Essay: To what extent did the FARC take advantage of the black market in Colombia in order to carry out and eventually achieve their Marxist/Leninist political goals

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  • To what extent did the FARC take advantage of the black market in Colombia in order to carry out and eventually achieve their Marxist/Leninist political goals
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Introduction

Drugs, kidnapping, violence, success. Usually it is the first three words that are supposed to go together excluding the fourth one, but the world is a peculiar place where no amount of logic or reasoning can truly break down why seemingly contradictory things happen. To what extent do these things work together and why do they work to further ideas and goals despite them being horrible things in concept? The answer is difficult to find as it lies in the vast lands of Colombia where an organization known as the FARC achieved their goals in becoming a legitimate political party by utilizing kidnappings, extortion, and the drug trade to solidify their power. This specific case is rather unique as instead of violently overthrowing the government as originally intended, the FARC used their already existing status of a guerilla to negotiate peace with the government and gain official recognition while still exerting their influence throughout South America and the world by delivering the message that it is possible to gain power even if the way to get it is not by legal means. That is why it is relevant, because in ending one violent conflict the doors for other similar groups who get their power by the same illegal means open, and the intricacies of the FARC’s case must be analyzed in order to see why they were able to succeed and ultimately why it continues to happen.

The vast, rolling, green hills of the Colombian countryside are home to thousands of farmers who make their living solely off the land, and it has been that way for decades. The peasants, whose land was owned by powerful oligarchs revolted against them in order to gain control over their fields. As time went on, radical reformists, communist activists, and armed peasants formed a powerful 10,000 man army who would fight the government in order to get equal ownership for all. As a result of the support from the radical communists and the ideology of equal ownership, the militia incorporated Marxism/Leninism or in simpler terms: communism. At its core communism is “a theory for revolutionary change and political and socioeconomic organization based on common control of the means of production as opposed to private ownership.” (Communism. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Communism) which is exactly the ideology that the peasants adopted. After violence and bloodshed “some 43 guerrillas, … had fled and taken refuge in the mountains of the southwestern state of Cauca. Later that year, they founded the FARC in the same area.” (Molano, A. (2007, September 25). The Evolution of the FARC: A Guerrilla Groups Long History. Retrieved from https://nacla.org/article/evolution-farc-guerrilla-groups-long-history) leading to the massive group that would ultimately continue to grow more powerful and would end up succeeding in their goal due to their substantial size and seemingly utopian idea for Colombian, and to a greater extent all of the global, society.

As a result of the FARC being formed in the rural areas of Colombia where poverty is widespread, they resorted to whatever means were disposable to them. Due to their geographical and economic situation they would have needed to go to whatever lengths necessary to grow economically which resulted in their practice of producing drugs due to the sheer amount of land they had at their disposal, they kidnapped wealthy citizens in order to get paid lump sums of money as a result of them having the lethal power to do so, and they extorted the farmers who were living on the land by imposing taxes on their crops. It is important to analyze their operations beforehand as their presence grew and because of their extensive control and power, the Colombian government made arrangements with the FARC in 2016 through peace accords which made their political power legitimate and recognized which would lead to them forming a new party which would set their ideology in stone and would be very important of how Colombian and ultimately global politics would work. However, their already existing influence in the area may have led to a vacuum in the region leaving many splinter groups behind who are attempting to gain power for themselves as the FARC set an example for them to follow.

With an in-depth analysis of their economic workings the FARC’s rise to prominence can be analyzed better as money is ultimately the driving force in any movement especially one that relies on weapons and vast networks of individuals. The way the FARC carried out their economic growth can also provide insight to their political ideology especially since it deals so heavily with the economic aspect of society almost as much as the political aspect. Naturally, the politics coming after their rise to power is equally as important as it is through the legitimization of their power by the Colombian government that the FARC proves a unique case as in their eyes they have succeeded in their political mission. The peace negotiations also demonstrate how influential the FARC is within Colombia and it is through a political lens of examination that the FARC’s importance can be seen within those documents as the deals made with the federal government reflect how important having that organization at peace is. Both areas provide a comprehensive analysis of how the FARC rose to prominence and how important and influential they are politically which in turn, gives a clearer view of how other groups are influenced by their tactics and shows how they plan to achieve their goals.

