Essay: Ethics in leadership in the context of the African continent and Tanzania

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LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
The previous chapter explained the background of ethics and its global importance in leadership in the context of the African continent and Tanzania particularly in Local Government Authorities. Corruption is immoral and the outcome of unethical behavior. The purpose of this chapter is to synthesize relevant literature review concerning ethical leadership. The chapter entails the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of ethical leadership. The next part is discussion on ethics and leadership.

2.2 Ethics and Leadership
Leadership is a process by which a leader influences a group of people to achieve a common goal. Salminen (2006:183) expressed the importance of public servants of being both professional and adherence to high moral standards. According to Van Wart (2003:214), stated that effective leadership is that which makes possible the provision of higher quality and efficient goods and services to the citizens with a sense of good direction and vision. Ethical leaders have to care for the necessary needs of their citizens such as health, education and water. A leader should be creative in order to build up a vibrant organizational culture and climate for common good rather than self-interests. Brown et al. (2005:117) note that the frequent publicized ethical scandals and failures in both public and private sectors “have raised the important questions about the role of leadership in shaping ethical conduct” in on organizations. Thus, the leader’s vision, behavior and actions are necessary for positive results, good governance. The following part discusses the importance of ethical leadership.

2.2.1 The importance of ethical leadership
Ethics is very important in leadership in any organizational setting. Menzel (2007:6) noted “ethics are values and principles that guide right and wrong behavior”. Kanungo and Mendonca (1996:3) noted on the importance of ethics in leadership as follows “Effective organizational leaders need ethics as fish need water and human beings need air” According to Northouse (2007:346), ethics are the centrality of leadership whereby leaders help to establish and influence organizational values. Northouse noted that, such an influence has a great ethical burden and responsibility. Kanungo and Mendonca 1996:6) noted that when actions and behavior of leaders fail to be in accordance with the shared values, there is more harm than physical harm. Such ethical failure or compromise can cause moral cynicism, which is compared with a cancer that corrodes the society’s moral health. Therefore, the place and role of ethics in leadership cannot be replaced by competency alone. It leads us to the conclusion that there is no true leadership without ethics. The next part shows relationship between ethics and morality.

2.2.2 Ethics and morality
For Menzel (2007:6), ethics are the rules and principles that guide people as a framework to making good decisions. Morality also deals with the right and wrong decisions or actions of people. Good governance is the outcome of ethical leadership whereby ethical leadership is built on the bases of ethics and morality. A similarity exists between the two terms: ethics and morality. Kanungo and Mendonca (1996:33) noted that ethics and morality are interchangeable terms in the sense that what is ethical also is moral and what is moral also is ethical. Therefore, both moral and ethics concepts are used interchangeably in this study. The next part discusses on ethics in administration and governance.

2.2.3 Ethics in Administration and Governance
Public administration is an instrument by which, through efficient and effective institutions government provides social goods and services that advance socioeconomic and human development. Governance as a process or method in which responsibilities or the public officials discharge functions in serving human beings requires ethical leadership. Menzel (2007:8-9) observed that it is difficult to promote public services without ethical government. Ethics in governance is fundamental to effective and democratic government. He further continues to state that, “ethical governance is vital to effective and democratic. Menzel remarked that good government cannot be achieved with men and women who lack ethical or moral values. The concept of good governance in this context implies the capacity of government to discharge its responsibilities and accountable to citizens in just manner. The public expect from their public officials at all levels of government to utilize public resources for the well-being of the citizenry. Good social services that foster the socioeconomic improvement and strong democratic institutions are indications that a government is practicing good governance to its citizens as good caretaker of the public good. Bowman (2008:62) democratic government and its administration require ethics as preconditions on which all plans and public policies depend on it. The emphasis is on public servants to know their call and serve with commitment the needs of their citizens. The highest standard of ethics is more required in all of public officials though is highly needed in every organization. The administrators in public services should act as servants accountable to the people. Consequently, ethical leadership in public service remains very important for achieving sustainable socioeconomic development and good governance. Good government guarantees “a responsive governmental and administrative framework” (Doig 1995:151), which assists in making good governance and economic development attainable. The next subsection deals with ethics and leadership in developing countries.

