considered. The choice for Apache’s HTTP server came in the wake of its being platform independent and open source. Much as IIS could be seen as free it was not platform independent and since the prototype was required to run on many operating system IIS could not be selected. Lighttd required the BSD operating system which could be avoided with the adoption Apache. The Java System webserver, though free was not selected as it is not open source and because of issues that come with proprietary software, it could not be used for the prototype.
4.5.2 Choice of database
Microsoft’ access database and MySQL database were considered. The choice of MySQL was based on security and portability issues. The designed prototype was done in such a way that it was able to run in many environments and provided adequate security to information stored in the database, something MS access was not able to offer.
4.5.3 Choice of development tools
Java’s Netbeans and PHP. The design of the prototype system, was done using a unified modelling language (UML) to allow for a wider choice of programming languages during implementation, and therefore, much as java was found to have qualities of high performance and stability, PHP was adopted for easy of deployment and configuration and to take advantage of the Wamp server which houses both the Apache Web server and the MySQL server. For HTML and PHP code editors, dreamweaver and Notepad++ was used. The choice to use
4.5.4 Hardware and Software Requirements
Since development tools chosen were platform independent there was no restriction on the type of hardware where the application could be developed and deployed. The prototype system was developed on windows 8 operating system which had an Intel Core i7 processor with adequate RAM of 8GB, as the only available laptop computer, there was no other option neither was it necessary to buy an alternative hardware for this purpose.
4.6 Reasons for the adopted systems.
There were many alternatives for the prototype design, however, the selection of the tools for development was to ensure that the development environment was robust enough to support the developer and minimize on costs that could have resulted from picking tools that had other resource demands.
4.7 Conclusion
Chapter 4 looked at the analysis and design of the performance management system. This was done by analyzing the survey results and from the results obtained come up with an IT design model for the performance management system.
The design was then developed by critically reviewing alternative systems and finally came up with the requirements which were used to implement the prototype system.
Chapter 5. PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATION
5.1 Introduction
Prior to the implementation of the prototype software, was obtaining the required hardware and software and creation of the necessary php scripts for the performance management system. The sections below were activities that presided implementation of the performance management system
5.2 Hardware and Software requirements
It was not necessary to acquire a new computer for the project as the available laptop had enough resources to support installation of development tools and other support software such as Microsoft Viso, SmartDraw and HTML editing tools.
The Wamp server housed both the web server and the database server. During the development of the program dreamweaver was used but later switched to Notepad++ since the trial period expired, this did not affect progress as the outcome was planned for and the switching was smooth.
5.3 Design implementation
The implementation of the design was split into 3 levels namely User authentication, performance manager and the communication system. The initial phase was to produce a skeleton implementation through modelling the systems functionalities and then started to test the code in phased approach.
5.3.1 User Authentication
Creation of a user authentication system was to ensure that only authorized users had access to the performance management system. This meant that for employees to access the system, they needed to provide a username and password, and once their credentials were validated by the system then access could be granted. The diagram in figure 26 is a representation of the PHP scripts that were created for the user management and the interaction with the database.
Figure 25 user authentication system
5.3.2 Performance manager
The next phase was to create performance management scripts, the performance manager had a total number of 13 scripts. There were scripts specifically for creating scorecard for the global public institution and also for the ministries. The interaction between the performance manager and the database is as shown in figure 27
Figure 26 Performance management system
Some scripts were responsible for allocation of resources and targets to ministries. Other scripts were created for retrieving data from the database for performance measurement and to aid decision making purposes.
5.3.3 Communication and reporting system
The third component to be created was a communication system to ensure that there was efficient communication between employees
Figure 27 communication and reporting system
The communications system was central to efficient communication between employees. It was from this platform that employees were able to receive performance targets, accept performance contracts, receive resources and report on progress made towards meeting the performance objectives.
5.4 Testing
The two form of testing that was carried were meant to test functional requirements of the system and also user input validation.
Functional requirements tested for what was required of the system. Errors were discovered by being highlighted either in the editor or an exception thrown once there was an attempt to send data to the database. Upon completion of functional requirement testing, the next set of tests that was carried out was to test for input validation for the submitted forms. The validation tests were done on the client side of the application. An example of form validation is shown in figure 27
Figure 28. Input validation testing
5.5 Changes made from original design
To allow selected users to evaluate the prototype system, a simple network was set up so that users could access the application through the network and still be able to carry performance management tasks. This was a daunting task since other computers had challenges accessing the application, but after changing the firewall settings and allowing port 80 in the Apache Configuration. file to listen to IP addresses: 192.168 192.168.1.5 and also changing daabase confiugarions from localhost to IP 192.168.1.5, users were able to access the application
wn portal where communications were taking place. It was also noted that there was an access link to the communication center so that employees could still go to communication from the main performance manageement system
5.6 Conclusion
The implementation stage went on smoothly, with a few glitches here and there. Where problems were encoutered, the same were compesated by other parts of the system.
Chapter 6. RESULT AND EVALUATION
6.1 Introduction
The prototype used fictitious data and four people from the public institutions including the sponsor were allowed to evaluate the functionality of the prototype system. And their experience was compared with existing systems.
To evaluate the system, the four users’ computers were connected in a local area network for them to access the performance management system from the server which was sitting on the project manager’s computer.
6.2 Evaluating functionality
Evaluating functionality of the prototype system meant allowing users to input data into the system, retrieve, and interaction amongst the users through messaging.
6.2.1 User management
The user management system was able to allow users access to the performance management system. Using a login form as shown in figure 31.
Figure 29. Employee Login Interface
upon submission of correct login credenials the user was redirected to the performance management which allowed them to perform performance mangement tasks such as allocation of resources, viewing of performance status and also creation of scorecards amongst other functionalities (more details in the storyboard in the appenices section).
6.2.2 Peformance manager
As was discussed in the chapter 4 and chapter 5, once the username and password were validated, the page below was presented with performance management tasks.
Figure 30 performance management tasks webpage.
With the web interface in figure 33, the users were able to generate performance objective, create scorecards and successfully submit to the database. Further, a provision was made to allow users to view performance data.
6.2.3 Public Service
The public service component was meant to act as a controller for all performance management tasks. Evaluation of this functionality indicated that services sitting on this component were working as planned, and therefore performance goals were displayed on the portal for all employees to see and was meant to create awareness amongst employees so that by the time they got their targets they already know the expectations.
This functionality was demonstrated to users by displaying the goals and instructing them to pick on their ministry and from that segmented targets to their direct reports. This function was performed by the messaging and reporting system.
The figure below is a display of the set goals by public service as shown in figure
Figure 31. setting of performance management goals by public service
6.2.4 Other system interactions
Performance Managers
Users were requested to fictitiously appoint each other as managers and direct reports. Thereafter, they were asked to allocate targets and resources and allowed them to carry out interactive communications pertaining to performance and thereafter allowed them to communicate through email addresses. This was made possible by the communication system (details are provided in appendices on the storyboard).
6.2.5 Communication system
The communication system allowed users to send each other performance information and other types of information exchange on performance. The system allowed users to share information in a local area network. Figure 34 below is a portal that allowed users to communicate with each other and share communication information between each other. The system allowed inter ministry communication for improved efficiency in information sharing which ultimately improved productivity as well.
Figure 32 ePMS communication centre
The personalized communication page was as shown in figure 35 below
Figure 33 personalized employee page
The figure below shows targets that were issued to a fictitious employee ‘John’.
Figure 34. setting of employee targets
6.3 Limitations
The data protection act and other related privacy issues did not allow for use of actual data for evaluating the system. This made it difficult to identify the data type requirements for the systems.
6.4 Conclusion
The four users who evaluated the prototype system appreciated the system and were able to also note how costly manual processes were. As a result of the protoype performance managemnt system evaluation, the writer was requested to provide an immediate solution that could help improve communication at the provincial adminstration. Since the system could not be given out to the public, an email system hosted by an ISP was recommended and so far one office was connected and the writer assisited in the whole process. By March 2015, the email system was expected to be extended to all departments in the region.
This project was evident that public institutions faced challenges in many aspects of operations especially efficiency and productivity and a system like the prototype system implemented if fully implemented could transform the work culture in Zambian public institutions.
Chapter 7. CONCLUSION
7.1 Introduction
The intentions for conducting this project were; to conduct a research in order to find out how effective use of information technology could help improve efficiency and productivity in public institutions, by reviewing works done by others on performance management systems, conducting a survey to investigate systems being used in public institutions and implementing a prototype software system that can support performance management systems.
7.2 Lessons Learned
Use of information systems and technology has transformed the world in many aspects, and we have seen its wider application in almost all professional fields. The lessons learnt from the project indicated that:
‘ To appreciate the power of information systems, IT professionals needed to take interest in systems that do not relate directly to their disciplines and provide IT solutions
‘ By implementing a performance management systems, it provided an opportunity to learn how people perceive information systems and the need to pay particular attention to systems requirements.
‘ Web technologies have capabilities to automate any system regardless of how complicated the system is, by following available software design and development tools.
‘ change management is a must and if organizations are to become efficient and productive, in order to achieve strategic positioning institutions needed to invest in performance management systems
The research also reviewed how information systems and technology was impacting business processes and the need to invest in performance management systems.
7.2.1 Impact of Information Systems on Business s Processes ‘ PMS
The research reviewed that information systems have played a pivotal role in transforming organizations in every business aspect. Web technologies have the ability to implement systems that imitate manual process and yet provide accurate results. It was learnt that understanding requirements for a systems requires a lot of effort and in order to implement a system that meets business requirements and therefore meets user requirements, it is important to plan how to collect information and have an understanding of the methodology for processing that information.
Soliciting for information from users requires a skill that will ensure the authenticity and integrity of the information collected while respecting the views and norms of the people providing information. It was also noted that secondary data is very important but as a researcher, one should ensure that information sources are credible.
7.3 Academic Application and Limitations
The IT profession entails interfacing with systems and people, in order to solve problems of varying nature and improve the way things are done. Therefore, issues of performance management are critical and should be supported by Information systems. The prototype system implemented had the following strengths, weakness:
7.3.1 Prototype application Strengths
‘ Messaging and reporting systems (communications center) component of the system, providing very good interfaces and functionality to users
‘ User authentication system allowed only authorized members to access content on the performance management system. Access to content was also designed according to user rights and access level
‘ Good forms and interfaces for the performance management system
‘ System’s ability to allow users to view data from the MySQL database
‘ Interactive communication component in the system making it easy for employees to communicate performance data,
7.3.2 Prototype application System weaknesses
‘ While sessions where maintained when a user logged into the system and but once a user clicked on the communication center, there where errors on the communications portal though logging in directly from the communications center did not produce any errors.