Drugs, Kidnapping, and Extortion

The FARC initially grew in power via the black market as a result of their practices in controlling the drug trade by extortion throughout Colombia, as well as kidnapping wealthy individuals whose ransom would prove generous for the group economically; allowing them to be financially capable of maintaining and expanding their power. Through military force the FARC conquered peasant farmland which they used strategically. Their methods worked so well that the FARC held “territories that generate well over $1 billion dollars in criminal revenue every year…” (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – FARC) have historically been built on three pillars: the drug trade, kidnapping, and extortion”(McDermott, J. (2018, February 21). The FARC’s Riches: Up to $580 Million in Annual Income. Retrieved from https:// www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/farc-riches-yearly-income-up-to-580-million) which allowed them to be able to fund their mission to grow their area of control within Colombia and exert their dominance over the people who lived in the places which they occupied. The government did at one point attempt to make deals with the FARC early on in their rise to power by shutting down peasant farms that grew coca, the key ingredient in the production of cocaine which the FARC sold to make money, however, “The government’s failure to adequately address illicit crop cultivation contributes to civilian support of the guerrillas. Settlers in the area view the guerrillas as the only response to the attack on their lives and livelihood through aerial fumigation of coca and poppy fields and judicial proceedings.” (Meza, R. V. (1999). The Revolutionary armed forces of Colombia (FARC) and the illicit drug trade. Cochabamba, Bolivia: Acción Andina etc.). The government’s shutting down of peasant coca farms that are controlled by the insurgency show how the FARC was capable of raising support throughout the country by the lower class and shows causation both for their involvement with the drug trade and reasons for their rise to prominence as they were able to easily overcome the obstacles put in place by the government as not only did the government fail to stop the FARC’s illegal trade but the FARC learned that the Colombian government was little to no threat to them. Furthermore, it also led to “the FARC ‘recogniz[ing] peace as a threat to the ‘legitimate’ continuation of their struggle’ and failed to end its ‘kidnapping, extortion[,] and terrorist activities’” (Hataway, B. (2015). The FARC’s Drug Trafficking as Political Crime: Determining the Success of Colombia’s Peace Talks. North Carolina Journal Of International Law & Commercial Regulation, 41(1), 163-188) which shows how the government’s initial attempt at peace not only failed but instead made the FARC more determined to carry out their acts of terrorism as they now faced formal opposition which called for them to grow even more as they now had to garner support that was capable of holding off the Colombian government.

The failure caused by the government’s intervention created a challenging situation where “Members of the civilian population are considered military targets because they are forced to pay taxes demanded by the insurgency.” (Meza, R. V. (1999). The Revolutionary armed forces of Colombia (FARC) and the illicit drug trade. Cochabamba, Bolivia: Acción Andina etc.)
This added to the FARC’s power as they became so important that the peasant population relied on them for income compared to the government which wasn’t able to provide the required resources. The intricacies of their economic exploitation by the FARC on the peasant population ties them directly to the drug trade as “the guerrillas set the price of coca paid by merchants to small proprietors, in exchange for a levy of 7% to 10% on the sale of their harvest….Concurrently, the FARC exerted pressure on farmers so that they would not confine themselves to coca production alone, since 75% of the lands were, at least in principle, to be dedicated to subsistence agriculture necessary to the guerrillas’ survival.” (Labrousse, A., & Garcés, L. (2005). THE FARC AND THE TALIBAN’S CONNECTION TO DRUGS. Journal Of Drug Issues, 35(1), 169-184). This way of obtaining income shows how the FARC was sticking to their communist ideology as the whole society was built on the backs of the Colombian peasants however, it is through the exploitation of the land where the line is drawn as the FARC goes from promoting a new system of government to a system of oppression as the guerilla uses their labor to but more guns, hire more soldiers, and further expand to exploit the lands of more peasants. At the core the FARC was still a guerilla and later on, the “FARC also expanded its narcotics activities from its original focus on taxation of, and protection services for, narcotics traffickers to more direct involvement in coca growing, narcotics manufacturing, and commercialization. In 1995, the Colombian military captured several hand-written documents from FARC’s 15th Front demonstrating FARC’s domination over drug trafficking in Caquetá.” (Gentry, J. A., & Spencer, D. E. (2010). Colombia’s FARC: A Portrait of Insurgent Intelligence. Intelligence & National Security, 25(4), 453-478). Not only that but the FARC also “range[d] from kidnapping and extortion to murders and bombings. Though the FARC has kidnapped for ransom since its inception, kidnapping became an integral part of the group’s revenue starting in the 1970s. In 1999, the number of FARC kidnappings, particularly of the Colombian elite, peaked at 3,000.” (Cassman, D. (2015, August 15). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army. http://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/89). That extreme rate of kidnapping and holding for ransom caused the FARC’s income to skyrocket as they were able to receive so much money that the were able to begin establish themselves as a legitimate power not by their ideology, but by sheer power and force.

