Essay: Transaction Processing System (TPS)

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  • Transaction Processing System (TPS)
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At the Operational Level they use Transaction Processing Systems’.
“A transaction process system (TPS) is information processing system business exchanges including the gathering, change and recovery of all exchange information. Qualities of a TPS incorporate execution, dependability and consistency. To have an effective association everything relies on upon the dependability of handling exchanges to be ensured that the client’s request in met on time, and that speculators and suppliers can be paid. With the overall comprehension of Transaction Processing Systems’ it has turned into a fundamental piece of running a proficient association. Exchange Processing Systems’ empowers associations the capacity to rapidly prepare exchanges to ensure smooth and consistent stream of information and productivity to get forms all through an association finished.
TPS is also known as transaction processing or real-time processing.”
Some features of Transaction Processing System (TPS):
Speed Processing:
The quick procedure of exchanges is critical to the achievement of any venture, more noteworthy than any time in recent memory, with the adjustments in innovation and customer interest for prompt activity. TPS’ are intended to strategy exchanges pretty much immediately to affirm that customer information is out there to process what is required.
Controlled Access:
Subsequent to TPS frameworks are regularly such a solid business apparatus, access ought to be confined to exclusively those specialists that need their utilization. Constrained access to the framework guarantees that labourers that do not have the abilities to control it can’t impact the exchange process.
Real Time Processing:
In a few circumstances the principal issue is rate, as a sample, once a bank customer pulls back a measure of money from their record it’s essential that the exchange be prepared and thusly the record parity overhauled as constantly as could be expected under the circumstances, allowing each the bank and customer to stay track of assets.
Batch Processing:
Batch Processing: could be an asset sparing gathering activity sort that stores information for preparing at pre-characterized times. Clump handling is useful for endeavours that require preparing huge measures of data utilizing limited assets.
Samples of Batch preparing are MasterCard exchanges that the exchanges region unit handled month to month rather than continuously. MasterCard exchanges would exclusively be prepared once every month in order to give an announcement to the customer, in this way Batch handling spares IT assets from processing each exchange independently.
Functional Level:
The Functional Level is the centre level which administration settle on arrangement of activity choices that are critical to the association, since they are considered being more taught and more dependable than the Operation Level administration yet don’t have as much power as the Strategic level administration, their choices have a tendency to be more middle term issues that answer the associations needs to finish undertakings. Achieve targets and concoct of procedures. Control is essential at the Functional Level. Practical Level administration set focuses to be met for every office or business partners in the association that are in accordance with the primary hierarchical targets set by Strategic Level administration. Inward and outside information is critical for settling on urgent choices, which regularly has a long haul time skyline normally somewhere around one and three years. The Functional Level uses four distinctive administration frameworks.
Management Information Systems’ (MIS):
Administration Information Systems will be frameworks that comprise of numerous parts and substances that cooperate to pick up a specific capacity to achieve a specific target or goal. A Management Information System is principally a PC based framework that gives data for critical choice making on the best way to arrange or channel an association, while controlling the capacity of the sub division in the association and synchronized association were all procedures are working as one.
Management: management covers the design, control, and administration of the operations of a priority. Strategic Level management handles planning; Functional Level management concentrates on controlling; and also the lower management thinks about with actual administration.
Information: information, in MIS, means that the processed data that helps the management in designing, dominant and operations. Data means that all the facts arising out of the operations of the priority. Data is processed i.e. recorded, summarised, compared and eventually conferred to the management within the style of MIS report.
System: data is processed into information with the assistance of a system. A system is formed from inputs, processing, output and feedback or management.
Decision Support Systems’ (DSS):
A Decision emotionally supportive network is a class of data frameworks that bolster business and structure choice making exercises. A legitimately outlined Decision Support Systems is an easy to use programming based framework expected to help administrators’ settles on choices and arrange accommodating data from a blend of information, archives, individual data, or plans of action to spot and understand issues and decide.
Some of the information systems that are valuable to an organization are:
1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
2. Management Information Systems (MIS)
3. Decision Support Systems (DSS)
4. Executive Support Systems (ESS)
Transaction Processing System (TPS):
Transaction Processing System is that level of an organization in which day to day transactions occurred in a business are recorded. This operational level of an organization also includes functions that are not directly related with actual production of the organization.