‘ The prototype needed to take into consideration verification of work output and to ensure that there was adequate integrity in the performance information produced through reports generated from ERP or other business systems.
‘ No real-time update of performance results
‘ The system development was not completed
‘ The application should have incorporated a framework for integrating with the already existing system to ensure that work generated was easily processed by the performance management system.
7.4 Future improvements
The system could even perform better if the following functionalities were added:
‘ Graphs to display performance against targets and work in progress
‘ Real-time update of performance results
‘ Generation of reports to process efficiency of the ministry, departments and individuals in public institutions
7.5 Business Application and Limitations
Implementation of an IT supported performance management systems in public institutions was a sure way of improving efficiency and productivity, the system could also help reduce operational costs as all communications could be electronically transmitted in a faster and efficient manner. This increases interactions in an organization and workers are made to transparently account for the resources committed to complete a task which tentatively promotes productivity in the public workforce. It should be noted that for this innovation to succeed there has to be support from the top executives.
7.6 Recommendations / Prospects for Future Research / Work
Due to the complexity of public institutions in terms of operations, the proposed model needed to be enhanced to ensure that there was:
a) An Interface to marry the performance management to other information systems in the public institutions to ensure accuracy of the results recorded.
b) A systems that could capture real-time reported progress made
c) A system that can allow public workers to be able to work whilst they are not in the office but still capture performance data.
d) Able to allow workers to use mobile devices to communicate performance data
In conclusion, a lot was learnt from the project including challenges that are faced in conducting software development projects. And it was also discovered that user requirements could be difficult to understand and as a project manager you are required to come up with systems that ensures that all the requiremnts are captured. Further, it is not all the time that what you know are the user requirements and therefore, there is to clearly understand user requirements.
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APPENDICES
Appendix A. REUSED/BORROWED CODE DETAILS
SCRIPT/CODE NAME Description Source
Personal messaging system The script allows users to exchange messages and it was customized for the PMS communication system http://www.webestools.com/scripts_tutorials-code-source-15-personal-message-system-in-php-mysql-pm-system-private-message-discussion.html
Form validation Javascript for validating form input http://www.javascript-coder.com/html-form/javascript-form-validation.phtml
APPENDIX B: PROTOTYPE STORY BOARD
The performance management system has an overall web interface has shown below:
A.1 Main portal
Use of the system is initiated by ministries or departments setting goals and objectives to be achieved during the performance period using the form as shown below:
A.2 Form for setting department targets
Once performance objectives are set, the public service together with user ministries and departments reviews the targets and come up with aggregated key performance areas and expected performance for that particular period and the set goals are displayed for everyone to the performance expectations as shown below:
A.3 Global targets
The public service then reviews the budget and resource requirements to enable ministries and departments to perform. The form used to allocate resources is as shown below:
A.4 Resource allocation entry form
Once resource allocation is completed, the approved budget is displayed on the performance web portal for everyone to see. That way, everyone is now ready to preparing to perform tasks as allocated. The budglocation is as shown below:
A.5 PMS budget allocation
Once all the resources are approved and allocated, respective ministries and departmental heads commences communication and distribution of targets to employees. This communication is done through an interactive system name ePMS messaging center with the portal as shown below:
A.6 Communication system portal
Therefore all employees are allocated login credentials to enable them to access the PMS system and the page presented below is meant to allow authorized employees to have access to the Performance management system.
A.7 Login form for communication system
It is from this communication or messaging center that targets are allocated and communication of acceptance is done, below is an example of a Manager communicating targets to the subordinate and acceptance of targets.
A.8 Allocation of targets to individuals
For this system to be effective, there has to be an efficient communications system that allows employees to interact and communicate performance issues and progress made. Such systems work in the same manner as Facebook and many other social media like tweeter and Microsoft’s Lync. Below show a snapshot of communication between supervisor and subordinate:
Appendix B. AN EXAMPLE OF INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN EMPLOYEES
Further, the system should allow employees to check performance progress on the global view, departmental and individual, the snapshot below shows a performance progress report at a global view:
B.1 Performance report
Appendix C. PILOT SURVEY
C.1 Part 1
C.2 Part 2 of piloted survey
C.3 Sample survey data
Table 10. Respondents demographic information
Table 11. Respondents demographic information
Table 12. Respondents demographic information
Table 13. Respondents demographic information
Appendix D. PARTICIPANTS INFORMATION SHEET (PIS)
What is this study all about? This study is about investigating how effective use of Information Technology can help improve efficiency and productivity in public institutions
Why settle for me for participation? Being an employee of the public institution, the information you provide can help to ascertain Information technology requirements for public institutions as regards use of performance management systems
Is it a must that I have to participate? Participation is voluntary and you are free not to take part in the survey
How long is it going to take me to complete this survey? The survey takes approximately 10 minutes to complete
Is there any payment or expenses involved? There are not costs or expenses involved in completing this survey
What will I benefit from the participation The information that you provide is very important and will help to come up with an IT solution that can improve your work experience as a civil servant
In case of problems what happens? The information you provide shall be kept confidential and your personal details shall not be given out to anyone
Who else will know about my participation? Your participation is only known by me and the rest of the information you provide remains anonymous
What if I don’t want to participate You are free not to take part in the survey
I can’t provide my email address, is there any other alternative? There is a provision for printed questionnaires and you are free to use the printed version
Appendix E. PMS SYSTEM SOURCE CODE
‘ Authentication Scripts
Create_user.php
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”>
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>
<?php
session_start();
if($_SESSION[‘login’] != “OK”)
{
header(‘Location: login.php’);
exit();
}
?>
<html>
<head>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms.css” />
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”forms.css”>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”main.css”>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms.css” />
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms1.css” />
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”vert.css”>
<script src=”jscripting.js”></script>
<style type=”text/css” xml:space=”preserve”>
BODY, P,TD{ font-family: Arial,Verdana,Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt }
A{font-family: Arial,Verdana,Helvetica, sans-serif;}
B { font-family : Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size : 12px; font-weight : bold;}
.error_strings{ font-family:Verdana; font-size:14px; color:#FFFFFF; background-color:blue;}
</style><script language=”JavaScript” src=”validator.js”type=”text/javascript” xml:space=”preserve”></script>
<title>Create Employee</title>
</head>
<div class=”drop”>
<ul class=”drop_menu”>
<li><a href=’index.html’>Home</a></li>
<li><a href=’login.php’>Login</a></li>
<li><a href=’http://127.0.0.1/pm/index.php’>Perfomance Communication Centre</a>
<li><a href=’#’>Performance General Staff</a>
<ul>
<li><a href=’view_scorecard.php’>Accept Scorecard</a></li>
<li><a href=’js1.html’> Testing</a></li>
<li><a href=’up_perf.html’>Update Scorecard</a></li>
<li><a href=’mail.php’>Performance Status</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Resources</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href=’#’>Performance Managers</a>
<ul>
<li><a href=’target.html’>Set Targets</a></li>
<li><a href=’view_targets.php’>Global Targets</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Allocate Resources</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Monitor Performance</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Performance Summary</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href=’#’>Public Service Portal</a>
<ul>
<li><a href=’view_minkpa.php’>Set Goals</a></li>
<li><a href=’create_resource.html’>Issue Resource</a></li>
<li><a href=’view_resource.php’>Resource & Financing</a></li>
<li><a href=’viewPerformance.php’>Global Performance</a></li>
<ul>
</ul>
</div>
<br></br>
<body>
<center>
<h1>Enter Employee Details</h1>
<legend>
<fieldset>
<form action=”insert_user.php” method=”post” id=”create_user.php”>
<table cellspacing=”20″ cellpadding=”8″ border=”0″=top>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>
UserName:
</td>
<td>
<div id=’create_user.php_new_username_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div>
<input type=”text” name=”new_username” maxlength=”150″ />
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>
Password:
</td>
<td>
<div id=’create_user.php_new_password_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div>
<input type=”password” name=”new_password” maxlength=”20″ />
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>
First Name:
</td>
<td>
<div id=’create_user.php_new_firstName_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div>
<input type=”text” name=”new_firstName” maxlength=”150″ />
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>
Last Name:
</td>
<td>
<div id=’create_user.php_new_lasttname_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div>
<input type=”text” name=”new_lastName” maxlength=”150″ />
</td>
</tr>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>
Email Address:
</td>
<td>
<div id=’create_user.php_new_email_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div>
<input type=”email” name=”new_email” maxlength=”150″ />
</td>
</tr>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>
Position:
</td>
<td>
<div id=’create_user.php_new_position_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div>
<input type=”text” name=”new_position” maxlength=”150″ />
</td>
</tr>
</tr>
<td align=”right”>Grade:
<select name=”new_grade”>
