Many marketers use the study of psychology and anthropology to aid them in understanding their customers. The study of psychology helps the marketers understand their customers brain and what influences their decision to buy. Once the organisation has a good understanding of their customers mind and their thought process in which they use before they purchase a product it becomes considerably easily to market to the target audience; imagine attempting to create a marketing campaign for somebody whom you have little idea as to what they think of similar and your own products and what though process they have before they purchase a specific item. Once the marketer understands their customers they can create marketing campaigns that include catchy slogans that appeal to the customer and get stuck in their heads eventually resulting in a buy. Psychology primarily studies the human mind and its functions which helps the organisation realise what the customers thoughts are as to your product. The organisation additionally uses the study of anthropology to help understand customers. Anthropology is the study of human society’s and cultures, opposed to the study of the brain, and helps the organisation with understanding what product will suit the society most appropriately. Some products will be suitable for places such as China and Japan whereas in the USA or other western nations the products will not be of such a high demand. Anthropology also studies the changes to the wants and needs of humanity through the evolution of the human body. Our societies are changing constantly and sometimes a product that was useful one day may be rendered useless the next causing the company to rethink their products and come up with something that is fresh in the market place. This includes competition from competitors, a great example of this is Apple and Samsung. These to cell phone and technology giants rival each other in every product and the only way to stay on top of each other is to consistently work on new features, updates and products and launch them into the marketplace, after all the latest model Samsung S8 is a lot more appealing to the older and more outdated Samsung S5. Fresh is always best. Cultural norms also often change resulting in the needed to stay on top of them through studies and market research.
In the early to mid-1900’s, consumer behaviour was heavily influence by motivation research. This still included psychology and anthropology but was not as much of a major part of it as it is in todays world. If economist assumed consumers behaved rationally they would not be as successful as consumers are not rational and it could end in the failure of a company. For example, clothing chain Myer assumed that the buyers would all be satisfied with their products and there would be no returns or unsatisfied customers. An example of if they had priorities would be Myer assuming that all customers preferred the same jacket. If Myer assumed people made thoughtful and informed decision they would not be prepared for returns and unsatisfied customers. If Myer was not prepared for people getting diminishing pleasure for aging products they would not be ready for purchases of newer products, returns and unsatisfied customers.
In the graph that displays the hours played on a computer game verses marginal utility, it displays how after a few hours the utility drops due to the exhaustion of the player. This shows that without a break from tasks and no rest you ultimately lose your productivity. If the computer gamer took a break every second hour or so for about 15 minutes he would not have become so fatigued and would have been more productive. After three hours the gamers marginal utility starts to slow as his fatigue starts to kick in reducing productiveness. It is necessary to have breaks during you day as when you are tired your quality of work begins to get worse and you effectively lose time as some of your work may even need to be redone wasting more time again. The total utility also drops meaning that the computer gamer was being very inefficient. The extended period would also result in stress for the gamer making playing his game less pleasing and satisfactory making it harder for him to concentrate and continue to play.
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