Essay: An essay on translation as a subject

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CHAPTER ONE

1. Introduction
In today’s world this subject is getting more and more popularity. There are many reasons behind it. The first and the foremost reason is that it contributes to the unity of nations. It also encourages mutual understanding, broad-mindedness, cultural dialogues and intertextuality. But one can hardly think of comparative literature without immediate thinking of translation. For instance most readers in India know the works of Goethe, Tolstoy, Balzac, Shakespeare and Gorky only through translation. It is through the intermediary of translator that we get access to other literatures.
Thus Comparative Literature and translation humanize relationship between people and nations. As an intermediary between languages, thoughts and cultures, they contribute to the respect of alteration. Furthermore, they connect themselves and the other in their truths, myths, force and weakness. From a historical perspective, comparative literature and translation have always been complementary. Without the help of translation a normal person who usually knows two or three languages would never have known the universal master pieces of Dante, Shakespeare, Borges, Kalidas, and Cervantes etc. A normal person usually not knows more than two-three languages. But if s/he wanted to study and compare the literature of two or more languages s/he must be familiar with those languages and cultures. If s/he does not know any of that particular language s/he can take help of translation. Those texts might be translated by someone else who knows that language and the comparatist can use that translated text to solve his/her purpose. So one can say that:
a. Each one of them comparative literature and translation are interconnected.
b. A common man can come closer to the major writers of different fields.
c. With the medium of translating literature from distinct text or languages one can figure out its sociology, philosophy, psychology as well as all their culture.
d. Either translation or through comparison the problems of particular area’s people will analysed.
e. With the help of translation a text become able to get a wider range of readers.
Comparative literature is a discipline dedicated to the study of literature without national and linguistic barriers. The student of comparative literature study problems in genre, mode, literary period or movement. The comparatists probe the mechanics of literary forms and engage themselves in the analysis of existing theoretical and critical approaches and the formulation of necessary critical distinctions of equal importance. The comparatists also deal with the questions of interaction between literature and other arts and disciplines. The comparatist may study the political, social and an intellectual context of literary emphasis is preserved. In other words, the main objective of the study of comparative literature is the proper appreciation of literature in a larger perspective, involving more than one literature and specially those growing across the national boundaries. In a multilingual country like ours we have two basic objectives for studying comparative literature.
No doubt the role of translation in comparative literature is very important. It becomes more valuable in today’s world when the whole world has become a global village. With the advancement of technology people living in different countries with different languages come closer to each other. Although there is a one international language, English, which is the common source of communication between people but still there is a problem in the study of literature as literatures is usually written in regional languages or languages of that particular countries such as France’s literature is in French and literature of Russia is in Russian language.
It is not compulsory that every comparatist will know the all languages. So there is need of translation by which a comparatist can read and understand that literary works which are not in his/her own language. With the help of translation we become familiar with the customs, dress code, and culture of other countries.
In short it can be said that translation plays a great role in comparative literature. We can even say that comparative study of literatures from different languages, cultures and sociocultural backgrounds is not possible. So translation occupies a special place in comparative literature. In this age of globalization comparative literature as a subject is getting more and more popularity. But there is no one who is perfect in all the languages. So translation has played a very important role to understand the literature & culture of different languages without which we cannot do a comparative study of various literary works written in different languages. So Comparative literature is a tree with translation as its most important branch.
1. What is Translation?

Translation is the transformation of a text from one language into another. Though the word translation and elucidation are frequently used exchangeable, by firm description, translation denotes to the transcribed language, and understanding to the spoken word. Translation is the act of construal of the denotation of a text, and later construction of a comparable text, also entitled a translation, that passes the exact content in target language. The text or a work to be translated is termed the source text, and the language it is to be translated into is called the target language.