Today, the FARC continues their ways of old by working as an organization that commits terrorist-like attacks be it at a lesser extent as they rely on splinter groups or a few rogue members to carry out their message through force due to that being the FARC’s tried and true method of obtaining power despite them now having legal status as a political organization. Despite the apparent demobilization “two kidnapped journalists and their driver were killed by former members of the rebel Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) group who failed to demobilise in a landmark 2016 peace deal with Colombia’s government.”(Chambers, B. (2018, April 17). Rebels kidnap couple on Ecuador and Colombia border. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/04/rebels-kidnap-couple-ecuador-colombia-border-180417202412982.html). Which proves the idea that the FARC continues to gain power by their illegal means as their agenda is furthered by committing atrocities which only garners more fear and legitimizes their stance by show of force. That case is not an anomaly as dozens upon dozens of atrocities have been committed in the recent past including but not limited to: “Unknown: The Uribe Administration suspected the FARC was responsible for an attack that killed 34 coca pickers in La Gabarra. (34 killed, 5 wounded).[108]… December 21, 2009: FARC guerrillas kidnapped Luis Francisco Cuellar, governor of the Caquetá Department, from his home. Cuellar’s body was found the following day bound, gagged, and shot. (2 killed, unknown wounded).[124]

March 11, 2014: Disguised FARC guerrillas opened fire on Colombian military members in the middle of the road in La Montañita. (4 killed, 4 wounded).[125]” which further reinforces the point that the FARC achieves their power by illegal means even if they are now a legitimate power as their previous methods were the most effective in achieving their political goals. It is not just wild claims as the government holds the FARC responsible for those acts as they “suggested the FARC were responsible for the majority of displacement, and officials have subsequently tried to extrapolate this information to claim the FARC are the primary perpetrators of total displacement.” (T. (2013, February 03). The illicit drugs market in the Colombian agrarian context. Retrieved from https://www.tni.org/en/publication/the-illicit-drugs-market-in-the-colombian-agrarian-context-1). Which proves that the FARC is being held responsible for the displacement of agricultural fields by the Colombian government as they took control over them and used them to grow coca for their own economic gains which furthered their power as they were able to heavily influence the entire area. The fact that the FARC has achieved legal recognition does not take away from the fact that they still rely on their old, illegal methods of obtaining power which despite the peace accords are still being held responsible for, demonstrating two things: that the FARC do indeed commit crimes to benefit themselves and the timeless saying that: “old habits die hard”.

Same Name, New Face

Despite the terrible acts committed by the FARC in the past and in recent times, they have since signed agreements with the Colombian government which allows them to become a legitimate political party under a new name under the conditions of military demobilization. Due to the changing landscape of their official status, the FARC felt obligated to change their identity as they were now a political party instead of a guerilla group. The FARC kept their acronym the same “In spite of earlier resistance from some members of the movement, the name retains the revolutionary spirit of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)” (2017). FARC rebels reborn as ‘revolutionary force’ party. Al Jazeera America) however the words that stand for it changed as “the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – FARC), re-launched as a civilian political party Friday with a new name, the Common Alternative Revolutionary Force (Fuerza Alternativa Revolucionaria del Comun – FARC), thus preserving its acronym” News, V. (2017, September 01). Colombia’s FARC Re-launches as Civilian Political Party. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/a/former-colombia-rebels-change-name-still-farc/4010985.html demonstrating how the FARC are willing to change their methods but not their fundamental ideology. This causes internal issues as in keeping their acronym they keep the same label as the organization “which fought a bloody 52-year campaign against Colombia’s government before signing a peace deal last year.” (Colombia’s FARC transforms into a political party. (2017, September 2). Retrieved February 03, 2018, from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/09/colombia-farc-transforms-political-party-170902005950448.html). That fact continues to haunt the group even though they are now legitimate as while they have achieved their ultimate goals they still have to suffer some consequences for example: “the Democratic Center Party released a proposal calling for banning rebel leaders found guilty of atrocities from holding office, and getting rid of a special tribunal to try those accused of war crimes,” (Colombia Extends Ceasefire With FARC in Effort to Save Peace Deal. (2016). Daily Intelligencer,). This shows the tremendous amount of influence the FARC has as even though the FARC have now formally established themselves, the immense amount of crimes and atrocities committed by them make their official establishment a very controversial point in politics.