<option value=”1″>1</option>
<option value=”2″>2</option>
<option value=”3″>3</option>new_position
<option value=”4″>4</option>
</select>
</td>
</tr> <br></br>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>
Department:
</td>
<td>
<div id=’create_user.php_new_dept_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div>
<input type=”text” name=”new_dept” maxlength=”150″ />
</td>
</tr>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>Ministry:
<select name=”new_ministry”>
<option value=”Health”>Health</option>
<option value=”Education”>Education</option>
<option value=”Local Government”>Local Government</option>
<option value=”Communication”>Communication & Transport</option>
<option value=”Agriculture”>Agriculture</option>
<option value=”Energy”>Energy</option>
<option value=”commerce”>Commerce and Industries</option>
<option value=”community”>Community Development</option>
<option value=”Technology”>Science & Technology</option>
<option value=”minerals”>Minerals & Land Development</option>
<option value=”works”>Work and Supply</option>
<option value=”labour”>Labour & Social Secuirty</option>
<option value=”information”>Information</option>
<option value=”Tourism”>Tourism</option>
<option value=”sports”>Sports</option>
<option value=”Finance”>Finance and National Planning</option>
</select>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align=”right”>
<input type=”submit” value=”Create User”>
<input type=”reset” value=”Reset”>
</td></tr>
<tr>
</table>
</legend>
</fieldset>
</center>
<script language=”JavaScript” type=”text/javaScript”
xml:space=”preserve”>
//<![CDATA[
//You should create the validator only after the definition of the HTML form
var frmvalidator = new Validator(“create_user.php”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_username”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_username”,”maxlen=150″, “you have exceeded the text limit”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_password”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_password”,”maxlen=150″, “you have exceeded the text limit”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_firstName”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_firstName”,”maxlen=150″, “you have exceeded the text limit”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“lasttName”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“lasttName”,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_position”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_position”,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_dept”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_dept”,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”);
frmvalidator.EnableOnPageErrorDisplay();
frmvalidator.EnableMsgsTogether();
frmvalidator.addValidation(“Email”,”maxlen=50″);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“Email”,”req”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“Email”,”email”);
//]]>
</script>
</center>
</form>
</body>
</html>
E.1 Insert_user.php
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”>
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>
<head><style>
<title>Insert User</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>User Creation</h1>
<?php
session_start();
if($_SESSION[‘login’] != “OK”)
{
header(‘Location: login.php’);
exit();
}
$new_user = $_POST[“new_username”];
$new_pass = $_POST[“new_password”];
$new_fname = $_POST[“new_firstName”];
$new_lname = $_POST[“new_lastName”];
$new_Email = $_POST[“new_email”];
$new_Position = $_POST[“new_position”];
$new_Grade = $_POST[“new_grade”];
$new_Dept = $_POST[“new_dept”];
$new_Ministry = $_POST[“new_ministry”];
//database connection
$conn = @mysql_connect (“localhost”, “root”, “”)
or die
(“Sorry – unable to connect to MySQL database.”);
$rs = @mysql_select_db (“admin”, $conn) or die (“error”);
$sql = “INSERT INTO user (username, password,firstName,lastName,email,position,grade,dept,ministry) VALUES (“.”‘”.$new_user.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_pass.”‘, “.”‘”.$new_fname.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_lname.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Email.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Position.”‘,”. “‘”.$new_Grade.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Dept.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Ministry.”‘)”;
mysql_query($sql,$conn) or die (“User creation failed.”);
echo “<p>User created successfully.</p>”;
echo “<p>Return to <a href=’protected.php’>application</a> or <a href=’login.php’>log out</a></p>”;
?>
</body>
</html>
E.2 Login.php
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”>
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>
<head>
<style>
<?php
$user = “”;
$pass = “”;
$validated = false;
if ($_POST)
{
$user = $_POST[‘username’];
$pass = $_POST[‘password’];
}
session_start();
$_SESSION[‘login’] = “”;
if($user!=”” && $pass!=””)
//database connection
{
$conn = @mysql_connect (“localhost”, “root”, “”) or die (“Sorry – unable to connect to MySQL database.”);
$rs = @mysql_select_db (“admin”, $conn) or die (“error”);
$sql = “SELECT * FROM user WHERE username = ‘$user’ AND password = ‘$pass'”;
$rs = mysql_query($sql,$conn);
$result = mysql_num_rows($rs);
if ($result > 0) $validated = true;
if($validated)
{
$_SESSION[‘login’] = “OK”;
$_SESSION[‘username’] = $user;
$_SESSION[‘password’] = $pass;
header(‘Location: protected.php’);
}
else
{
$_SESSION[‘login’] = “”;
echo “<center>.”;
echo “Invalid username or password.”;
echo “</center>.”;
}
}
else $_SESSION[‘login’] = “”;
?>
.label{
font-family:Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
font-size:11px;
color:#0066FF;
}
.tableBorder{
border:solid 1px #0066FF;
margin-top:1100px;
}
.message{
font-family:Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
font-size:14px;
font-weight:bold;
color:#0066FF;
}
</style>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms1.css” />
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=iso-8859-1″ />
<title>Login to Our Performance Manageemnt System</title>
<link href=”css/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” />
</head>
<body tracingsrc=”images/Zam.jpg” tracingopacity=”100″>
<div class=”drop”>
<ul class=”drop_menu”>
<li><a href=’index.html’>Home</a></li>
<li><a href=’login.php’>Login</a></li>
<li><a href=’http://127.0.0.1/pm/index.php’>Perfomance Communication Centre</a>
<li><a href=’#’>Performance General Staff</a>
<ul>
<li><a href=’view_scorecard.php’>Accept Scorecard</a></li>
<li><a href=’js1.html’> Testing</a></li>
<li><a href=’up_perf.html’>Update Scorecard</a></li>
<li><a href=’mail.php’>Performance Status</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Resources</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href=’#’>Performance Managers</a>
<ul>
<li><a href=’target.html’>Set Targets</a></li>
<li><a href=’view_targets.php’>Global Targets</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Allocate Resources</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Monitor Performance</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Performance Summary</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href=’#’>Public Service Portal</a>
<ul>
<li><a href=’view_minkpa.php’>Set Goals</a></li>
<li><a href=’create_resource.html’>Issue Resource</a></li>
<li><a href=’view_resource.php’>Resource & Financing</a></li>
<li><a href=’viewPerformance.php’>Global Performance</a></li>
<ul>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<body>
<table cellpadding=”2px” cellspacing=”1px” bgcolor=”#F4F5F7″ width=”400px” class=”tableBorder” align=”center”>
<tr>
<td colspan=”2″ bgcolor=”#0066FF”>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan=”2″ class=”label”>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align=”center” colspan=”2″>
<img src=”images/pms.jpg” width= “80” height = “80” border=”0″ align=”absbottom”/>&nbsp;
<span class=”message”>Login to the ePMS System</span>
</td>
</tr>
<form action=”login.php” method=”post”>
<tr>
<td colspan=”2″ class=”label”>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class=”label” align=”right” width=”40%”>Username:</td>
<td align=”left” width=”60%”><input type=”text” name=”username” maxlength=”20″/></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class=”label” align=”right”>Password:</td>
<td align=”left”><input type=”password” name=”password” maxlength=”20″ /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class=”label” align=”right”>&nbsp;</td>
<td align=”left”><input type=”submit” value=”Login” /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan=”2″ class=”label”>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class=”label” align=”right”>&nbsp;</td>
<td align=”left”><input type=”reset” value=”Cancel” /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan=”2″ class=”label”>&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
E.3 Protected.php
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”>
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>
<?php
session_start();
if($_SESSION[‘login’] != “OK”)
{
header(‘Location: login.php’);
exit();
}
?>
<head>
<style>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset=’utf-8′>
<meta http-equiv=”X-UA-Compatible” content=”IE=edge”>
<meta name=”viewport” content=”width=device-width, initial-scale=1″>
<link rel=”stylesheet” href=”styles.css”>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms.css” />
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”vert.css”>
<link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms1.css”>
<title>e-Performance Management</title>
</head>
<h1>e-Performance Management</h1>
<body>
<body tracingsrc=”images/Zam.jpg” tracingopacity=”100″>
<div class=”drop”>
<ul class=”drop_menu”>
<li><a href=’index.html’>Home</a></li>
<li><a href=’login.php’>Logout</a></li>
<li><a href=’http://127.0.0.1/pm/index.php’>Perfomance Communication Centre</a>
<li><a href=’#’>Performance General Staff</a>
<ul>
<li><a href=’view_scorecard.php’>Accept Scorecard</a></li>
<li><a href=’testfield.html’> Testing</a></li>
<li><a href=’up_perf.html’>Update Scorecard</a></li>
<li><a href=’mail.php’>Performance Status</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Resources</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href=’#’>Performance Managers</a>
<ul>
<li><a href=’target.html’>Set Targets</a></li>
<li><a href=’view_targets.php’>Global Targets</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Allocate Resources</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Monitor Performance</a></li>
<li><a href=’#’>Performance Summary</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href=’#’>Public Service Portal</a>
<ul>
<li><a href=’view_minkpa.php’>Set Goals</a></li>
<li><a href=’create_resource.html’>Issue Resource</a></li>
<li><a href=’view_resource.php’>Resource & Financing</a></li>
<li><a href=’viewPerformance.php’>Global Performance</a></li>
<ul>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<?php
echo “<div id=’cssmenu’>”;
echo “<ul>”;
echo “<li class=’active’><a href=’index.html’><span>Home</span></a></li>”;
echo “<li><a href=’view_minkpa.php’><span>Global Planned Performance</span></a></li>”;
echo “<li><a href=”><span>Budget Allocation</span></a></li>”;
echo “<li class=’last’><a href=’viewPerformance.php’><span>Global Performance Tracker</span></a></li>”;
echo “<li class=’last’><a href=’http://127.0.0.1/pm/index.php’><span>Communication Center</span></a></li>”;
echo “<li class=’last’><a href=’up_perf.html’><span>Update Performance Report</span></a></li>”;
echo “<li class=’last’><a href=’create_scorecard.php’><span>Create Scorecard</span></a></li>”;
if($_SESSION[‘username’] == ‘admin’)
{