Translation must take into account brakes that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. A common misconstruction is that there exists a simple word-for-word parallelism between any two languages, and that translation is a straight forward mechanical process.
1.1 History of Translation.
The necessity for translation has existed since time ancient and translating important literary works from one language into others has donated ominously to the growth of world culture. Ideas and customs of one culture have continuously progressed and got adjusted into other cultures through the works of translators. The history of translation is associated to the history of the often unseen cross cultural exchanges of the world.
Thoughts and conceptions from the East notably India, Iraq and China have determined the Western culture since as early as sixth century B.C. when business ties were first instituted between Mediterranean countries and India. Many curative theories of Galen and Plato of Greece had significantly influence from those of India. Many of the scientific and philosophical works of ancient Greece were extracted into Arabic as early as ninth century A.D. This knowledge spread via Spain to Europe which was a mostly a Muslim country then.
The scholar of translators of Toledo in Spain set up by Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile in 1085 AD was given responsibility for translations from Arabic to Latin and then to Spanish these technological and scientific work which afterward led to the European Renaissance. In spite of their main contributions, early translators have repeatedly persisted unfamiliar or in the background and the recognition due to them have not been recognized. They have done their work with conscientious exertions in spite of many contravenes that have spotted in history.
Translators have enabled sacred books like the Bible written in esoteric languages like Latin to be understood by ordinary people by translating them into more common languages without depending on a few clerisy bishops to explain what they contained. Few translators also had to pay with their lives for doing it like the well-known Bible translators William Tyndale who was caught and put to death in Holland by the king in 1536 for translating the Bible from its original languages into the common language of English.
It was believed that Chinese monk Xuanzang have translated 74 volumes of Buddhist sacred text which was belong from India in to Chinese in 645 AD. One of the most former preserved translations of significant effort in English is possibly the translation of the Bible around 1100 AD. British translator Constance Garnett made the translating school pleased by her vivid translations of Russian classics containing those of Tolstoy, Chekhov, Gogol, Turgenev, and Dostoyevski in late 19s. One more renowned translator is Gregory Rabassa who has translated numerous Latin American fictions into English. Dr. Arthur Waley is one of the world’s foremost translators of the 20th century of Japanese and Chinese literature into English. Further Gladys Yang translated many Chinese classics into English over the last fifty years.
Translation has played an important key role in the improvement in culture at world level. It is simple to think of culture as nationwide and completely distinct. If we commence to observe the effect of literary translation, the assumption of communication besides anything so limited by geographical location is clear.
A history of world culture from the viewpoint of translation discloses a continuous movement of forms and ideas, of cultures regularly absorbing new inspirations because of the work of translators. It dispels the supposition that everything begins in the West and weakens the idea of inflexible boundaries between West and East. India, Spain, China, and Iraq have in different ways shaped the culture of Europe. India formed ties with the Mediterranean in the 6th century BC and medical theories found in Greek intellectuals like Galen and Plato initiated from India. In 9th and 10th century Baghdad, the philosophical and scientific works of Earliest Greece were translated into Arabic and this learning disseminate to Europe via Spain which was virtually a Muslim country from the early 18th century for 400 years.
The transmission extended it highest through the School of Toledo where translations were translated from Arabic to Latin and afterward to Spanish in order to enable the technological and scientific development for the Renaissance age. A history of translation charts these connections. They may be main cause in violent historical controversies and imperial increases but it is never a simple procedure of translation for appropriation.
A very few of the history of translation is well-drafted – the translation of the Bible, the work of missionary, the specialist translators in India – but there remains huge unknown dominions. Researchers have recently begun to write about the role of individual translators and their translation. Translators like Gregory Rabassa in the United States or Constance Garnett in England have been responsible for transforming writing in English by their own translations of Russian and Latin American literature. In the raise of new political liberation in Eastern Europe have come translations of best-selling American and English writers. The history of translation is the history of the important but often not seen intersection point in world culture.
Translation was an esteemed activity in Britain in the 18th Century, and the field was separated into two completely different areas: translation from translation from modern languages (French, German, Italian and Spanish) which was one of the few literary genres open to women and the older one that was the classics (focusing on Latin and Greek authors) which was a male-dominated territory, and Yet, there were some significant exceptions in the area of the classics.
It was the central position occupied by Translators and their work in translation theory: translation studies has been progressively paying attention to their vital mediation in recent years. Instead of the fact that the communicative purpose of translation activities is the central engrossment of this method, Hans Vermeer has fetched attention to the degree of freedom, on the one hand, and of responsibility, on the other, which bears on language mediators (Vermeer 1998: 54). Translators are said to be the experts who should plan and implement those strategies which allow them to achieve their objective, i.e. their possibilities. This ideas takes translators to the Centre of the stage, and yet it also made them busy in a certain amount of risk.

Thus, they were the translators who had made important contribution over the centuries in broadcasting of ideas and information to a larger audience, in shaping of cultures and in a sense helped unite the world.
1.2 Need and scope of Translation.