Even though controversy and argument surrounds the status of the FARC as a political party the fact that they are so powerful and influential within Colombia allows not only those negotiations to exist but work in their favor. In order to achieve the government’s goal of peace the FARC “ended its part in a decades-long war that has killed more than 220,000 people under a 2016 deal which granted amnesty to most of its fighters.” (Cobb, J. S. (2017, September 01). Colombia’s FARC political party looks to coalition for 2018 elections. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-peace-politics/colombias-farc-political-party-looks-to-coalition-for-2018-elections-idUSKCN1BC62J). It shows how even though many heinous crimes against humanity have been committed, the FARC have grown so powerful that they are not only granted amnesty but were granted with political power as well, furthering their objective of a Marxist/Leninist state. The extent of their influence is not only seen by their pardoning but also by the reforms themselves as “The FARC agreed to end their armed conflict with the government after being granted temporary seats in Congress and after the Santos administration agreed to carry out far-stretching political reforms aimed at reducing corruption and political exclusion of minorities” which is directly correlated to the goal of pleasing the FARC through political reforms as they were given guaranteed power and changes were made to the political atmosphere which favor a more Marxist/Leninist point of view as they are to be more inclusive of everyone putting all citizens on a more equal footing. Even if those ideas are rejected by the general public and the FARC is unable to obtain widespread support “The new party will compete in next year’s general elections. Regardless of how many votes they may win, the peace deal signed with the government last year guarantees the FARC five seats in each of the two legislative chambers for two terms.”(Rodrigo, A. (2017, September 1). Colombia FARC rebels reborn as ‘revolutionary’ party; Colombia’s FARC former guerrilla group re-launches itself Friday as the Common Alternative Revolutionary Force, sealing its transformation into a leftist political party following its disarmament after a half-century civil conflict. Citizen, The (South Africa). This agreement set in place by the government highlights the success of the FARC as the vote of the people and sovereignty of the nation are sacrificed in order to quell the conflict happening as a result of the politically fueled violence.

The controversial center of the peace accords is not directly related to their existence rather, the arguments differ from whether the aforementioned exclusive rights given to the group is justified or not. Regardless, a form of mutual peace between both sides was imperative as “the guerilla group was a main actor within Colombia’s internal civil conflict,” and as a result the “FARC’s restructuring as a legitimate political party positively contributes to stability, de-escalation and peace for Colombia.” (Hoorda, J. (2017, September 15). FARC Rebel Group Becomes Political Party, Common Alternative Revolutionary Force. Retrieved February 03, 2018, from https://theowp.org/farc-rebel-group-becomes-political-party-common-alternative-revolutionary-force/). The change from guerilla group to political party has allowed the FARC to evolve from a threat to the stability of the country’s safety to a big player in the political theater as their ideology gains support and can now directly influence the country from inside which does in fact officially end the violence however, it does give an ex-militia group legitimate ways to gain control. While the FARC have not yet won any major elections their entrance into politics comes “at a time when polls show Colombians are frustrated with corruption and give the more established political parties dismal approval ratings.” (CHRISTINE ARMARIO – Associated, P. (2018). Ex-guerrilla launches historic presidential bid in Colombia). In that sense the FARC do have a plausible chance of coming into power in the near future but at the time being the resolutions in relation to “rural development; political participation; the end of the armed conflict and the laying down of arms by FARC; drug trafficking and illicit drug cultivation; and the rights of the victims of the conflict.” (Aguirre, M. (2016, January 04). How the guerrillas were led to the negotiating table – and … Retrieved from https://www.tni.org/en/article/how-the-guerrillas-were-led-to-the-negotiating-table-and-stayed) highlight the primary goal of the accords: to rebuild and restructure everything that the FARC has left in its wake.