2.3 Ethics and Leadership in Developing Countries
The issue of ethical leadership and good governance is a global issue. Nevertheless, in developing countries corruption as unethical practice is widespread. Burn et al., (2011:xi) as cited in Hoseah (2014:3) noted that the theft of public assets from developing countries that are hidden in foreign jurisdictions each year is estimated at 20-40 billion USD. Hoseah (2014:2) stated that the current corruption measurements still rank Africa, especially South of the Sahara, as terribly corrupt. From this reason, it is essential to have a brief study on ethical leadership and good governance in Local Government Authorities particularly in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Nigeria. The aim of including the above three mentioned countries is to study on how Local Governments affected by unethical practice of corruption. However, Tanzanian local governments will be my place of research about ethical leadership for good governance. The first country next to this discussion is Kenya.
2.3.1 Ethics and leadership in Kenyan local governments
According to Mitullah (2010:1), since the 1999 the Kenya Government has implemented Local Government Reform Programme aimed at structuring the Local government Administration system for improved service delivery. However, the findings of the Kenya Round 4 Afro Barometer Survey revealed that, citizens remain discontented with the performance of Local Officials due to their poor service provision and inability to follow procedures (Mitullah, 2010:1). Moreover, citizens do not trust any more their councilors. Citizens are not allowed to participate in councils’ decisions and in making council’s programme are not known to the ordinary people. The majority of councilors are insufficient qualified in handling public funds and not honesty. The study manifests that, the Local Government officials lack competency and ethics in leadership. The parliament of Kenya enacted the Public Officer Ethics Act of 2003 and the Leadership Integrity Act of 2012 among other laws. Leadership and Integrity Act of 2012 in chapter six of the Constitution of Kenya wants public officers adhere to the principles set out in various legislative provisions. Section 13 of the Act spells out that, the public officers are required to show forth honesty of public affairs subjects to the Public Office Act of 2003. In spite of the elaborate institutional framework ethics and integrate are of great importance in the public service of Kenya, still unethical practices persist. For instance, Kenya Anti –Corruption Commission reports that, corruption permeates in health sector. The findings show that the local councils do not follow democratic procedures. From the findings, we can conclude that the public officials in the local governments in Kenya do not follow the principles of ethical leadership and good governance since some attributes of ethics of leaders and good governance such as transparency, honest, efficient and effectiveness and participation a in decision-making lack (mercury.ethz.ch/…/Files/…/AfrobriefNo89.pdf).The following discussion bases on Zimbabwe.

2.3.2 Ethics and leadership in Zimbabwe Local governments
The system of local governments in Zimbabwe has experienced a lot of changes and challenges during colonial rule and after independence 1980.The decentralization of the local government system in Zimbabwe in the new National Constitution (2013) is positive development. The new Zimbabwe Constitution of (2013) has defined the local government system in detail. However, poor service delivery is experienced in local governments including unpredictable water supplies and roads filled with potholes and become a nightmare for motorists. The Zimbabwe Election Support Network (ZESN) (2008:1) cited in Jonga (2014:82) explained that there has been general dissatisfaction among residents about the level of service delivery. Madzivanyika (2011:33) as cited in Jonga (2014:84) alleged that an efficient and effective provision of services is undermined by a high level of interference from central government in the decision of local governments. The findings revealed that many of councilors are elected on the politics, and qualifications do not matter much when choosing candidates for election (Jonga, 2014:85). Consequently, the issue of ethical leadership and good governance lack in Zimbabwe Local Government Authorities. The failure to elect or appoint professionals who can work properly for the public effectively and efficiently it is unethical. The next part will be on Nigerian local governments.