In a huge nation like India, where countless regional changes in culture and behaviour obtain, and the many languages hold their unique origins and identities, it is impossible to hold an elaborative and continuous communication between various divisions of the country on a national as well as at international scale. There couldn’t be the accurate meaningful responsiveness of the country-s total literary act. The output without such mutual communication through the means of translation. Translations of the known works of Indian literary creators like Tagore, Premchand etc… been effectively accepted and their writings have been read and enjoyed in all parts of India as well as outside of India. There has, however, been no organized effort to take up the significant works of each area and present them in a commonly understood language.

Books which has fusion has planned to publish a collection of literary work of English translations of modern short stories written in the distinct Indian languages, with the intention of getting the people together of India on one platform in order to make Indian literature available in India as well as the other parts of the world. There were so many translation occurred in the field of literature, the work which did not get recognition later after translation they achieved name and fame in India as well as in other countries. Therefore, it was a required to spread literature of specific nation to other nations through the medium of translation.

2. Types of Translation
As many experts were engaged in the field of translation, therefore they were having their own styles, methods, or techniques while translating any piece of translation. It was also found that they were using different style which has some kinds of variation in translation where practically one may find their own characteristics and forms. Some types of translation are found out because of the variances and likenesses of the source structures, unlike types of text that are going to be translated and various intention of translation. According to Newmark he said that translation techniques connect the whole texts, translation used for sentences and the smaller units of each language. [1]
Roman Jakobson in Hatim and Munday brings an important differentiation between all three types of written translation [2]:
1) Intralingual translation, the same language convey its meaning in the form of rewording or paraphrase, in order to achieve its meaning,
2) Interlingual translation, which mainly focuses to such translation which was carried out from one language to another,
3) Intersemiotic translation, this kind of translation deals with verbal sign by non-verbal sign for example audio- visual images like music or pictures.
According to Nababan the kinds of translation, such as word for word translation, literal translation, dynamic translation, pragmatic translation, free translation, , aesthetic-poetic translation, ethnographic translation, linguistic translation communicative translation and semantic translation [3].
1. The Process of Translation
The procedure of translation can be well-defined as the activity carried out by the translator of translation, and the process which is used by the translator as a kind of user manual in order to guide in translating from source text from into the target language.
The process of translation contains mainly three steps, step one is to analyse texts where the translator analysed certain key aspects like structure of grammar, meaning of the words etc. of source language, step two is to transfer in which the translator focuses on the material of the source text and the target text which can be transferred based on the mentality of the translator, and step three is to restructured in order to get the exact message and make a new creation of the source language into target language[4].