echo “<p><a href=’create_user.php’>Create a new user</a></p>”;
}
echo “</ul>”;
echo “</div>”;
echo “<br/>”;
echo “<br/>”;
?>
</body>
<center>
<b>
<p>Return to <a href=’index.html’>Home Page</a></p>
</b>
</center>
</html>
Appendix F. PERFORMANCE MANAGER
F.1 Create_scorecard.php
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml” xml:lang=”en”
xmlns:xsi=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance”
xsi:schemaLocation=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml
http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/SCHEMA/xhtml11.xsd”
>
<html> <head> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”forms.css”> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”main.css”> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms.css” /> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms1.css” /> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”vert.css”> <script src=”jscripting.js”></script> <style type=”text/css” xml:space=”preserve”> BODY, P,TD{ font-family: Arial,Verdana,Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt } A{font-family: Arial,Verdana,Helvetica, sans-serif;} B {
font-family : Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size : 12px; font-weight : bold;} .error_strings{ font-family:Verdana; font-size:14px; color:#FFFFFF; background-color:blue;} </style><script language=”JavaScript” src=”validator.js”type=”text/javascript” xml:space=”preserve”></script> </head>
<?php session_start(); if($_SESSION[‘login’] != “OK”) { header(‘Location: login.php’); exit(); } ?> <div class=”drop”> <ul class=”drop_menu”> <li><a href=’index.html’>Home</a></li> <li><a href=’login.php’>Login</a></li> <li><a href=’http://127.0.0.1/pm/index.php’>Perfomance Communication Centre</a> <li><a href=’#’>Performance General Staff</a> <ul> <li><a href=’view_scorecard.php’>Accept Scorecard</a></li> <li><a href=’js1.html’> Testing</a></li> <li><a href=’up_perf.html’>Update Scorecard</a></li> <li><a href=’mail.php’>Performance Status</a></li> <li><a href=’#’>Resources</a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href=’#’>Performance Managers</a> <ul> <li><a href=’target.html’>Set Targets</a></li> <li><a href=’view_targets.php’>Global Targets</a></li> <li><a href=’#’>Allocate Resources</a></li> <li><a href=’#’>Monitor Performance</a></li> <li><a href=’#’>Performance Summary</a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href=’#’>Public Service Portal</a> <ul> <li><a href=’view_minkpa.php’>Set Goals</a></li> <li><a href=’create_resource.html’>Issue Resource</a></li> <li><a href=’view_resource.php’>Resource & Financing</a></li> <li><a href=’viewPerformance.php’>Global Performance</a></li> <ul> </ul> </div> <br></br> <body> <center> <legend> <fieldset> <fieldset> <form action=”scorecard.php” method=”post” id=”create_scorecard.php”> <h1> Institutional Scorecard</h1> <td align=”right”>Ministry: <select name=”new_ministry”> <option value=”Health”>Health</option> <option value=”Education”>Education</option> <option value=”Local Government”>Local Government</option> <option value=”Communication”>Communication & Transport</option> <option value=”Agriculture”>Agriculture</option> <option value=”Energy”>Energy</option> <option value=”commerce”>Commerce and Industries</option> <option value=”community”>Community Development</option> <option value=”Technology”>Science & Technology</option> <option value=”minerals”>Minerals & Land Development</option> <option value=”works”>Work and Supply</option> <option value=”labour”>Labour & Social Secuirty</option> <option value=”information”>Information</option> <option value=”Tourism”>Tourism</option> <option value=”sports”>Sports</option> <option value=”Finance”>Finance and National Planning</option> </select> </td> </tr> <br></br> <td align=”right”>Department: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_dept_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input size=”20″ type=”text” size=”20″ maxlength=”1500″ name=”new_dept”></td> </tr> <br></br> </tr> <td align=”right”>Key Performance Area 1: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_kpa_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input size=”20″ type=”text” size=”20″ maxlength=”1500″ name=”new_kpa”></td> </tr> <br></br> <td align=”right”>Key Performance Area 2: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_kpa1_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input size=”20″ type=”text” size=”20″ maxlength=”1500″ name=”new_kpa1″></td> </tr> <br></br> <td align=”right”>Key Performance Area 3: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_kpa2_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input size=”20″ type=”text” size=”20″ maxlength=”1500″ name=”new_kpa2″></td> </tr> <br></br> <td align=”right”>Key Performance Area 4: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_kpa3_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input size=”20″ type=”text” size=”20″ maxlength=”1500″ name=”new_kpa3″></td><br></br> <h2> Performance measurement</h2> <fieldset> <tr> <td align=”right”>Objectives: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_obj_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input size=”20″ type=”text” size=”20″ maxlength=”1500″ name=”new_obj”></td> </tr><br></br> <tr> <td align=”right”>Expected Performance: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_eps_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input type=”number” size=”20″ maxlength=”150″ name=”new_eps”></td> </tr> <br></br> <tr> <td align=”right”>Deadline: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_deadline_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input type=”date” size=”20″ maxlength=”150″ name=”new_deadline”></td> </tr><br></br> <tr> <td align=”right”>Weight Allocated: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_weight_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input type=”number” size=”20″ maxlength=”15″ name=”new_weight”></td> </tr><br></br> <tr> <td align=”right”>Score: </td> <div id=’create_scorecard.php_new_score_errorloc’ class=”error_strings”></div> <td><input type=”number” size=”20″ maxlength=”15″ name=”new_score”></td> </tr><br></br> <tr> <td align=”right”> <input type=”submit”> <input type=”reset”> </td> </tr> </fieldset> </legend> </center> <script language=”JavaScript” type=”text/javaScript” xml:space=”preserve”> //<![CDATA[ //You should create the validator only after the definition of the HTML form var frmvalidator = new Validator(“create_scorecard.php”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_dept”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_dept”,”maxlen=150″, “you have exceeded the text limit”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_kpa”, “req”, “Field can’t be empty”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_kpa”,”maxlen=150″, “you have exceeded the text limit”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_kpa1”, “req”, “Field can’t be empty”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_kpa1″,”maxlen=150”, “you have exceeded the text limit”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_kpa2″,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_kpa2″,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_kpa3″,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_kpa3″,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”);
frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_obj”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_obj”,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_eps”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_eps”,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_deadline”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_deadline”,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_weight”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_weight”,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_score”,”req”,”Field can’t be empty”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“new_score”,”maxlen=150″,”you have exceeded the text limit”); frmvalidator.EnableOnPageErrorDisplay(); frmvalidator.EnableMsgsTogether(); frmvalidator.addValidation(“Email”,”maxlen=50″); frmvalidator.addValidation(“Email”,”req”); frmvalidator.addValidation(“Email”,”email”); //]]> </script> </form><center> <b> <p>Return to <a href=’index.html’>Home Page</a></p> </b> </center> </body> </html>
F.2 Scorecard.php
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml” xml:lang=”en”
xmlns:xsi=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance”
xsi:schemaLocation=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml
http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/SCHEMA/xhtml11.xsd”><body> <h1>Scorecard Creation</h1> <?php session_start(); if($_SESSION[‘login’] != “OK”) { header(‘Location: login.php’); exit(); } $new_Ministry = $_POST[“new_ministry”]; $new_Dept = $_POST[“new_dept”]; $new_Kpa = $_POST[“new_kpa”]; $new_Kpa1 = $_POST[“new_kpa1”]; $new_Kpa2 = $_POST[“new_kpa2”]; $new_Kpa3 = $_POST[“new_kpa3”]; $new_Obj = $_POST[“new_obj”]; $new_Eps = $_POST[“new_eps”]; $new_Deadline = $_POST[“new_deadline”]; $new_Weight = $_POST[“new_weight”]; $new_Score = $_POST[“new_score”]; $conn = @mysql_connect (“localhost”, “root”, “”) or die (“Sorry – unable to connect to MySQL database.”); $rs = @mysql_select_db (“admin”, $conn) or die (“error”); $sql = “INSERT INTO min_card(ministry,dept, kpa,kpa1,kpa2,kpa3,obj,eps,deadline,weight,score) VALUES ( “.”‘”.$new_Ministry.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Dept.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Kpa.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Kpa1.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Kpa2.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Kpa3.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Obj.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Eps.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Deadline.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Weight.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Score.”‘)”; mysql_query($sql,$conn) or die (“Scorecard creation failed.”); echo “<p>Scorecard created successfully.</p>”; echo “<p>Return to <a href=’protected.php’>application</a> or <a href=’login.php’>log out</a></p>”; ?> </body> </html>
Set_Target.php
<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml” xml:lang=”en”
xmlns:xsi=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance”
xsi:schemaLocation=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml
http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/SCHEMA/xhtml11.xsd”
<head> <title>Insert User</title> </head> <body> <h1>Individual Scorecard </h1> <?php $new_Mid = $_POST[“new_ministryid”]; $new_Targ = $_POST[“new_target”]; $new_Targ1= $_POST[“new_target1”]; $new_Targ2 = $_POST[“new_target2”]; $new_Wgt = $_POST[“new_weight”]; $new_Due = $_POST[“new_due”]; //database connection
$conn = @mysql_connect (“localhost”, “root”, “”) or die (“Sorry – unable to connect to MySQL database.”); $rs = @mysql_select_db (“admin”, $conn) or die (“error”); $sql = “INSERT INTO emp_targets
(ministryid, target,target1,target2,weight,due) VALUES (“.”‘”.$new_Mid.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Targ.”‘, “.”‘”.$new_Targ1.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Targ2.”‘, “. “‘”.$new_Wgt.”‘,”. “‘”.$new_Due.”‘)”; mysql_query($sql,$conn) or die (“Scorecard creation failed.”); echo “<p>Scorecard posted successfully.</p>”; echo “<p>Return to <a href=’target.html’>application</a></p>”; ?> </body> </html>
View_minKpa