2.3.3 Ethics and leadership in Nigerian local governments
The 1976 local government reforms in Nigeria meant to promote public service delivery at the grassroots level. Due to the deficiency of ethical practices by local government officials makes the achievement of good governance and service delivery difficult in Nigeria. From the findings according to Okechukwu (2012:260) demonstrated that the local government system in Nigeria is regarded as a place of bribery and corruption because most of the councils’ officials are corrupt, they lack honest and person integrity. The public officials in local governments are not transparent. They do not let people know what they do (Okechukwu, 2012:261).They afraid to be transparent because they know what they do is not right thing hence try to run away from an accountability. It means that there is much secrecy than transparency in Nigerian local government officials. The rule of law is not followed by public officials in Nigerian local governments. For example, the corrupt officials used the public funds to build big houses, buy costly cars for themselves and spouses and still the law has not caught them (Okechukwu, 2012:265). It was found that leaders are not much interested in the public interests but for their own interest. For instance, those in health department were on strike three to four months in Nigeria. People are deprived of receiving medical attention they need particularly when their need is agent (Okechukwu, 2012:271). Thus, most of the local officers see their positions as an opportunity for self-enrichment. The next part discusses on Tanzania.

2.3.4 Ethics and leadership in Tanzanian local governments
Article 145 (1) and 146(1-2) of the 1977 Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania guarantee the establishment of a Local Government system by democratically elected government councils. Article 146 (1-2) specifies the purpose and functions of Local Government Authorities. The purpose of having local government authorities is to transfer authority to the people and participation of people in the planning and implementation of development programmes within their respective areas. The functions of Local Government in its areas are; a) to reform functions of local government, b) ensure the enforcement of law and public safety of the people, and, c) consolidate democracy and apply it to foster the development of the people. Tanzania has adopted a policy of decentralization by devolution; however service delivery not efficient and effective. The next part discusses theoretical frameworks.

2.4 Theoretical Framework
The study was guided by three major normative ethical theories: utilitarian theory, deontological theory, virtuous theory and justice theory. Ethical leadership and good governance emerged in the discussion of these ethical theories including Mill’s consequential theory, Kant’s deontological theory, Aristotle’s virtuous theory and Rawls’ justice theory. Ethical theories give us the principles for guidance and moral decision-making being as individuals or as a group. Northouse (2007) cited in Okechukwu (2012:37), remarked that ethical theories provide principles that enable individuals in deciding what is right or wrong and good or bad in any ethical predicament. Vance & Trani, (2008) as noted in Okechukwu (2012:37) identified the above-mentioned three major ethical theories. Each of the above-mentioned theories articulates and emphasizes particular ethical principles. The next discussion is about utilitarian ethical theory.

2.4.1 Teleological utilitarian ethical theory
According to teleological theories, an action can be judged morally good when the leader’s actions result into something good or the ‘greatest good’ (Ciulla, 2005:163). Bentham argued that the ultimate goal of human action was to achieve pleasure and to avoid pain; these two values govern human actions. The nature has placed humankind under the governance of two supreme masters, pain and pleasure. They determine us in all we do, in all we say; in all we think (Burtt, 1939:791). Teleological ethical theories also known as consequential theories since their principles primarily focus on the outcomes of actions. The right actions are those that promote “the greatest possible…happiness…” (Vance and Trani, 2008: 373). Bentham (1748-1832) and Mill (1806-1873) were two notable proponents of utilitarianism. For Bentham, the ultimate goal of human action was to achieve happiness or pleasure and to avoid pain (Burtt 1939:791). From this point of view, Bentham formulated his moral principle known as the utility principle or the greatest happiness principle. Basing on this perspective, what is considered morally right action is that which produces the maximum quantity of pleasure in favor of the greatest number of people. Mill argued that the principle of utility underpins the normative, ethical theory and our decisions and actions are judged ethically right or wrong to the extent they promote or diminish happiness for people. Therefore, the utilitarian ethical principle guarantees the happiness and well-being of greatest number of people. Bentham insisted that government policies should be in line with the principle of utility, which means that they must be geared toward promoting the well-being of the citizenry rather than diminishing it (Burtt, 1939:791). The foremost task of the government is to serve its citizenry through provision of various needs that will improve their well-being and happiness. The utilitarian ethical point of view encourages those public officials’ actions and policy to focus on improving the well-being of the conditions of life of their people whom they serve. The next theory to be discussed is deontological theory.