2. Translation Equivalence
With the reference to oxford dictionary equivalence is exactly equivalency or replaceable in valuate, quantity, importance, etc. [5] Vinay and Darbelnet as cited in Munday, said that “equivalence denotes to example where languages depict the equal situation by unlike rhetorical or constructive/ structural means” [6].
Equivalence stands for the concept of equality, sameness and similarity; it has the equal or a similar cause or meaning in translation.
Nida also defined types of equivalence, which are also named two basic orientations of translation [7]:
1. Formal correspondence
It emphases on the message itself, in both of content and form. Once it is seen that the content in the receptor language should fit as closely as possible the unlike components in the source language.
2. Dynamic equivalence
It is the rationale of equivalent effect, where the connection between receptor and message should be considerably the same as that which laid between the original receptor and the message. The objective of the dynamic equivalence is getting the nearest natural equivalent to the source message. This receptor oriented method regards changes of grammar, of words, and of cultural acknowledgment to be important in order to attain naturalness.
Darbelnet and Vinay interpret that the translation which is equivalence-oriented as a process which ‘reproduces the same situation as in the master copy, at the same time as the completely different words are used’. Therefore, equivalence is an ideal process when the translator using clichés, nominals, proverbs, idioms, or adjectival phrases and the sounds of animal. [8] With the reference to theory of Jakobson, he interpreted that the ‘translation contains mainly two equal messages in two different codes’. Jakobson keeps on saying that it can be different from the grammatical point of view languages may vary from language to language in a greater or lesser degree, which does not mean that a translation of one language into another is impossible, moreover, one of the problems the translator may face is not finding a translation equivalent. [9]
Baker was considered to enlighten more detailed list of conditions upon which the concept equivalent can be defined at different levels with an interesting elaboration of the notion equivalent can be found in as follow:
1. Equivalence which can be observed at word level. Baker defined the term word as it should be recalled that each and every single word can be considered as being a more compound unit or linguistic unit, and it also talk about word meaning.[10]
2. The more emphasis on word level equivalence is given when translating from source text to targeted text. In this part, the translator focuses on the type of word sounding, they are idioms, collocation, and static expression.[11]
3. Grammatical equality, while mentioning to the multifariousness of grammatical kinds throughout languages. Baker emphases on tense and aspects, number, voice, gender and person.[12]. In the procedure of translation; this kinds of differences between the original Language and the Translated form often connote few adaptation in the content. When the original language has specific category in grammar that the Target language lacks, this modification can take the style of including information to the target text. The conversion can take the form of omission if it is the target language that lacks a category.
4. Textual equivalence when referring to the equivalence between a Source Language text and a Target Language text in terms of information and thematic structure.[13] It also unifies the discussion in this division regarding cohesion.[14]
5. Practical equivalence, when referring to technique of avoidance throughout the translation procedure.[15]
The following theorist like Nida and Taber, Catford, Jakobson, House, Vinay and Darbelnet, and Baker have studied equivalence in relation using translation process, applying distinct methods.
C. Grammatical Equivalence
The rules of Grammar which determine the method in which parts such as words, phrases and sentences can be mixed in a language. Grammar has its main two attributes: syntax and morphology, syntax (structure of sentence) deals with the grammatical structure of sets of words/ phrases (clauses or sentence), the linear arrangement of category of words (noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, etc.), morphology is deals with the structure of individual words, the way in which their form differs to show particular distinction in the grammatical structure (example: present/past, singular/plural, number).
Distinct structures of grammar in the Source Language and Target Language may make notable changes in the way the message or information is brought across, these changes may hasten the translator either to omit or to add information in the Target Text because of the lack of specific grammatical patterns in the Target Language itself, amongst these grammatical patterns which might create difficulties or problems in translation. [16]
As far as translation is pertained, the most significant difference between lexical choices and grammatical is that the earlier are commonly compulsory while the latter are mostly optional. In the course of translation, this kinds of different between SL and the TL frequently mean some modification in the content of information.
Number is a change in the form of a word (usually by adding a suffix) to indicate a change in its grammatical function of verbs, adjectives, nouns, pronouns, and determiners to indicate dual, singular and plural forms. Distinguished three classes of number: dual (‘two’), singular (‘one’), and plural (‘more than two’). [17] The thought of countability is may be common, but it is believed that many language do not have same grammatical category of number, even it is found that they might create differences at the lexical meaning.
1. Gender
The word gender, typically ascribed to Protagoras in Shery Simon, is came from a term meaning kind or class and adverted to the part of Greek nouns into feminine, masculine and neuter.[18] Gander is grammatical classification according to which a noun or pronoun is categorised as feminine or masculine.
1. Person
Morphological (concerned with the formation of admissible words in a language) kind of the verb used to indicate the singular and plural finite verb kinds as ‘speaker’ (1st person), ‘addressee’ (2nd person), or a ‘person, place or thing’ concerned to in the utterance (3rd person).[19] Sub-group of pronouns which denote to individuals is as the speaker (I, we), addressee (you) or other persons, things (S/he, it) (comprehensive vs. non- comprehensive).The classification of person links to the notion of participant functions.
Tense and Aspect
English has dual mode tense structures, so that in place of the past tense form was, we could apply the matching present tense form is. [20] Aspect is a terminology applied to draw the time of the activity delineate by a verb whether the activity is ongoing or accomplished. [21] In those languages which have these classifications, the form of the verb regularly provides two kinds of information: aspectual differences and time relations.
Voice