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body tracingsrc=”images/back4.jpg” tracingopacity=”40″> <center> <h1> Performance indicators 2014-2015</h1></center> <?php echo “<center>”; echo “<h1>Global Targets</h1>”; echo “</center>”; echo “<br></br>”; echo “<center><table style=’border: solid 1px black;’></center>”; echo “<tr><th>Ministry</th><th>Department</th><th>Key Performance Area 1</th><th> Key Performance Area 2</th><th> Key Performance Area 3</th><th> Key Performance Area 4</th><th> Objective</th><th>Expected Performance</th><th> Deadline</th><th>Weight</th><th> Expected Score</th></tr>”; class TableRows extends RecursiveIteratorIterator { function __construct($it) { parent::__construct($it, self::LEAVES_ONLY); } function current() { return “<td style=’width: 150px; border: 1px solid Black;’>” . parent::current(). ” </td>”; } function beginChildren() { echo “<tr>”; } function endChildren() { echo “</tr>” . “n”; } } $servername = “localhost”; $username = “root”; $password = ” “; $dbname = “admin”; try { $conn = new PDO(“mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname”, “root”, “”); $conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION); $stmt = $conn->prepare(“SELECT ministry, dept, kpa, kpa1, kpa2, kpa3, obj, eps, deadline, weight, score FROM min_card”); $stmt->execute(); // set the resulting array to associative $result = $stmt->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC); foreach(new TableRows(new RecursiveArrayIterator($stmt->fetchAll())) as $k=>$v) { echo $v; }
} catch(PDOException $e) { echo “Error: ” . $e->getMessage(); } $conn = null; echo “</table>”; echo “<strong></strong>”; echo “<br>”; echo “</br>”; echo “<br>”; echo “</br>”; echo “<p>Return to <a href=’index.html’>Home Page</a></p>”; ?> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms.css” /> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”> </body> </html>
F.3 View_resource.php
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <?php echo “<center>”; echo “<h1>Budgetary Allocation</h1>”; echo “</center>”; echo “<br></br><br></br><br></br>”; echo “<center><table style=’border: solid 1px black;’></center>”; echo “<tr><th>Resource ID</th><th>Ministry</th><th>Proposed Budget</th><th> Approved Budget</th></tr>”; class TableRows extends RecursiveIteratorIterator { function __construct($it) { parent::__construct($it, self::LEAVES_ONLY); } function current() { return “<td style=’width: 150px; border: 1px solid black;’>” . parent::current(). ” </td>”; } function beginChildren() { echo “<tr>”; } function endChildren() { echo “</tr>” . “n”; } } $servername = “localhost”; $username = “root”; $password = ” “; $dbname = “admin”; try { $conn = new PDO(“mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname”, “root”, “”); $conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION); $stmt = $conn->prepare(“SELECT res_id, mns, proposed,budget FROM resource_distribution”); $stmt->execute(); // set the resulting array to associative $result = $stmt->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC); foreach(new TableRows(new RecursiveArrayIterator($stmt->fetchAll())) as $k=>$v) { echo $v; } } catch(PDOException $e) { echo “Error: ” . $e->getMessage(); } $conn = null; echo “</table>”; echo “<strong></strong>”; echo “<br>”; cho “</br>”; echo “<br>”; echo “</br>”; echo “<p>Return to <a href=’index.html’>Home Page</a></p>”; ?> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms.css” /> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”> </body> </html>
F.4 View_scorecard.php
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <style> table, th, td { border: 1px solid black; } </style> </head> <body> <?php $servername = “localhost”; $username = “root”; $password = ” “; $dbname = “admin”; // database connection $conn = @mysql_connect (“localhost”, “root”, “”) or die (“Sorry – unable to connect to MySQL database.”); $rs = @mysql_select_db (“admin”, $conn) or die (“error”); $sql = “SELECT res_id, mns, proposed,budget FROM resource_distribution”; $result = $conn->query($sql); if ($result->num_rows > 0) { echo “<table><tr><th>res_id</th><th>Name</th></tr>”; // output data of each row while($row = $result->fetch_assoc()) {
echo “<tr><td>” . $row[“res_id”]. “</td><td>” . $row[“mns”]. ” “. “</td><td>” . $row[“proposed”]. ” “. $row[“budget”]. “</td></tr>”; } echo “</table>”; } else { echo “0 results”; } $conn->close(); ?> </body> </html>
F.5 View_target.php
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <?php echo “<center>”; echo “<h1>Ministry Targets</h1>”; echo “</center>”; echo “<br></br><br></br><br></br>”; echo “<center><table style=’border: solid 1px black;’></center>”; echo “<tr><th>Ministry ID</th><th>Target 1</th><th>Target 2</th><th>Target 3</th><th> Weight</th><th>Deadline</th></tr>”; class TableRows extends RecursiveIteratorIterator { function __construct($it) { parent::__construct($it, self::LEAVES_ONLY); } function current() { return “<td style=’width: 150px; border: 1px solid black;’>” . parent::current(). ” </td>”; } function beginChildren() { echo “<tr>”; } function endChildren() { echo “</tr>” . “n”; } } $servername = “localhost”; $username = “root”; $password = ” “; $dbname = “admin”; try { $conn = new PDO(“mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname”, “root”, “”); $conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION); $stmt = $conn->prepare(“SELECT ministryid, target,target1, target2,weight,due FROM emp_targets”); $stmt->execute(); // set the resulting array to associative $result = $stmt->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC); foreach(new TableRows(new RecursiveArrayIterator($stmt->fetchAll())) as $k=>$v) { echo $v; } } catch(PDOException $e) { echo “Error: ” . $e->getMessage(); } $conn = null; echo “</table>”; echo “<strong></strong>”; echo “<br>”; echo “</br>”; echo “<br>”; echo “</br>”; echo “<p>Return to <a href=’index.html’>Home Page</a></p>”; ?> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms.css” /> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”> <center> <p>Return to <a href=’index.html’>Home Page</a></p> </b> </center> </body> </html>
F.6 View_performance.php
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <?php echo “<center>”; echo “<h1>Global Performance Report</h1>”; echo “</center>”; echo “<br></br><br></br><br></br>”; echo “<center><table style=’border: solid 1px black;’></center>”; echo “<tr><th>Ministry ID</th><th>Expected Performance</th><th>Achieved Performance</th><th>Score</th><th> Total Score</th><th>Status</th></tr>”; class TableRows extends RecursiveIteratorIterator { function __construct($it) { parent::__construct($it, self::LEAVES_ONLY); } function current() { return “<td style=’width: 150px; border: 1px solid black;’>” . parent::current(). ” </td>”; } function beginChildren() { echo “<tr>”; } function endChildren() { echo “</tr>” . “n”; } } $servername = “localhost”; $username = “root”; $password = ” “; $dbname = “admin”; //database connection try { $conn = new PDO(“mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname”, “root”, “”); $conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION); $stmt = $conn->prepare(“SELECT min_up, up_eps,up_aps, score,t_score,status FROM perf_update”); $stmt->execute(); // setting the resulting array to associative $result = $stmt->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC); foreach(new TableRows(new RecursiveArrayIterator($stmt->fetchAll())) as $k=>$v) { echo $v; } } catch(PDOException $e) { echo “Error: ” . $e->getMessage(); } $conn = null; echo “</table>”; echo “<strong></strong>”; echo “<br>”; echo “</br>”; echo “<br>”; echo “</br>”; echo “<p>Return to <a href=’index.html’>Home Page</a></p>”; ?> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”pms.css” /> <link rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” href=”styler.css”> </body> </html>
Appendix G. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
######/Most of the code for the communication system was borrowed from
Index.php
<?php
include(‘config.php’)
?>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”<?php echo $design; ?>/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” title=”Style” />
<title>Members Area</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”header”>
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”><img src=”<?php echo $design; ?>/images/logo1.gif” alt=”Members Area” height=”200″ width=”700″ /></a</div>
<div class=”content”>
<?php
//Welcome message once an employee gets to the site or logs in
?>
<?php if(isset($_SESSION[‘username’])){echo ‘ ‘.htmlentities($_SESSION[‘username’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’);} ?>,<br />
<h1>Welcome to ePMS Communications center.<br /></h1>
<?php
//if user is authorised, protected pages are displyed
if(isset($_SESSION[‘username’]))
{
//count and store user messages on the account
$nb_new_message = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query(‘select count(*) as nb_new_message from mess where ((emp1=”‘.$_SESSION[‘userid’].'” and emp1_read=”no”) or (emp2=”‘.$_SESSION[‘userid’].'” and emp2_read=”no”)) and id2=”1″‘));
//Number of new messages in the variable $nb_new_mess
$nb_new_message = $nb_new_message[‘nb_new_message’];
//display the links
?>
<a href=”update_info.php”>Update Profile</a><br />
<a href=”list_message.php”>My inbox(<?php echo $nb_new_message; ?> unread)</a><br />
<a href=”con.php”>Logout</a>
<?php
}
else
{
//failed login…… link back to the login page (failed authorization)
?>
<div class=”foot”>
<a href=”con.php”>Log in</a>
</div>
<?php
}
?>
</div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”http://127.0.0.1/pms/”> Return to Government ePMS portal</a></div>
</body>
</html>
G.1 config.php
<?php
//session start
session_start();
//databse connection
mysql_connect(‘localhost’, ‘root’, ”);
mysql_select_db(‘admin’);
//Webmaster’s email address
$mail_webmaster = ‘[email protected]’;
//main site URL
$url_root = ‘http://127.0.0.1/pms/’;
//Home page
$url_home = ‘index.php’;
// The design default name
$design = ‘default’;
?>
G.2 con.php
<?php
include(‘config.php’);
?>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”<?php echo $design; ?>/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” title=”Style” />
<title>Exchange point</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”header”>
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”><img src=”<?php echo $design; ?>/images/logo1.gif” alt=”Members Area” height=”200″ width=”700″ /></a>
</div>
<?php
//log out the user if logged in
if(isset($_SESSION[‘username’]))
{
//log out by deleting sessions
unset($_SESSION[‘username’], $_SESSION[‘userid’]);
?>
<div class=”message”>You are successfuly logged out.<br />
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”>Home</a></div>
<?php
}
else
{
$ousername = ”;
//confirm if form is successfully ent
if(isset($_POST[‘username’], $_POST[‘password’]))
{
//remove the slashes
if(get_magic_quotes_gpc())
{
$ousername = stripslashes($_POST[‘username’]);
$username = mysql_real_escape_string(stripslashes($_POST[‘username’]));
$password = stripslashes($_POST[‘password’]);
}
else
{
$username = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST[‘username’]);
$password = $_POST[‘password’];
}
//retrieve users’s password
$req = mysql_query(‘select password,id from employees where username=”‘.$username.'”‘);
$dn = mysql_fetch_array($req);
//compare users submitted passwords
if($dn[‘password’]==$password and mysql_num_rows($req)>0)
{
//If the password exists, dont display form
$form = false;
//save credential if username and userid are valid
$_SESSION[‘username’] = $_POST[‘username’];
$_SESSION[‘userid’] = $dn[‘id’];
?>
<div class=”message”>Login Suceessful!!. You can access to your Reporting Center.<br />
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”>Home</a></div>
<?php
}
else
{
//if password is not valid, diplay “Username password is invalic.