2.4.2 Deontological ethical theory
From deontological ethical theory, an action can be judged morally good if a leader acts according to moral principles and on duty regardless of the outcomes ( Ciulla, 2005:163). Deontological ethical theory presents an ethical framework that considers morality as duty or a principle that ought to be followed by everyone. There is a distinction between deontological ethics and teleological ethics. Deontological ethics evaluates and judges ethical merit of an action, not by the consequences as in teleological ethics, but rather on motive based on duty or moral principles (Van staveren, 2007:23). According to deontologists certain action are right in themselves and some are intrinsically bad, no matter their outcomes, therefore, bad action should not be done at all. Deontological ethics provides us with “universal norms that prescribe what people obliged to do, how they should behave, what is right and what is wrong” (Van Staveren, 2007:23; Kropotkin, 1922:21). Kant was the chief proponent and a notable figure in deontological ethical theory. Ciulla (2003:95) as a scholar noted that Kant’s theory “captures the idea of ‘acting’ on principle or doing something simple because it is the right…” From Some scholars observed Kant’s instance that an ethical rule must not be used as a means to an end but must be as end itself. In an attempt to ground all ethical judgment on a rational principle, Kant posited the concept of ‘categorical imperative’ “act only according to that maximum whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law” (Ciulla, 2003:102). Vance and Trani (2008:373) noted that this maxim supports the equality of all human beings, no individual should be turned into means for others’ ends but people should be treated as an end in themselves. The following is the discussion on Virtue ethical theory.

2.4.3 Virtue ethical theory
Aristotle defined virtue, as the mean between extremes (Ciulla, 2011:234) .According to Aristotle virtues are moral qualities that people acquire from the society and from their legislators. Aristotle (1984:1743) as cited in (Ciulla, 2011:234) writes, ‘Legislators make citizens good by forming habits in them’. Nevertheless, virtues come naturally to those who practice them. For instance, a person may value honesty but he or she never always tells the truth. Aristotle insisted that when a person practices a virtue he or she must always be conscious that it is the right way to be and act. … Therefore, if this is true in every case, the excellence of man also will be the state which makes man good and which makes him do his work well” (Ciulla, 2011:235). The function of humans in accordance with Aristotle is to reason. To be morally virtuous, you must reason well, because the reason tells you how and when to practice a virtue. For Aristotle, the morally virtuous leader must also be a competent leader otherwise, it is immoral for a leader to be incompetent (Ciulla, 2011:235).

Virtues ethics concern with the sort of person an individual ought to be and the kind of life a person ought to live rather than the kind of actions the individual should do (Stewart, 1991:363). The focus of virtue ethics is on the agent rather than on the act on “being rather than on doing” (Stewart 1991:363). Aristotle has been regarded as the leading theorist in virtue ethics theory. Maclntyre (1984:150) noted that Aristotle insisted that the practice of the virtues is very important, for achievement of virtues requires an individual to have the capacity to judge and make choices that lead “to do the right thing in the right place at right time…” In favor of Aristotle, human beings are political animals. The author also claimed that the goal of political science was the formation of “character of the citizen, to make them good people who do fine actions (Irwin, 1999: 12). Ethics helps individual and a community to live happily (Irwin 1999:12). According to Aristotelian tradition, virtues include courage, temperance, generosity, self-control, honesty, sociability, modest, fairness and justice. Hence, according to Aristotle virtuous public administrators have the capacity and disposition to use their positions to enhance prosperity of the people through provision of good governance. Being aware of moral responsibilities, they are committed to discharging their duties with moral integrity. Virtue must be the fundamental aspect of public officials’ character, which guide all their actions and behavior. The next discussion is on justice ethical theory.