Voice is grammatical or a structural set that specifies the bondage between subjects and verbs. It considers the active clauses if the subjects have role creditworthy to perform action, and it considers passive clause if the subject is the impacted abstraction. [22]
D. Translation Process
Translation processes or translation shifts are outlined as “the littlest linguistic adapts taking place in translation of Source Text to Target Text”. [23] Translation is an area of different processes. Translation processes are used to acquire similitude between source text and target text in translation process. There are many varieties of translation practises, but the author want to look into some operation that must be use by translator to adjust to the rhetorical requirements and grammatical patterns of the target text. These assumptions are elaborated below.[24]
Additional information
The difference can bring the form of including to the target text information which is not conveyed in the source language, if the target text has the grammatical category which the source text lacks. [25] Information which is not seen in the source language may be added to the target language.
Deletion information
Baker denotes to deletion as “skip of a lexical part due to semantic patterns or grammatical of the receivers language”.[26] In the course of translating, the replacement of information content of message can be done in the form of eliminating information in the source text, if the target text lacks a grammatical pattern.
Structural adjustment
Structural adjustment is one more significant method for acquiring equivalence between source language text and target language text. Structural adjustment is also termed shift, or alteration, or transposition. Newmark says that “A ‘shift’ (Catford’s point) or ‘transposition’ (Vinay and Darbelnet) is a translation process including a modification in the grammar from Source Language to Target Language”. There are four types of transposition: [27]
Type 1: the change from singular to plural (and vice versa), or in the position of the adjective.
Type 2: the change in grammatical structure from SL to TL because SL grammatical structure does not exist in TL.
Type 3: an alternative to when literal translation of SL text may not accord with natural usage in TL. Such alternatives include:
The joined form of adjective participle (i.e. adjective formed from a verb) and noun, or noun phrase in SL becomes noun + noun form in TL.
Clause in the form of participial (i.e. verb form sharing the functions of a noun) in SL is expressed into its direct form in TL.
Type 4: the replacement of a virtual lexical gap by a grammatical structure.
The emphasis in SL is shown through TL regular grammatical construction.
There are many kinds of translation procedures. Translation procedures will make easily to get grammatical equivalence between source language and target language in the process of translation.
E. Evaluation in Translation Studies
Evaluation in translation hence goes beyond the assessment of specific translations and must study into account other devices. In this study, the researcher uses the form of comparable assessment according to Nababan: [28]
Scale Definition Category
1 The intending of words, phrases, clauses and sentences of source language text can be shifted to the target language text incorrectly or omission.
Inaccuracy
2 Large section the meaning of words, phrases, clauses and sentences of source language text had be transmitted to the target language text correctly, but however found out some deformations in meaning or equivocalness translation which determines message.
Almost accuracy
3 The meaning of words, phrases, clauses and sentences of source language text can be shifted to the target language correctly, there no found deformations in meaning.
Accuracy
Table 1. Assessment of Equivalence
Translation in Global world
Translation plays an important role in creating the classification of ‘world literature’, a word that has arose new exchange in this epoch of globalization. Commenting on essay by Eric Bulson, Susan Stanford Friedman, Rebecca Beasley, Laura Doyle and Jessica Berman, the research scholar recommend that the worldwide disseminate of modernism and its native unfolding requirement to be realized by the vital translation job that came with it. The research scholar emphases on lingo modernisms in India from 1920s to1960s in order to express that the impression of translation was by no means one-way or aimed towards the West. Translation both languages from native and non- native was an essential part in the mood of Indian modernist writing, specifically as written in the poetry mags of the early 20th century. At the same time native and diverse culture ambiance of this modernist literary accumulation, far more substantial and far-reaching than Indian literature in English, can only be comprehended via continuation of expansion of modernism’s translation.
Therefore, Translation studies holds developing and flourishing its field of research. The discussion that designed the consolidation of cultural and linguistic views remains far behind, and the evolution of pragmatic approaches, narrative approaches, and critical discourse approaches to belief and influence, multimedia sights and incompatible studies of cultural patterns, have moulded translation as a place of agency where cultural as well as social practices– meet and born. Particularly, translation is now considered as an important property of the cultural, social, and political inter connections of dealings that take place in local as well as at global contexts, which are no longer encountered from the paragon view whereby messages are conveyed between steady structures and classified norms, but as uncertain practises of negotiation. Perhaps the most exciting growth has been to identify the role that exemplification has in the continuous restructuring of communication; a depiction arises in which communication is not axiomatic and the example of translation between close languages and cultures, such as European languages and cultures, is no more privileged.
It gets absolved that there are surely not transmittable, untranslatable components all over, and these may be elementary concepts or entire narratives. An example of translation as a technical adjustment in an easy and nearly automatic re-codification is substituted by a model in which communication is a productive act with an elusive goal, totally never satisfied and constantly determined by numerous actors: authors, editors, audiences, translators, media factors, etc.; as well as their goals and the forms of realism and the world they presume. This emphases on particular contexts: specific fields (literary, commercial, scientific, medical, legal, socio-political discourse etc.) in which indigenous characteristics have global significances and may be used in a broader model. One of those significances is that ideological and cultural differences are universal along with the time of domains and genres, and inclined to ups-well in a diversity of styles distinct as points that mark the edges between two “languacultures” (Agar 2008) (Faiq 2010, 2014), as Said Faiq has named them in the context of Translation Studies recently.
3. Translation in Multilingual country like India