Management Information System (MIS):
MIS acts as a middle management and ensures the smooth running of organization. It provides report on the basis of data received from TPS. It uses internal data to supply useful information. It supports relatively structured decisions. It is inflexible and has little analytical capacity. Some examples of MIS are Budgeting Systems, Inventory Control Systems, etc.
Decision Support System (DSS):
It also serves as a middle management but different from MIS. It not only uses internal data but also combines the data with external data to help in decision making. It also helps those functions of organization that are not directly related to the production of the organization. It also supports ill structured or semi structured decisions. It is used to predict future.
Executive Support Systems (ESS):
ESS organizes and presents data and information from both external data sources and internal MIS or TPS in order to support and extend the inherent capabilities of senior executives. For example working capital, accounts receivable, accounts payable, etc.
Operational Benefits
Organizations implement enterprise systems with the purpose of synchronizing the functions of different departments. An integrated system reduces the time used in processing documents, such as payrolls and other external documents. Information visibility and transparency within an organization is a benefit that facilitates the different operations carried out by the various departments.
Managerial Benefits:
Managers find it less hectic to oversee operations and to ensure that key business objectives are achieved through enterprise systems. Because they are able to access information from a centralized server, managers find that the decision-making process becomes more informed and yields better results.
The Advantages of Having an Enterprise System
By John-Michael Haines
Developed to bring down the cost of maintaining data and improve performance, an enterprise system offers various advantages to companies that utilize it. These large-scale packages of integrated software offer a way to simplify communications and better organize information by supporting multiple operating systems.
• Effective Communication via a Central Database
Companies often struggle to communicate effectively with each employee using their own spreadsheets, file types, formats, tools and programs. This can make it hard to maintain accuracy and validation of information, especially on a large scale. Enterprise systems create a central database system on company servers through which information can transferred in the same format, examined, altered and stored in an efficient way. These programs help to teach and guide users through the process to minimize confusion for employees.
• Resource Sharing
Workers can create groups using the enterprise system in which they share all of their information concerning a particular project they’re working on together. This way, the individual members of the group can view everyone else’s resources and progress and can make suggestions if necessary. Not only does this allow workers to move faster on the projects, but it improves the accuracy of those projects.
• Lower Maintenance Costs
The network of an enterprise system is streamlined, simple and straightforward for qualified technicians to maintain. The larger a company gets, the more powerful the hardware that runs it needs to be. This often leads to more expensive maintenance — but with an enterprise system, it doesn’t have to be. Because the software is purchased and officially licensed for that particular business, it’s designed to meet those specific processing needs. Any extra terminals or applications can be added as needed.
• More Effective Marketing
Enterprise systems offer applications that are designed to be user-friendly for those who interact with customers on a daily basis. The programs enable representatives to better address the needs of individual customers, which often lead to better marketing. The data picked up by customer service and marketing can often lead to opening unexpected new markets or new ways to respond to existing markets.
• CHALLENGES FACING ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS:
In high tech, the term “Enterprise Systems” means large-scale servers, storage systems, networking equipment and accompanying software primarily targeted toward the Enterprise market. Enterprise Systems is a very intricate business, as the term suggests. One piece of equipment can have commodity hardware, custom ASICs, embedded software, and operating system and third party hardware and software components. Enterprise Systems manufacturing companies tend to be mid-volume businesses with a large product mix. Volumes are typically larger than a semiconductor capital equipment company but smaller than a personal computing company. Enterprise Systems companies have traditionally been among the high gross margin sectors in high tech, with some running in the 55%-65% range. However, as margins have eroded and orders have dropped due to mass commoditization — Huawei in networking, Dell in storage, Intel/Linux in server systems — Enterprise Systems manufacturing companies have struggled to adapt to a changing market. These companies are faced with three challenges: delivering flexibility in their supply chains, managing configuration complexity efficiently, and optimally servicing their installed base followed by costs and storage challenges.