$form = true;
$message = ‘The username or password is invalid.’;
}
}
else
{
$form = true;
}
if($form)
{
//display a message if authentication is successful
if(isset($message))
{
echo ‘<div class=”message”>’.$message.'</div>’;
}
//We display the form
?>
<div class=”content”>
<form action=”connect.php” method=”post”>
Please Enter log in Details:<br />
<div class=”center”>
<label for=”username”>Username</label><input type=”text” name=”username” id=”username” value=”<?php echo htmlentities($ousername, ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?>” /><br />
<label for=”password”>Password</label><input type=”password” name=”password” id=”password” /><br />
<input type=”submit” value=”Log in” />
</div>
</form>
</div>
<?php
}
}
?>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”http://127.0.0.1/pms/”> Return to Government ePMS portal</a></div>
</body>
</html>
G.3 create_acc.php
<?php
include(‘config.php’);
?>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”<?php echo $design; ?>/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” title=”Style” />
<title>Create Account</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”header”>
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”><img src=”<?php echo $design; ?>/images/logo1.gif” alt=”Members Area” height=”200″ width=”700″ /></a>
</div>
<?php
//confirm if the form is successfully submitted
if(isset($_POST[‘username’], $_POST[‘password’], $_POST[‘passve’], $_POST[’email’], $_POST[‘avatar’]) and $_POST[‘username’]!=”)
{
if(get_magic_quotes_gpc())
{
$_POST[‘username’] = stripslashes($_POST[‘username’]);
$_POST[‘password’] = stripslashes($_POST[‘password’]);
$_POST[‘passve’] = stripslashes($_POST[‘passve’]);
$_POST[’email’] = stripslashes($_POST[’email’]);
$_POST[‘avatar’] = stripslashes($_POST[‘avatar’]);
}
//check for password match
if($_POST[‘password’]==$_POST[‘passve’])
{
//password should be atleast 6 characters or more
if(strlen($_POST[‘password’])>=6)
{
//validate email
if(preg_match(‘#^(([a-z0-9!#$%&\’*+/=?^_`{|}~-]+.?)*[a-z0-9!#$%&\’*+/=?^_`{|}~-]+)@(([a-z0-9-_]+.?)*[a-z0-9-_]+).[a-z]{2,}$#i’,$_POST[’email’]))
{
//We protect the variables
$username = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST[‘username’]);
$password = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST[‘password’]);
$email = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST[’email’]);
$avatar = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST[‘avatar’]);
//We check if there is no other user using the same username
$dn = mysql_num_rows(mysql_query(‘select id from employees where username=”‘.$username.'”‘));
if($dn==0)
{
//count number of users to give an ID
$dn_2 = mysql_num_rows(mysql_query(‘select id from employees’));
$id = $dn_2+1;
//save data into the databse
if(mysql_query(‘insert into employees(id, username, password, email, avatar, signup_date) values (‘.$id.’, “‘.$username.'”, “‘.$password.'”, “‘.$email.'”, “‘.$avatar.'”, “‘.time().'”)’))
{
//dont display form
$form = false;
?>
<div class=”message”>Account Successfully Created. You can now log in.<br />
<a href=”con.php”>Log in</a></div>
<?php
}
else
{
//display an error has occured
$form = true;
$message = ‘An error occurred while creating an account.’;
}
}
else
{
//Or report that the username is currently not available
$form = true;
$message = ‘The username you have chosen is not available, please suggest another one.’;
}
}
else
{
//Or report, the email is invalid
$form = true;
$message = ‘The email you entered is invalid!.’;
}
}
else
{
//Or report, password is too short
$form = true;
$message = ‘password must contain at least contain 6 characters.’;
}
}
else
{
//or display, the passwords entered do not match
$form = true;
$message = ‘The passwords entered do not match.’;
}
}
else
{
$form = true;
}
if($form)
{
//display message
if(isset($message))
{
echo ‘<div class=”message”>’.$message.'</div>’;
}
//display form
?>
<div class=”content”>
<form action=”create_acc.php” method=”post”>
Create Your Account :<br/>
<div class=”center”>
<label for=”username”>Username</label><input type=”text” name=”username” value=”<?php if(isset($_POST[‘username’])){echo htmlentities($_POST[‘username’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8′);} ?>” /><br />
<label for=”password”>Password<span class=”small”>(6 characters min.)</span></label><input type=”password” name=”password” /><br />
<label for=”passve”>Password<span class=”small”>(verification)</span></label><input type=”password” name=”passve” /><br />
<label for=”email”>Email</label><input type=”text” name=”email” value=”<?php if(isset($_POST[’email’])){echo htmlentities($_POST[’email’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’);} ?>” /><br />
<label for=”avatar”>Avatar<span class=”small”>(optional)</span></label><input type=”text” name=”avatar” value=”<?php if(isset($_POST[‘avatar’])){echo htmlentities($_POST[‘avatar’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’);} ?>” /><br />
<input type=”submit” value=”Create Account” />
</div>
</form>
</div>
<?php
}
?>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”>Go Home</a> – <a href=”http://127.0.0.1/pms/”>Return to Government ePMS portal</a><br></br
></div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”con.php”> Logout</a>
</body>
</html>
G.4 employees.php
<?php
include(‘config.php’);
?>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”<?php echo $design; ?>/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” title=”Style” />
<title>List of users</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”header”>
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”><img src=”<?php echo $design; ?>/images/logo1.gif” alt=”Members Area” height=”200″ width=”700″ /></a>
</div>
<div class=”content”>
Employee Contacts:
<table>
<tr>
<th>Id</th>
<th>Username</th>
<th>Email</th>
</tr>
<?php
$req = mysql_query(‘select id, username, email from employees’);
while($dn_n = mysql_fetch_array($req))
{
?>
<tr>
<td class=”left”><?php echo $dnn[‘id’]; ?></td>
<td class=”left”><a href=”profile.php?id=<?php echo $dn_n[‘id’]; ?>”><?php echo htmlentities($dnn[‘username’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8′); ?></a></td>
<td class=”left”><?php echo htmlentities($dn_n[’email’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?></td>
</tr>
<?php
}
?>
</table>
</div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”>Go Home</a> – <a href=”http://127.0.0.1/pms/”>Return to Government ePMS portal</a><br></br
</div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”con.php”> Logout</a>
</body>
</html>
G.5 list_message.php
<?php
include(‘config.php’);
?>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”<?php echo $design; ?>/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” title=”Style” />
<title>Personnal Messages</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”header”>
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”><img src=”<?php echo $design; ?>/images/logo1.gif” alt=”Members Area” height=”200″ width=”700″ /></a>
</div>
<div class=”content”>
<?php
//We check if the user is logged
if(isset($_SESSION[‘username’]))
{
//We list his messages in a table
//Two queries are executes, one for the unread messages and another for read messages
$req1 = mysql_query(‘select k1.id, k1.title, k1.timestamp, count(k2.id) as reps, employees.id as userid, employees.username from mess as k1, mess as k2, employees where ((k1.emp1=”‘.$_SESSION[‘userid’].'” and k1.emp1_read=”no” and employees.id=k1.emp2) or (k1.emp2=”‘.$_SESSION[‘userid’].'” and k1.emp2_read=”no” and employees.id=k1.emp1)) and k1.id2=”1″ and k2.id=k1.id group by k1.id order by k1.id desc’);
$req2 = mysql_query(‘select k1.id, k1.title, k1.timestamp, count(k2.id) as reps, employees.id as userid, employees.username from mess as k1, mess as k2,employees where ((k1.emp1=”‘.$_SESSION[‘userid’].'” and k1.emp1_read=”yes” and employees.id=k1.emp2) or (k1.emp2=”‘.$_SESSION[‘userid’].'” and k1.emp2_read=”yes” and employees.id=k1.emp1)) and k1.id2=”1″ and k2.id=k1.id group by k1.id order by k1.id desc’);
?>
Messages:<br />
<a href=”new_message.php” class=”link_new_message”>New Message</a><br />
<h3>Unread Messages(<?php echo intval(mysql_num_rows($req1)); ?>):</h3>
<table>
<tr>
<th class=”title_cell”>Subject</th>
<th>Reply</th>
<th>Name</th>
<th>Date Created</th>
</tr>
<?php
//We display the list of unread messages
while($dn_1 = mysql_fetch_array($req1))
{
?>
<tr>
<td class=”left”><a href=”read_mail.php?id=<?php echo $dn_1[‘id’]; ?>”><?php echo htmlentities($dn_1[‘title’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?></a></td>
<td><?php echo $dn_1[‘reps’]-1; ?></td>
<td><a href=”profile.php?id=<?php echo $dn1[‘userid’]; ?>”><?php echo htmlentities($dn_1[‘username’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?></a></td>
<td><?php echo date(‘Y/m/d H:i:s’ ,$dn_1[‘timestamp’]); ?></td>
</tr>
<?php
}
//If there is no unread message we notice it
if(intval(mysql_num_rows($req1))==0)
{
?>
<tr>
<td colspan=”4″ class=”center”>You have no unread message.</td>
</tr>
<?php
}
?>
</table>
<br />
<h3>Read Messages(<?php echo intval(mysql_num_rows($req2)); ?>):</h3>
<table>
<tr>
<th class=”title_cell”>Subject</th>
<th>Reply</th>
<th>Name</th>
<th>Date Created</th>
</tr>
<?php
//We display the list of read messages
while($dn_2 = mysql_fetch_array($req2))
{
?>
<tr>
<td class=”left”><a href=”read_mail.php?id=<?php echo $dn_2[‘id’]; ?>”><?php echo htmlentities($dn_2[‘title’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?></a></td>
<td><?php echo $dn_2[‘reps’]-1; ?></td>
<td><a href=”profile.php?id=<?php echo $dn_2[‘userid’]; ?>”><?php echo htmlentities($dn_2[‘username’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?></a></td>
<td><?php echo date(‘Y/m/d H:i:s’ ,$dn_2[‘timestamp’]); ?></td>
</tr>
<?php
}
//If there is no read message we notice it
if(intval(mysql_num_rows($req2))==0)
{
?>
<tr>
<td colspan=”4″ class=”center”>You have no unread message.</td>
</tr>
<?php
}
?>
</table>
<?php
}
else
{
echo ‘You must be logged to access this page.’;
}
?>
<div class=”foot”>
<a href=”employees.php”>Staff Contacts Information</a>
</div>
<div class=”foot”>
<a href=”create_acc.php”>Create Staff Account</a>
</div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”http://127.0.0.1/pms/”> Return to Government ePMS portal</a>
</div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”con.php”> Logout</a></div>
</body>
</html>
G.6 message.php
<?php
include(‘config.php’);
?>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”<?php echo $design; ?>/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” title=”Style” />
<title>New message</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”header”> <a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”><img src=”<?php echo $design; ?>/images/logo1.gif” alt=”Members Area” height=”20″ width=”700″ /></a> </div>
<?php
//check whether employee is logged in
if(isset($_SESSION[‘username’]))
{
$form = true;