Translation of literature from an Indian viewpoint, everyone notice that till 19th century Indian translators were not keen about being factual to the unique in manner and matter. As a matter of fact, the epics and puranas, the Sanskrit classics were “recited, adopted, undermined and translated” during the Middle Ages, without any conscience about preciseness or accuracy to the master piece of any work. The authenticity has raised an important question when started translating the Bible into Indian languages.

Instead of directly dealing with translation in country like India let us find out the position of Indian languages in the field of translation. As everyone knows that Indian populations have multilingualism though they were given more emphasis on a common heritage. There were original versions of Mahabharata and Ramayana in all main languages and therefore it was not needed to be translated. The group of people those who were illiterate were enjoying it orally from their own language. But when the time comes of educated people observed at other languages by the percolate of English language. Translation was promoted in their own way by British for their profit. ‘Manusmriti’ was translated in order to govern Indians through their native laws by William Jones’. But the self-awareness brought by promotion of translation and the outcome of the independence movement directed to a large amount of translation activity, which made the patriot works of Bankimchandra in Bengali and Khandekar in Marathi available to lots of readers in difference languages. The aspiration of translation was enhanced because of the Nobel Prize of literature in 1913 and it arose speedily after 1947; the main reasons behind it was getting the national literary awards.

As it was observed, translation is frequently came with “the institutional arrangement of state power” Translation of Indian Literature into English has progressed to the centre with concern expressed by our reviewers, publishers, seminar organizers and other such groups from the colonial times. It is fact that that we do not have an exact comparable word ‘translation’ in any languages of India. What we have used till now are ‘anuvad’ in Sanskrit, ‘tarjuma’ in Arabic, ‘rupantar’ in Bangla, ‘vivartanam’ in and ‘bhashantar’ in Hindi which recommends that the concept of ‘translation’ was alienate to us; what we appreciated in specific language translator created a similar one in other languages, which connotes that translation was not familiar writing for us till the arrival of Western culture. As everyone knows ‘anuvad’ and ‘rupantar’ which is used as a meaning of translation, where there was not any need of loyalty to the original text. The idea of faithful rendering of the original, even of a literary work, came to us from West, with the translation of the Bible into Indian languages by the Christian Missionaries. Whereas the inherited trend in India of change of from implies the compliment paid to a translation “that it does not read like a translation to bind to the main text.” This demonstrations that there is a main changes found in translation practice between West and in India. In West translation is “a complicated linguistic act”, “while in India it is an unavoidable way of life.” In the West it is examined from various perspectives but in India the focus is more on the positive and meddlesome aspects of translation.

As India is multicultural and multilingual, translation acts as an important tool for negotiations. But the sad aspect of translation is that much of the poetry and fiction of the Third World Countries, which is a product of its own tradition, does not get translated because of its least accessibility to the Western reader. Only those of touristic interest get translated. There are many hurdles to translation in our county. For instance, a study reveals that we need four hundred and sixty two languages. But out of these only seventy eight are available, and some are without a thesaurus. Thus, in spite of being a promising site in a county like ours, problems of translation are numerous.
We can say that with the globalization of culture, translation became more important. It was father promoted due to the spread of English education. It is also one of the effective ways of linking diverse languages and varieties of cultures. Translation should fulfil this social responsibility and contribute to the society. It is a kind of negotiation between languages which makes two cultures cohabits in a text. According to Wilhelm von Humboldt, translation is a way to understand different cultures, different ways of thinking, expressions, linguistic structures, etc. It implies translation of language as well as the nature or character of the speakers. In this way Target Text makes the target language (TL) more fertile, and hence translation is often looked upon as something reconstructing or transferring. It brings to the reader entire range of the characteristic spirit of culture and communication.
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