It is essential to clarify how the country’s political and social structures work to understand the policy formulation in Malaysia.
Though Malaysian political system has its roots in Parliamentary democracy, it is ruled as Constitutional Monarchy By Majesty the Supreme Head of the country who is Yang Di-Pertuan Agong.
The social and the political systems are closely associated with the formulation of Public Policy. Thus bringing the public policy into realisation is complex as it involves a decision making by the interested parties.
Political channel, administrative processes and the integrated interaction are the three main processes that can be combined or used separately to create and formulate public policy.
Process 1 implies that the policy is initiated by the Cabinet.It could also be initiating on the recommendations of several ministers in the party. Process 2 means that ministerial level,i.e.,there are implications for policyof the administration so the policy is drafted and then discussed at government meets. The last process involves combining the two processes mentioned above. That is called integrated interaction.
Here several committees can also be set up to study a policy deeply, before itspresentation to the cabinet
As also discussed earlier policy making is an ongoing process that has many activities like
Identifying the upcoming problems, recommending alternatives, implementing action policy and finally gauging the effectiveness of the policy.
Now back to the education policy of Malaysia.
The policy was initiated by the special committee who had proposed several recommendations. Minister and public administrators reviewed the policy.Finally, the proposed policy after several inputs by the experts in the particular field was put forth to the Cabinet for its approval. The then cabinet comprised of the ministers. Thus once the decision was taken it was implemented at large by the nation.
Similarly Education Act 1996 was drafted on the lines of the Education policy.
Two drafts of the policy were prepared by the public administrators at MoE with the help of expertise from Attorney General’s Office. Draft along with the memorandum of justifying the education bill was sentfor suggestions to the ministries. The Bill was prepared and it contained many amendments to the existing law then. MoE then approved to forward it to the Cabinet. When the Cabinet approved it, it was conveyed to the Ministers and the related Ministries.The MoE then went ahead to get a notice of Presenting the bill to the House of Representative and the Senate Office. Here it was going to be debated on. This bill got approval and was passed by both the houses by themajority of 2/3 of the votes and was finally submitted to His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. After the Royal Assent by Him, the bill became law.
The various Education Acts in Malaysia gradually came into the existence and were amended with the aim of adding more provisions to the existing one.
All this was part of the ongoing efforts to make Malaysia stand on the top over the global platform.
An in-depth description of the various Acts has been provided in Chapter 4 under the section, ‘The History of Drafting of the 1961-1996 Education Acts’.
Here we present you just an overview of the various Acts.
A) The Education Act 1961
B) The Education Act 1996
C) The Private Higher Education Act 1996
D) The National Accreditation Board Act 1996.
E) Universities and University Colleges Act,1996.44
Let us now examine the concept and formation of Education Act 1961. First it is essential to know that Rahman Talib Report 1960 was the basis of the formation of the framework of Education Act 1961.
Razak Report 1956 is the backbone for the Rahman Talib Report 1960. Thus, it led to the formation of Education Act 1961.
o It meant free compulsory primary education for all.
o It allowed primary schooling,to branch into two:- Sekolah Kebangsaan & Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan
o Compulsory schooling till the age of 15
o Automatic promotions to the next level.
o A mandatory number of students opting for subject Agama Islam should be minimum 15.
o Value Education – a must have, for all.
This KBSR is divided into 3 phases:-
Phase 1:- It comprises of Form 1-3. Here The emphasis is on the communication skills of reading, writing and arithmetic – which is called the three Rs.
Phase 2:- Which comprises of form 4-6. This phase builds upon the basic skills and enhances the logical reasoning.
o Activities should be well planned, so as to reach out the purpose of the learning objective.
o Activities should not be text-centric,rather a task based activity plays a major role in this. This also means that the learner concentrates more o the performance part.
o Activities should be meaningful, value-basedauthentic activities to be incorporated so that the objective of KBSR is fulfilled.
o Activities should be varied and obviously learner centric.
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