• Costs:
Enterprise systems, such as Customer Relations Management and Enterprise Resource Planning, can incur exorbitant costs. Purchasing the software architecture, implementing it, and training staff are some of the overheads incurred, in terms of both money and time. Enterprise systems do not always yield anticipated benefits, thus creating a risk of double losses. The maturity period required to see the benefits of these systems may be as lengthy as three years.
Storage Challenges:
Generally, enterprise systems have a lifespan of 10 to 20 years, after which point they can be upgraded. Although this might seem like a long time, data within organizations accumulates exponentially and may prove too difficult to manage and store using a single software system. Data overflow and a subsequent slowdown in one department will certainly have a ripple effect in other functions of an organization.
First Challenge: Delivering Flexibility
The first challenge, delivering flexibility, stems from the way Enterprise Systems manufacturing companies are being forced to respond to fast changes in customer requirements and technology. This has placed huge demands on the flexibility of supply chain systems. Key issues revolve around managing outsourced manufacturing partners and suppliers, product transition (NPI, new products introduction), exception handling and change management in orders, forecasting for capacity planning and long-lead time components, product quality amongst others.
Second Challenge: Managing Configuration Complexity
The second challenge, configuration complexity, has been a growing issue since the 1980s. Before then, most elements of the systems configuration – the hardware, operating system, database and storage, and applications – were simple and easily tied together in one system. Now, however, the typical configuration consists of several separate mini-systems. For example, a complex high-end server solution has separate storage area networks, networking equipment and software stacks for the middleware, database, portals, application servers and web servers. Managing this explosion in complexity (especially the software components) has become a nightmare for Enterprise Systems manufacturers. Another reason for the increase in system complexity is that customers demand more exact specifications, and more customization, than ever before. Yet another is that the software complexity has increased. And finally, solutions to today’s complex requirements tend to emphasize hardware and software equally, rather than one or the other as in the 1980s.
Third Challenge: Optimally Servicing the Installed Equipment Base
The third challenge, optimally servicing the installed equipment base, revolves around the difficult task of support and warranties and servicing them cost-effectively, both proactively and reactively. The installed base is a huge potential source of upgrade revenue, especially for software upgrades.
Why Would A Firm Want To Build Enterprise System?
Enterprise system is used to organize the organizational procedures and the work flows. If the organization is very large and they need to define the standard operating procedures, then the enterprise system works best.
A): Enterprise resource planning:
Enterprise resource planning is one of the most widely implemented business software systems in a wide variety of industries and organizations. Enterprise Resource Planning is often called ERP, ERP system, or ERP software – can be defined as a system that helps organizations manage their financials, supply chain, manufacturing, operations, reporting, and human resources. Most ERP systems can be deployed on-premises or in the cloud, to improve and automate the core parts of your business.
ERP is principally an integration of business management practices and modern technology. Information Technology (IT) integrates with the core business processes of a corporate house to streamline and accomplish specific business objectives.
ERP main Key Components in business:
ERP is an amalgamation of the following three most important components:
1. Business Management Practices
2. Information Technology
3. Specific Business Objectives.
ERP Building Blocks:
The term ERP originally referred to the way a large organization planned to use its organizational wide resources. Formerly, ERP systems were used in larger and more industrial types of companies. However, the use of ERP has changed radically over a period of few years. Today the term can be applied to any type of company, operating in any kind of field and of any magnitude.
Today’s ERP software architecture can possibly envelop a broad range of enterprise wide functions and integrate them into a single unified database repository. For instance, functions such as:
• Human Resources Management
• Supply Chain Management
• Customer Relationship Management
• Finance Management
• Manufacturing Warehouse Management
• Logistics
The Business Value of ERP:
At its core, ERP helps employees do their jobs more efficiently by breaking down barriers between business units. More specifically, an ERP solution:
• Gives a global, real-time view of data that can enable companies to address concerns proactively and drive improvements
• Improves financial compliance with regulatory standards and reduces risk
• Automates core business operations such as lead-to-cash, order-to-fulfilment, and procure-to-pay processes
• Enhances customer service by providing one source for billing and relationship tracking.