2.4.4 Justice ethical theory
According to Rawls (1971:3-4), justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. He articulated the idea of justice as fairness in his work entitled Theory of Justice. Rawls emphasized the importance of justice in social institutions. Rawls contrasts with utility principle by insisted that it would never be right and just to sacrifice the freedom or subject some people to unjust treatment to attain the greatest profit for many. In democratic governance involves equal liberty, individual autonomy, and social justice among others. These values can be realized if only the public leaders were to act from and base their decisions on justice principle. Consequently, the question of ethical leadership and good governance at present parallels the perspectives of deontological and teleological theories in ethics.

As the discussion above illustrates the major three normative theories and justice theory the contextual meaning from deontological point of view in this study implies this, when the leader acts according to his or her duty or on moral principles, the leader acts ethically right regardless of the outcomes. From the teleological perspective, what matters is about leader’s actions result in bringing about something morally good or the greatest good. Deontological theory locates the ethics of an action in the moral intention of the leader and the moral justification for the action. Both deontological and teleological theories are needed to account for the ethics of leaders (Ciulla, 2005:163), just as a good leader has to be ethical and effective. That is, leaders have to do their duties and with some notion of the common good in mind. If Local Government officials were to do their entrusted duties and with the notion of serving the community then unethical practice such as corruption would have no chance at all. The following section discusses about conceptual framework.

2.5 Empirical Background
Brown et al. (2005) cited in Okechukwu (2012:91), remarked that leadership should be major source of ethical guidance in the workplace, but little is known about ethical leadership. This shortfall of research in the ethical leadership is obvious in the public sector, and its ahs an impact of this study, because most of the ethical leadership literature utilized in this study is from private business sector. Ethical leadership becomes even more scarce in the context of the Tanzanian Local Government Authorities. As a result, I explored in other fields, precisely in the private business sector to understand how the leadership concept could be employed in Local Government Authorities to achieve good governance outcomes Still, it is to stress that this idea does not invalidate the credibility of this study because any leadership paradigm develop in one sector can be used in another sector without affecting the foundational principles of ethical leadership.
Brown et al.(2005) cited by Okechukwu (2012:91)conducted seven different but interrelated studies to examine the viability and significance of an ethical leadership construct. They employed a qualitative research method. Ethical leadership was an independent variable while honesty, behavior, consideration of others were treated as dependent variables. The results show that ethical leadership is related to consideration behavior, interaction fairness, honest, idealized influence, and effective trust in leader.

Ponu and Tennakoon (2009) as cited in Okechukwu (2012:92) conducted in Malaysia. A qualitative research methodology was used to examine the impact of ethical leadership behavior on employee attitudinal outcomes and trust regarding organizational commitment and trust in leaders. Ethical leadership was treated as independent variable while employee organizational loyalty was treated as dependent variables. Questionnaire technique was used to collect data. The outcomes indicated that ethical leaders’ behavior has impact on both the employee and organizational commitment and trust in leadership

Dibie (2003) cited in Okechukwu 2012:94) conducted study on the performance of local government public servants and citizens participation in governance in Nigeria, Dibie used a mixed method approach. Questionnaires, interview and documentary analysis were used as tools for collecting data. The outcomes indicated that most of Local government Councils in Nigeria lacks qualified personnel, adequately trained staff or trained programmes for their stuff. Moreover, the findings show that the citizen’s participation in Local Government elections is declining.

Zhu (2008) as cited by Okechukwu (2012:93) conducted a study to examine ethical leadership influences the moral development of followers. Quantitative method approach was employed. The author treated ethical leadership as independent variable while follower’s psychological empowerment and moral integrity as dependent variables. The results indicated that ethical leadership has a positive effect both o follower moral integrity and psychological empowerment.