$otitle = ”;
$orecip = ”;
$omessage = ”;
//The code below confirms that a form has been sent
if(isset($_POST[‘title’], $_POST[‘recip’], $_POST[‘message’]))
{
$otitle = $_POST[‘title’];
$orecip = $_POST[‘recip’];
$omessage = $_POST[‘message’];
//remove slashes
if(get_magic_quotes_gpc())
{
$otitle = stripslashes($otitle);
$orecip = stripslashes($orecip);
$omessage = stripslashes($omessage);
}
//validate fields
if($_POST[‘title’]!=” and $_POST[‘recip’]!=” and $_POST[‘message’]!=”)
{
//protect variables
$title = mysql_real_escape_string($otitle);
$recip_m = mysql_real_escape_string($orecip);
$message = mysql_real_escape_string(nl2br(htmlentities($omessage, ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’)));
//check if recepient exists
$dn_1 = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query(‘select count(id) as recip, id as recipid, (select count(*) from mess) as nm from employees where username=”‘.$recip.'”‘));
if($dn_1[‘recip’]==1)
{
//check if recepient is available
if($dn_1[‘recipid’]!=$_SESSION[‘userid’])
{
$id = $dn_1[‘nm’]+1;
//send new message
if(mysql_query(‘insert into mess (id, id2, title, emp1, emp2, message, timestamp, emp1_read, emp2_read) values(“‘.$id.'”, “1”, “‘.$title.'”, “‘.$_SESSION[‘userid’].'”, “‘.$dn1[‘recipid’].'”, “‘.$message.'”, “‘.time().'”, “yes”, “no”)’))
{
?>
<div class=”message”>Message sent Successfully!.<br />
<a href=”list_message.php”>InBox</a></div>
<?php
$form = false;
}
else
{
//throw exception
$error = ‘An error occurred whilst sending the message’;
}
}
else
{
//throw exception
$error = ‘Sorry you cant send a message to yourself.’;
}
}
else
{
//throw exception
$error = ‘The recipient does not exists.’;
}
}
else
{
//throw exception
$error = ‘Field cant be empty. Please fill in allthe fields.’;
}
}
elseif(isset($_GET[‘recip’]))
{
//retrieve recepient username
$orecip = $_GET[‘recip’];
}
if($form)
{
//display the message
if(isset($error))
{
echo ‘<div class=”message”>’.$error.'</div>’;
}
//displayform
?>
<div class=”content”>
<h1>Create Message</h1>
<form action=”new_message.php” method=”post”>
Compose new message in the text Area:.<br />
<label for=”title”>Subject:</label><input type=”text” value=”<?php echo htmlentities($otitle, ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?>” id=”title” name=”title” /><br />
<label for=”recip”>To:<span class=”small”>(Username)</span></label><input type=”text” value=”<?php echo htmlentities($orecip, ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?>” id=”recip” name=”recip” /><br />
<label for=”message”>message</label><textarea cols=”40″ rows=”5″ id=”message” name=”message”><?php echo htmlentities($omessage, ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?></textarea><br />
<input type=”submit” value=”Send” />
</form>
</div>
<?php
}
}
else
{
echo ‘<div class=”message”>Login to access this page.</div>’;
}
?>
<div class=”foot”>
<a href=”list_message.php”>Return to mail box</a>
<a href=”http://127.0.0.1/pms/”> Return to Government ePMS portal</a>
</div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”con.php”> Logout</a>
</body>
</html>
G.7 profile.php
<?php
include(‘config.php’);
?>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”<?php echo $design; ?>/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” title=”Style” />
<title>User’s Profile</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”header”>
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”><img src=”<?php echo $design; ?>/images/logo1.gif” alt=”Members Area” height=”200″ width=”700″/></a>
<div class=”content”>
<?php
//check if userID is define
if(isset($_GET[‘id’]))
{
$id = intval($_GET[‘id’]);
//check if user exists
$dn = mysql_query(‘select username, email, avatar, signup_date from employees where id=”‘.$id.'”‘);
if(mysql_num_rows($dn)>0)
{
$dnn = mysql_fetch_array($dn);
//display employee datas
?>
Profile for: “<?php echo htmlentities($dnn[‘username’]); ?>” :
<table style=”width:500px;”>
<tr>
<td><?php
if($dnn[‘avatar’]!=”)
{
echo ‘<img src=”‘.htmlentities($dnn[‘avatar’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8′).'” alt=”Avatar” style=”max-width:100px;max-height:100px;” />’;
}
else
{
echo ‘Employee does not have an avatar.’;
}
?></td>
<td class=”left”><h1><?php echo htmlentities($dnn[‘username’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8′); ?></h1>
Email: <?php echo htmlentities($dnn[’email’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?><br />
Employee Was Created on: <?php echo date(‘Y/m/d’,$dnn[‘signup_date’]); ?></td>
</tr>
</table>
<?php
//link for sending a new message
if(isset($_SESSION[‘username’]))
{
?>
<br /><a href=”new_message.php?recip=<?php echo urlencode($dnn[‘username’]); ?>” class=”big”>Send a Message to “<?php echo htmlentities($dnn[‘username’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’); ?>”</a>
<?php
}
}
else
{
echo ‘Employee does not exists.’;
}
}
else
{
echo ‘This user ID is not Valid.’;
}
?>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”list_message.php”>Return to messages</a></div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”http://127.0.0.1/pms/”> Return to Government ePMS portal</a>
</div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”con.php”> Logout</a></div>
</body>
</html>
G.8 read_mail.php
<?php
include(‘config.php’);
?>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”<?php echo $design; ?>/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” title=”Style” />
<title>Read a mails</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”header”>
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”><img src=”<?php echo $design; ?>/images/logo1.gif” alt=”Members Area” height=”200″ width=”700″/></a>
</div>
<?php
//check if has logged in
if(isset($_SESSION[‘username’]))
{
//check if discussion ID is defined
if(isset($_GET[‘id’]))
{
$id = intval($_GET[‘id’]);
//get discussion title and narrators
$req1 = mysql_query(‘select title, emp1, emp2 from mess where id=”‘.$id.'” and id2=”1″‘);
$dn1 = mysql_fetch_array($req1);
//check if discussion exists
if(mysql_num_rows($req1)==1)
{
//check if employees have the right to read messages
if($dn1[’emp1′]==$_SESSION[‘userid’] or $dn1[’emp2′]==$_SESSION[‘userid’])
{
//place discussion in read mails
if($dn1[’emp1′]==$_SESSION[‘userid’])
{
mysql_query(‘update mess set emp1_read=”yes” where id=”‘.$id.'” and id2=”1″‘);
$user_partic = 2;
}
else
{
mysql_query(‘update mess set emp2_read=”yes” where id=”‘.$id.'” and id2=”1″‘);
$user_partic = 1;
}
//list messages
$req2 = mysql_query(‘select mess.timestamp, mess.message,employees.id as userid, employees.username, employees.avatar from mess, employees where mess.id=”‘.$id.'” and employees.id=mess.emp1 order by mess.id2’);
//check if form has been successfully sent
if(isset($_POST[‘message’]) and $_POST[‘message’]!=”)
{
$message = $_POST[‘message’];
if(get_magic_quotes_gpc())
{
$message = stripslashes($message);
}
//protect variables
$message = mysql_real_escape_string(nl2br(htmlentities($message, ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’)));
//send message
if(mysql_query(‘insert into mess (id, id2, title, emp1, emp2, message, timestamp, emp1_read, emp2_read)values(“‘.$id.'”, “‘.(intval(mysql_num_rows($req2))+1).'”, “”, “‘.$_SESSION[‘userid’].'”, “”, “‘.$message.'”, “‘.time().'”, “”, “”)’) and mysql_query(‘update mess set user’.$user_partic.’read=”yes” where id=”‘.$id.'” and id2=”1″‘))
{
?>
<div class=”message”>Your message successfully sent!.<br />
<a href=”read_mail.php?id=<?php echo $id; ?>”>Return to messages</a></div>
<?php
}
else
{
?>
<div class=”message”>An error occurred whilst sending the message.<br />
<a href=”read_mail.php?id=<?php echo $id; ?>”>Retaurn to messages</a></div>
<?php
}
}
else
{
//display messages
?>
<div class=”content”>
<h1><?php echo $dn_1[‘title’]; ?></h1>
<table class=”messages_table”>
<tr>
<th class=”author”>User</th>
<th>Message</th>
</tr>
<?php
while($dn_2 = mysql_fetch_array($req2))
{
?>
<tr>
<td class=”author center”>
<?php
if($dn_2[‘avatar’]!=”)
{
echo ‘<img src=”‘.htmlentities($dn2[‘avatar’]).'” alt=”Image Perso” style=”max-width:100px;max-height:100px;” />’;
}
?><br /><a href=”profile.php?id=<?php echo $dn2[‘userid’]; ?>”>
<?php echo $dn_2[‘username’]; ?>
</a></td>
<td class=”left”><div class=”date”>Sent:
<?php echo date(‘m/d/Y H:i:s’ ,$dn_2[‘timestamp’]); ?></div>
<?php echo $dn_2[‘message’]; ?></td>
</tr>
<?php
}
//display the reply form
?>
</table><br />
<h2>Reply</h2>
<div class=”center”>
<form action=”read_mail.php? id=<?php echo $id; ?>” method=”post”>
<label for=”message” class=”center”>Message</label><br />
<textarea cols=”40″ rows=”5″ name=”message” id=”message”></textarea><br />
<input type=”submit” value=”Send Message” />
</form>
</div>
</div>
<?php
}
}
else
{
echo ‘<div class=”message”>You are not allowed to access this page.</div>’;
}
}
else
{
echo ‘<div class=”message”>You cant view the messages.</div>’;
}
}
else
{
echo ‘<div class=”message”>No discussion sessions availabe.</div>’;
}
}
else
{
echo ‘<div class=”message”>You must log-in to access this page.</div>’;
}
?>
<div class=”foot”>
<a href=”list_message.php”>Return to messages</a>
<a href=”http://127.0.0.1/pms/”> Return to Government ePMS portal</a>
</div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”con.php”> Logout</a>
</body>
</html>
G.9 update_info.php
<?php
include(‘config.php’);
?>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv=”Content-Type” content=”text/html; charset=utf-8″ />
<link href=”<?php echo $design; ?>/style.css” rel=”stylesheet” title=”Style” />
<title>Edit my personnal informations</title>
</head>
<body>
<div class=”header”>
<a href=”<?php echo $url_home; ?>”><img src=”<?php echo $design; ?>/images/logo1.gif” alt=”Members Area” alt=”Members Area” height=”200″ width=”700″ /a>
</div>
<?php
//check if is logged-in
if(isset($_SESSION[‘username’]))
{
//check if form is submitted
if(isset($_POST[‘username’], $_POST[‘password’], $_POST[‘passve’], $_POST[’email’], $_POST[‘avatar’]))
{
if(get_magic_quotes_gpc())
{
$_POST[‘username’] = stripslashes($_POST[‘username’]);
$_POST[‘password’] = stripslashes($_POST[‘password’]);
$_POST[‘passve’] = stripslashes($_POST[‘passve’]);
$_POST[’email’] = stripslashes($_POST[’email’]);
$_POST[‘avatar’] = stripslashes($_POST[‘avatar’]);
}
//check if passwords are same
if($_POST[‘password’]==$_POST[‘passve’])
{
//check if password has got 6 or more characters
if(strlen($_POST[‘password’])>=6)
{
//We check if the email form is valid
if(preg_match(‘#^(([a-z0-9!#$%&\’*+/=?^_`{|}~-]+.?)*[a-z0-9!#$%&\’*+/=?^_`{|}~-]+)@(([a-z0-9-_]+.?)*[a-z0-9-_]+).[a-z]{2,}$#i’,$_POST[’email’]))
{
//We protect the variables
$username = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST[‘username’]);
$password = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST[‘password’]);
$email = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST[’email’]);
$avatar = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST[‘avatar’]);
//check if user credentials exist