B): List of EPS business software (product):
C): Benefits of an ERP using graphical representation:
There are many Benefits of implementing an EPR system. A few of them are listed below:
• Improved work process
• Increase access to available data for decision making
• Timely and accurate information
• Increased customer response time
• Reduced paper
• A perfectly integrated system chaining all the functional areas together
• The capability to streamline different organizational processes and workflows
• The ability to effortlessly communicate information across various departments
• Improved efficiency, performance and productivity levels
• Enhanced tracking and forecasting
• Improved customer service and satisfaction.
In simpler words, an ERP is a massive software architecture that supports the streaming and distribution of geographically scattered enterprise wide information across all the functional units of a business house. It provides the business management executives with a comprehensive overview of the complete business execution which in turn influences their decisions in a productive way.
At the core of ERP is a well-managed centralized data repository which acquires information from and supply information into the fragmented applications operating on a universal computing platform.
Information in large business organizations is accumulated on various servers across many functional units and sometimes separated by geographical boundaries. Such information islands can possibly service individual organizational units but fail to enhance enterprise wide performance, speed and competence.
D): ERP play in a supply chain management strategy:
The integration of Supply chain management and ERP allows manufacturing and distribution businesses the ability to gain greater visibility into all operations while increasing speed, efficiency and overall customer satisfaction
A growing number of businesses recognize the many potential benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) when it comes to managing business information, integrating various systems and working processes, and ensuring optimal operational efficiency.
When it comes to Supply Chain Management (SCM), businesses need to interact with numerous suppliers and partners in order to obtain the raw materials and resources needed to bring finished goods to market. ERP plays a vital role in combating inefficiency; reducing waste and ensuring that workers are better able direct their efforts. The integration of both systems may pose some unique challenges. It is in your company’s best interest to ensure that you and your staff fully understand the role of ERP within the SCM process.
 Improved efficiency across multiple departments and organizations working within the supply chain
 Improved customer service for increased customer retention and greater chance of repeat business opportunities
 Automation of workflow for reduced overhead and operational costs
 IT issues and problems that are less likely to create bottlenecks to impede efficiency
 More flexible supply chain solutions that may be readily adapted to meet the needs of changing circumstances or future business growth and expansion
Pretty much as each general public reflects social qualities like dialect, dress, and nourishment, so does each organization have its own way of life. A few organizations like Google are extremely “laid-back.” The organization permits representatives to convey their canines to work and ride skateboards in the corridors. Different organizations like IBM oblige representatives to stick to a strict clothing regulation and leave the skateboards at home. Yet both organizations are extremely fruitful in their own particular right. Be that as it may, when every organization sets out on hierarchical change, the way of life is all that much a player in what they may or may not be able to.
Cultural Factors
Understanding how to change an organizational culture requires some insight into what creates culture in the first place and how altering those components may impact meaningful cultural development. These include:
• Control systems
• Organizational structures
• Power structures
• Symbols
• Stories and myths
Impact on Organizational Politics:
There is not an organization on earth (or space for that matter) that does not have to deal with politics. The degree of organizational politics varies from one organization to another but the reality is, all organizations have some sort of internal political struggle that can rip it apart. Dealing with this struggle takes a keen awareness of the landscape, players and rules in which the political game is played. Don’t weaken yourself for keeping in touch with you must be clear in your reasoning that your association need no political issues. Those truth for any association for more than you quit offering on that one man is that political issues may be the grease up that oils your organization inside gears.
People in organizations occupy different positions with different specialties, concerns, and perspectives. As a result, they naturally have divergent viewpoints about how resources, rewards, and punishments should be distributed. These differences caused because of Law of Individualism and matter to both Managers and employees of an organization. These differences matter to both managers and employees, and they result in political struggle for resources, competition, and conflict within every organization.
Political resistance is one of the great troubles of achieving hierarchical change, particularly the advancement of new data frameworks. Practically all expansive data frameworks ventures by a firm that realize noteworthy changes in methodology, business destinations, business procedures, and techniques turn out to be politically charged occasions.
Administrators that know how to function with the political issues of an association will be more fruitful than less-skilled directors in implementing new data frameworks.
Each person in an organization ultimately has his own goals be the impact of information technology. Those goals may be aligned very well with organizational goals but perhaps they aren’t. The bottom line is each person comes into an organization with different concerns and perspectives. When those viewpoints clash with others the end result is organizational politics.

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