2.6. Conceptual Framework

The previous subsection described the theoretical framework used in this study. This part provides a conceptual framework derived from scholars’ views. According to Miles and Huberman (1984:18), define a conceptual framework as a tool that, ‘explains, either graphically or in narrative form, the main things to be studied – the key factors, constructs or variables – and the presumed relationships among them’. The model for this study relies on Brown and Trevino et al. Brown et al., (2005:120) defined ethical leadership as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and promotion of such conduct to the followers through two-way…”. From this definition, Brown et al. (2005:120-21) enumerated the constitutive components of ethical leadership as follows: a) demonstration of appropriate conduct such as honest, trustworthiness, fairness, and cares in their behavior and model such to followers b) making ethics as salient factors; communicate unambiguously regarding ethics and provide followers with just interpersonal process to express their views; c) reward ethical conduct and punish the disobedient ones; c) make decisions based on principles and justice. The concept of ethical leadership according to Brown et al.’s (2005:120) corresponds to what Trevino et al., (2000:597) regarded as two-fundamental pillars for ethical leadership. According to Trevino et al., those who are perceived as ethical leaders are characterized as moral both personally and in their roles as leaders. They also encouraged the issue of accountability with reward system. Thus, in this study the following factors as adapted from Brown et al. (2005:120) and Trevino et al., (2000:597) of person integrity, honest and concern for people, trustworthiness, openness (transparency), fairness (justice), accountability, participation and competency were used as criteria to investigate on citizens’ perspectives on ethical leadership for good governance in Local Government Authorities. The following part discusses the above-mentioned constitutive components (elements) of ethical leadership.

2.6.1 Justice/fairness and rule of law
According to Rawls (1999:3-4) as cited in (http://www.readbag.com/who-medicines-areas-policy-goodgovernance-ethical-infrastructure) “justice is about giving each his or her fair due of reward or punishment. …”.Legal orders as a system of public rule can be addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating the conduct and providing a framework for social cooperation. One kind of unjust action is the failure of judges and others in authority to apply the appropriate rule or interpret it correctly. The rule of law must be impartial to everyone in the sense of fair treatment before the law; we may call “justice as regularity” (Rawls, 1971:207-8). The society is well ordered when it is designed to advance the good of its members as well as when it is effectively regulated by public conception of justice. That is, in the society whereby (i) everyone accepts and knows that the others accept the same principles of justice, and (ii) the basic social institutions generally satisfy and are generally known to satisfy the principle (Rawls, 1971:4). Therefore, the rule of law demands the existence of impartial and incorruptible judiciary in order to achieve good governance in Local Government Authorities in Tanzania. The following discussion is on accountability and transparency.

2.6.2 Accountability and transparency
Accountability is an inevitable part of public management. It is a system in public institutions where by public officers are held accountable for their actions or omissions in decision-making (Hope, 2005:298). Hope (2005:296) noted, “transparency is closely associated with the successful implementation of good governance…” A public servant can be held legally accountable to accomplish the terms of the agreement related to his or her professional services under the rule of law on the behalf of public interest. Hence, accountability refers to the obligation of public officials to give a report on how they used the public resources and as they answer for their failure to meet the stated performance objectives (Armstrong, 2005:1). According to Kakumba & Flourie (2007:651) there are three key reasons for accountability, especially in the public organization: (a) to ensure control of abuse and misuse of public power; (b) to ensure effective use of public resources and adherence to procedural law and public service values; (c) to encourage learning and continuous improvement in governance and public management. Mostly, public leaders in South of Sub Saharan Africa tend to see their public positions as person inheritance property, that they often struggle to secure by “the selective distribution of favors and material benefits to loyal followers who are regarded and treated as clients” (Hope2005:298). Under this patrimonial nature of public officials in African region, undermines good governance and inhibits the prospect of achieving sustainable development (Hope, 2005: 299). Therefore, the public officials entrusted with the power to serve the public interest and common good have to discharge their duties with accepted standards of ethics and conduct. Hope (2005:296) observed that the governance record in African region shows poor level of public accountability and hence needs to be improved. The transparency of decision-making and resource management for the public examination should be documented and accessible for the public inspection. Nevertheless, the situation of accountability and transparency from the literature review on Local Governments in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Nigeria was not effective. In the Local Government Authorities that lack accountability then an abuse of public offices is high. Hope (2005:296) transparency enhances public trust and allows identification of possible acts of corruption and as well as permitting the time for corrective measures. Free availability and accessibility of an information to the people affected by the government’s decisions helps to reduce uncertainty and control corruption among public officials (Hope, 2005:296). The next discussion bases on equality, participation and merit system.