$d_n = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query(‘select count(*) as nm from employeess where username=”‘.$username.'”‘));
//check if the username is changed and its availability
if($d_n[‘nm’]==0 or $_POST[‘username’]==$_SESSION[‘username’])
{
//edit user profile
if(mysql_query(‘update employees set username=”‘.$username.'”, password=”‘.$password.'”, email=”‘.$email.'”, avatar=”‘.$avatar.'” where id=”‘.mysql_real_escape_string($_SESSION[‘userid’]).'”‘))
{
$form = false;
//delete old sessions
unset($_SESSION[‘username’], $_SESSION[‘userid’]);
?>
<div class=”message”>Your Profile has successfuly been updated. Kindly log again.<br />
<a href=”con.php”>Log in</a></div>
<?php
}
else
{
//Throw exception
$form = true;
$message = ‘Error whilst updating your profile.’;
}
}
else
{
//Throw an exception
$form = true;
$message = ‘The Username exists for another employee, Please suggest another one.’;
}
}
else
{
//Throw an exception
$form = true;
$message = ‘Invalid email entered, enter correct email.’;
}
}
else
{
//Throws an Exception
$form = true;
$message = ‘at least 6 characters for a password ! .’;
}
}
else
{
//Throw an Exception
$form = true;
$message = ‘passwords mismatch!.’;
}
}
else
{
$form = true;
}
if($form)
{
//display message
if(isset($message))
{
echo ‘<strong>’.$message.'</strong>’;
}
//if form already submitted, display the values
if(isset($_POST[‘username’],$_POST[‘password’],$_POST[’email’]))
{
$pseudo = htmlentities($_POST[‘username’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’);
if($_POST[‘password’]==$_POST[‘passve’])
{
$password = htmlentities($_POST[‘password’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8′);
}
else
{
$password = ”;
}
$email = htmlentities($_POST[’email’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’);
$avatar = htmlentities($_POST[‘avatar’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’);
}
else
{
//display database values
$dn_n = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query(‘select username,password,email,avatar from employees where username=”‘.$_SESSION[‘username’].'”‘));
$username = htmlentities($dnn[‘username’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’);
$password = htmlentities($dnn[‘password’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8′);
$email = htmlentities($dnn[’email’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’);
$avatar = htmlentities($dnn[‘avatar’], ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’);
}
//display form
?>
<div class=”content”>
<form action=”update_profile.php” method=”post”>
Update Own Profile:<br />
<div class=”center”>
<label for=”username”>Username</label><input type=”text” name=”username” id=”username” value=”<?php echo $username; ?>” /><br />
<label for=”password”>Password<span class=”small”>( should be 6 characters min.)</span></label><input type=”password” name=”password” id=”password” value=”<?php echo $password; ?>” /><br />
<label for=”passve”>Password<span class=”small”>(verification)</span></label><input type=”password” name=”passve” id=”passve” value=”<?php echo $password; ?>” /><br /><label for=”email”>Email</label><input type=”text” name=”email” id=”email” value=”<?php echo $email; ?>” /><br />
<label for=”avatar”>Avatar<span class=”small”>(optional)</span></label><input type=”text” name=”avatar” id=”avatar” value=”<?php echo $avatar; ?>” /><br />
<input type=”submit” value=”Send Message” />
</div>
</form>
</div>
<?php
}
}
else
{
?>
<div class=”message”>You need Authorization to access this page.<br />
<a href=”con.php”>Log in</a></div>
<?php
}
?>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”http://127.0.0.1/pms/”> Return to Government ePMS portal</a><br></br
</div>
<div class=”foot”><a href=”con.php”> Logout</a>
</body>
</html>
Appendix H. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear respondent my name is John Nkhoma and am currently studying with the University of Liverpool, I would like to welcome you to my online survey. This is an academic research, aimed at investigating the effective use of performance management systems in public institutions in Zambia.
I would like to assure you that non of your personal information will be disclosed to anyone as the information being requested is meant for academic purposes and as such will only be used for data aggregation.
Should you have questions or seek clarification, please feel free to contact me on [email protected] or you can call me on: +260950003222
Thanking you in advance for providing me with this information.
________________________________________
* Required Information
page 1
* 1. Are you employed by the Zambian government? (Select one option)
Yes
No
* 2. What type of employment do you have with the government? (Select one option)
working on contract
Permanent employment
Temporal worker
Other
* 3. Which of the following Provinces is your office located ? (Select one option)
Lusaka Province
Central Province
Eastern Province
Western Province
Southern Province
North-Western Province
Copperbelt Province
Northern Province
Luapula Province
Muchinga Province
Other
* 4. Which town from the list below clearly indicates the location of your office? (Select one option)
Mansa
Kitwe
Kabwe
Lusaka
Luanshyua
Chingola
Mufulira
Solwezi
Mongu
Livingstone
Choma
Chipata
Kasama
Mpika
Nchelenge
Mwense
Samfya
other
* 5. Which of the following government ministry does your department belongs to? (Select one option)
Agriculture & Cooperatives
Commerce, Trade & Industry
Communication and Transport
Community Development & Social Services
Defence
Education
Energy and Water Development
Finance & National Planning
Foreign Affairs
Health
Justice
Science & Technology and Vocational Training
Home Affairs
Sport, Youth and Child Development
information & Broadcasting Services
Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources
Lands
Works and Supply
Labour and Social Security
Gender & Women in Development
Information & Broadcasting Services
Local Government and Housing
Mines & Minerals Development
Other
* 6. Do you have people that you supervise? (Select one option)
Yes
No
* 7. If you are a supervisor, can you indicate the approximate number of people that you supervise? (Select one option)
between 1 and 5
Between 6 and 10
Between 11 and 50
50 and above
I do not have people to supervise
* 8. For how long have you been in employment? (Select one option)
Less than 6 months
Less than 2 years
3 years
4 years
5 years
6 years
7 years
8 years
Above 8 years
* 9. If you are a supervisor, how long have you served in that role? (Select one option)
Less than 1 year
for more than 6 months but less than 2 years
3 years
4 years and above
Am not in management
For question 10, you need to state at what level of management you operate in the organization
* 10. If you are a supervisor, select the management category where you belong (Select one option)
Junior Management
Middle management
Senior Managment
Executive management
am not in managment
For the following questions, you are required to provide information on the effectiveness of the performance management systems in use in your organization. A performance management system is a process that helps companies, organizations and institutions to realize their goals and objectives through assigning work to respective departments, for example; signing work performance contracts with individuals and aligning company processes to strategy with a view of achieving their goals and objectives.
* 11. Can you state if a performance management system is available at your institution? (Select one option)
Yes a performance management system is available
No we do not have a performance management system
* 12. How is your department performance measured? (Select one option)
Through achievement of set performance parameters
Through aggregated individual performance results
Through a well-structured system that measures both departmental individual performance
Performance is based on individual commitment to work, there are no clear targets
Altitude and behavioural parameters forms the basis for measuring performance
We don’t know anything about performance management at our department
Another system not described by any of the above
* 13. Select the type of performance management system in use at your department/institution? (Select one option)
Top-Down Evaluation(supervisor assess junior staff)
Self-Evaluation (employee assess own performance)
Peer evaluation (performance is measured by work mates or co-workers)
The first three systems are used
We do not have any form of assessing employee performance
for question 14, you need to state the extent to which the existing performance management system helps you meet your department aspirations – goals and objectives
* 14. Our performance management system helps in achieving departmental goals and objectives? (Select one option)
Yes, i strongly agree
I agree
somehow yes, it does help
it does but not very much
Not at all
* 15. Can you clearly see the work deliverables from the existing performance management system? (Select one option)
Yes deliverables are visible
To some extent i can see work deliverables
My work is difficult to be measured, so you cant tell
Am not sure
Can you state the degree to which you agree with the following statement in question16
* 16. With the current performance management system, I am given a work performance contract which contains targets to be achieved. (Select one option)
Strongly agree
Agree
neither agree nor disagree
disagree
* 17. Our Performance management system is supported by Information Technology and I can clearly monitor my performance (Select one option)
Strongly agree
agree
Neither agree nor disagree
Disagree
* 18. With the current performance management system, I am able to see overall performance of the ministry/institution. (Select one option)
Strongly agree
Agree
neither agree nor disagree
Disagree
* 19. Is performance management data readily available for everyone to see how your ministry has performed compared to set goals and objectives? (Select one option)
Yes, data is readily available
No, performance management data is not readily available
Am not sure whether data is made available
* 20. On a scale of 5, can you rate the extent to which the current performance management system has helped to improve your performance and that of the organization? (Select one option)
Not at all
1
2
Reasonably
3
4
Exceptionally well
5

* 21. Can you rate the extent to which you think an IT supported performance management system would improve efficiency and productivity? (Select one option)
Not at all
1
2
average
3
4
very much
5

22. If you have any more feedback regarding use of a performance management system at your institution, feel free to comment in the text box below;
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Appendix I. PARTICIPANTS INFORMATION LIST (PIL)

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