Rooted Weeds

Despite the FARC’s reform into a political party they implanted the idea of a South American guerilla who gets their power through illegal means which either spread to other guerillas or was continued on by splinter groups who want to maintain their strong reputation and influence in the region. This leaves them with two conflicting profiles today: a group who sets examples to other violent organizations or a group trying desperately to move on from the past. Both claims are equally as valid as today, “many FARC leaders have international contacts with major transnational drug trafficking organizations. They also have access to both coca base and cocaine. These connections mean millions of dollars for whoever has them, and could be used by FARC members whether they were still part of the organization or not.” (McDermott, J. (2017, October 05). Criminal Activities of the FARC and Rebel Earnings. Retrieved February 03, 2018, from https://www.insightcrime.org/investigations/farc-criminal-activities-income/). Most recently there was a scandal involving a prominent FARC member known as ‘Jesus Santrich’ who between him “and three other FARC associates were arrested in Colombia and accused of ‘conspiring and attempting to import cocaine into the United States.’” (Feingold, S. (2018, April 10). Colombia arrests negotiator in FARC peace deal on drug trafficking charge. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2018/04/10/americas/colombia-farc-santrich-arrest/index.html).
That event caused problems for FARC candidates who try to run for office as encountered by the FARC’s second in command Ivan Marquez who goes on to say “How can I try and become a senator when they’ll come and accuse me of being a drug trafficker,” (Clavel, T. (2018, April 26). FARC Leader Turns Back on Congress, Further Jeopardizing Peace (A. Olaya, Trans.). Retrieved from https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/farc-leader-turns-back-congress-jeopardizes-peace/). More seriously however, is the problem that results from the intervention of extremists who oppose the FARC as they counter their attempts to gain power by using violence and other extreme methods. “According to the FARC, 39 ex-combatants have been assassinated since the peace agreement was signed, in addition to 14 family members.” (Murphy, H. (2018, February 01). Colombia’s FARC says ELN rebels behind deaths of three of its members (S. Thomas, Ed.). Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-peace/colombias-farc-says-eln-rebels-behind-deaths-of-three-of-its-members-idUSKBN1FL5Z4). That provides insight as to how the extremists of the FARC’s opposition wished to have seen the relation between the group and the government go as peace appears to be an unjust solution due to the FARC’s previous atrocities and crimes.

Even after the dismantling of the FARC as a guerilla organization, its dissidents continue to fight and traffick drugs within the region and spreading to other armed revolutionary groups making the problem much larger as now the FARC are legally protected while their influence creates more and ultimately stronger guerilla groups. Such is exemplified “In 2017, [where] the Pacific Naval Force has managed to capture and bring to justice more than 90 FARC dissidents or other known Organized Armed Groups (GAO) that commit crimes in the volatile Colombian Pacific region.” (Fernández, F. (2018, January 02). FARC Dissidents Continue Extortion and Drug Trafficking into 2018. Retrieved from https://panampost.com/felipe-fernandez/2018/01/02/farc-dissidents-extortion-drug-trafficking/). The event that most clearly exemplifies this issue was when a FARC dissident going under the alias ‘Guacho’ “broke away from the FARC to form a new splinter group, known as Oliver Sinisterra Front.