2.6.3 Participation and inclusiveness
Participation as a principle of good governance includes conducting free and fair elections, ensuring that all citizens have a voice in their local public affairs. It is through the consultative process that diversity of views and voices within a social organization can be heard and taken into consideration in the process of collective decision-making. Participation allows the decisions to reflect truthfully and justly the needs of the members of the society. The public services should be inclusive and should serve all equally. This requires a basic recognition by public institutions and public officials of the reality of the oneness of humanity. According to Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR, 1948) Article 1, all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. The principle of inclusiveness relates to fundamental social justice in service to the common good. (http://www.readbag.com/who-medicines-areas-policy-goodgovernance-ethical-infrastructure). The next section deals with ethical principle of trustworthiness.

2.6.4 Person integrity and honest, truth and trust
Person integrity is the quality of being honesty and having strong moral principles. Honesty is so crucial in both public and private administration in managing the resources. For instance, stealing, the acceptance of bribes and lying are all forms of dishonesty that lead to corruption. Dishonest behavior by public officials creates public distrust towards the institutions that are supposed to serve that society (http://www.readbag.com/who-medicines-areas-policy-goodgovernance-ethical-infrastructure).
At the individual level, integrity is more than ethics; it is all about the character of the person. The individuals with personal integrity do consistently what is right as well as what is expected of them. They are trustworthy and knowable in serving others and they are defenders of what is fair and acceptable (http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/10504.pdf).

2.6.5 Concern for the people
The public servants should fulfill the moral imperative by using their official position to serve the public interest. Both personal and institutional commitment to the core moral value of serving the common good is source of natural motivation to sustain the efforts and perseverance often needed to promote social transformation and human development. A significant role of moral leadership in the society has to do with constructing consensus on the shared core values that define the common good. The commitment to maintain the common good should be public official’s primary motive for combating corruption. Selfishness does not serve the common good. Service to the common good should be based on human development. Public services should respect human dignity. People should not be made fell ignorant or inferior when receiving services that are due to them. People should be served in way that truly respects and enhances their human dignity.

2.6.6 Efficient and effectiveness (Competency)
According to Ciulla (1995) as noted in Ciulla (2005:161), a good leader is an ethical and effective leader. The use of “good” here has two senses, morally good leadership and technically good leadership. It is immoral for a leader to be incompetent (Ciulla, 2011:235). The fulfillment of the role of trusteeship requires the efficient and effective use of public resources in the service of the public interest and the common good. There must a systematic monitoring and evaluation of the efficient delivery of services and their impact are very important responsibility of trusteeship. The issue of ethical leadership is inseparable from competency. Therefore, the figure below shows the relationship among variables of this framework.
Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework

Source: Researcher Own Design (2015).

SUMMARY
The above-mentioned empirical researches proved that ethical leadership has positive impacts on both public and private sectors. However, those empirical studies were conducted outside of Tanzania. Therefore, there are two gaps: (i) geographical gap and (i) knowledge gap. These gaps will be filled by this study. The studies showed that ethical leadership is workable and successful model of leadership that constitutes impact positive results in any organizational sector. From the extant literature review provides the characteristics of ethical leadership including honesty, trustworthy, just and fair, considerate altruistic, respect of human dignity and focusing on the common good. Therefore, it is only individual with some qualifications that can truly run a government that is accountable and transparency to the citizenry. On the foundation of the four ethical theories one can judge his or her actions as right or wrong. Among the four ethics theories as explored the above, deontological and utilitarian ethics seem to be more prominent in the sphere of public administration. To a large degree, both public service and professional ethics depend on both deontological and utilitarian ethics on decision-making. Once theory argued is not to be adequate in the developing countries such as Tanzania. Thus, there was a need of conducting a study to investigate citizens’ perspectives on ethical leadership for good governance in Local Government Authorities in Kinondoni Municipality, Tanzania. The next chapter discusses about research methodology.

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