According to reports, Guacho has since led a group of up to 80 fighters on the border between Ecuador and Colombia. Last month, the group kidnapped two journalists from Ecuadorian newspaper, El Comercio, as well as their driver.” (Al Jazeera, & Chambers, B. (2018, April 17). Rebels kidnap couple on Ecuador and Colombia border. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/04/rebels-kidnap-couple-ecuador-colombia-border-180417202412982.html). This shows the problem happening in the region of northern South America where the FARC has left a vacuum in that region which causes other groups to rise in similar fashion as the FARC did to use violence to push for their political ideologies since the FARC proved it could work. Using Ecuador as an example again: “The jungle and mountain region bordering Ecuador is rife with illegal armed groups such as the ELN, or National Liberation Army, which fight for control of illegal mining and drug trafficking routes in areas once teeming with the FARC.” (Murphy, H. (2018, February 01). Colombia’s FARC says ELN rebels behind deaths of three of its members (S. Thomas, Ed.). Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-peace/colombias-farc-says-eln-rebels-behind-deaths-of-three-of-its-members-idUSKBN1FL5Z4). This rising of a second group known as the ELN is a massive problem because they want to become legally legitimate by committing “Murders and kidnappings…in the Colombia-Ecuador border region [which has] prompted revulsion in both countries and undermined continuing efforts to forge a peace deal with the National Liberation Army (ELN), another leftist armed group.” (Rampietti, A. (2018, April 23). Can the Colombia-FARC peace deal hold? Retrieved from http://stream.aljazeera.com/story/201804241625-0025628). These new groups and the splinter groups formed as a result of the legitimization of the FARC, as they see the new party as the prime example to obtain their goals by committing crimes and growing so influential that their demands have to be given to them in order for peace to exist in the region.

Taking an optimistic point of view, the FARC may actually want to provide a voice for their ideology which they may believe has been kept away from Colombian politics in order to have greater representation of the varying views of how government should work. That reasoning would justify their “10 automatic seats in Congress through 2026 and [ability to] campaign for additional seats.” (News, V. (2017, September 01). Colombias FARC Re-launches as Civilian Political Party. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/a/former-colombia-rebels-change-name-still-farc/4010985.html). Changes to the ballots have also resulted from the controversies mentioned before as “Márquez’s decision to steer clear of public office came after the arrest of former FARC commander Seuxis Paucis Hernández Solarte — who also still uses his nom de guerre “Jesús Santrich” — on drug trafficking charges.” (FARC Leader Turns Back on Congress, Further Jeopardizing Peace. (2018, April 25). Retrieved from https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/farc-leader-turns-back-congress-jeopardizes-peace/). This would demonstrate how the FARC’s new representation is attempting to move forward and isolate themselves from what the organization used to be evolving from a drug trafficking guerilla to a legitimate political force. Regardless of the FARC’s true intentions, the facts point to the deduction that their legitimization has sprouted many gray areas regarding the morality of making them legitimate and will continue to happen as the group keeps going in both directions.

12.02.2019

Conclusion

Through a complicated history riddled with crimes and violence, the FARC are one of the world’s most interesting organizations when it comes to their evolution. From their strictly politically charged beginnings to their formation as a massive crime group acting as a guerilla and a major drug trafficker to their formation as a political party done out of necessity for the country’s peace; their story is filled with controversy. Today, the argument surrounding them composes of two groups with rational points of view. There is the first group which is composed mainly of the people on the left side of the political spectrum which advocates for the Peace Accords in order to end the violence and there is the second group which is comprised of the right-leaning citizens who want peace but want the FARC to justly pay for the crimes they have committed and want to stop them from becoming an example for other guerilla groups. Most recently, one side has been given the advantage due to the growing power of other guerillas who seek similar outcomes. As a result more compromises have to be made in order to cease the ongoing violence in the region and quell the arguments within the political spectrum of Colombia. There needs to be a solution that would allow for peace between the government and the FARC while putting in place boundaries for the group rather than just giving them a place in government arbitrarily without a vote from the people all the while still allowing them to become a legitimate political entity. Even though, this would leave their past crimes largely unpunished their new ones should be sentenced more leniently, as in efforts to create peace and stability these compromises must be made for the good and the sake of the everyday people of Colombia and ultimately, the world.

References

(Communism. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Communism)
(Molano, A. (2007, September 25). The Evolution of the FARC: A Guerrilla Groups Long History. Retrieved from https://nacla.org/article/evolution-farc-guerrilla-groups-long-history)
(McDermott, J. (2018, February 21). The FARC’s Riches: Up to $580 Million in Annual Income. Retrieved from https:// www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/farc-riches-yearly-income-up-to-580-million)
(Meza, R. V. (1999). The Revolutionary armed forces of Colombia (FARC) and the illicit drug trade. Cochabamba, Bolivia: Acción Andina etc.)
(Hataway, B. (2015). The FARC’s Drug Trafficking as Political Crime: Determining the Success of Colombia’s Peace Talks. North Carolina Journal Of International Law & Commercial Regulation, 41(1), 163-188)
(Labrousse, A., & Garcés, L. (2005). THE FARC AND THE TALIBAN’S CONNECTION TO DRUGS. Journal Of Drug Issues, 35(1), 169-184)
(Gentry, J. A., & Spencer, D. E. (2010). Colombia’s FARC: A Portrait of Insurgent Intelligence. Intelligence & National Security, 25(4), 453-478)
(Cassman, D. (2015, August 15). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army. Retrieved February 03, 2018, from http://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/89)
(Chambers, B. (2018, April 17). Rebels kidnap couple on Ecuador and Colombia border. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/04/rebels-kidnap-couple-ecuador-colombia-border-180417202412982.html)
(T. (2013, February 03). The illicit drugs market in the Colombian agrarian context. Retrieved from https://www.tni.org/en/publication/the-illicit-drugs-market-in-the-colombian-agrarian-context-1)
(Cassman, D. (2015, August 15). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army. Retrieved from http://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/89?highlight=farc)
(2017). FARC rebels reborn as ‘revolutionary force’ party. Al Jazeera America)
(Colombia Extends Ceasefire With FARC in Effort to Save Peace Deal. (2016). Daily Intelligencer,)
(Colombia’s FARC transforms into a political party. (2017, September 2). http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/09/colombia-farc-transforms-political-party-170902005950448.html)
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(Rodrigo, A. (2017, September 1). Colombia FARC rebels reborn as ‘revolutionary’ party; Colombia’s FARC former guerrilla group re-launches itself Friday as the Common Alternative Revolutionary Force, sealing its transformation into a leftist political party following its disarmament after a half-century civil conflict. Citizen, The (South Africa)
(TeleSUR /. (2017, August 15). Colombia’s FARC Has Revealed Its New Name – Here’s What It Is. Retrieved from https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Colombias-FARC-Has-Revealed-Its-New-Name–Heres-What-It-Is-20170815-0026.html)
(Cobb, J. S. (2017, September 01). Colombia’s FARC political party looks to coalition for 2018 elections. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-peace-politics/colombias-farc-political-party-looks-to-coalition-for-2018-elections-idUSKCN1BC62J)
(CHRISTINE ARMARIO – Associated, P. (2018). Ex-guerrilla launches historic presidential bid in Colombia)
(Hoorda, J. (2017, September 15). FARC Rebel Group Becomes Political Party, Common Alternative Revolutionary Force. https://theowp.org/farc-rebel-group-becomes-political-party-common-alternative-revolutionary-force/)
(Aguirre, M. (2016, January 04). How the guerrillas were led to the negotiating table – and … Retrieved from https://www.tni.org/en/article/how-the-guerrillas-were-led-to-the-negotiating-table-and-stayed)
(McDermott, J. (2017, October 05). Criminal Activities of the FARC and Rebel Earnings. https://www.insightcrime.org/investigations/farc-criminal-activities-income/)
(Feingold, S. (2018, April 10). Colombia arrests negotiator in FARC peace deal on drug trafficking charge. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2018/04/10/americas/colombia-farc-santrich-arrest/index.html)
(Murphy, H. (2018, February 01). Colombia’s FARC says ELN rebels behind deaths of three of its members (S. Thomas, Ed.). Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-peace/colombias-farc-says-eln-rebels-behind-deaths-of-three-of-its-members-idUSKBN1FL5Z4)
(Clavel, T. (2018, April 26). FARC Leader Turns Back on Congress, Further Jeopardizing Peace (A. Olaya, Trans.). Retrieved from https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/farc-leader-turns-back-congress-jeopardizes-peace/)
(Fernández, F. (2018, January 02). FARC Dissidents Continue Extortion and Drug Trafficking into 2018. Retrieved from https://panampost.com/felipe-fernandez/2018/01/02/farc-dissidents-extortion-drug-trafficking/)
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(Murphy, H. (2018, February 01). Colombia’s FARC says ELN rebels behind deaths of three of its members (S. Thomas, Ed.). Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-peace/colombias-farc-says-eln-rebels-behind-deaths-of-three-of-its-members-idUSKBN1FL5Z4)
(Al Jazeera, & Chambers, B. (2018, April 17). Rebels kidnap couple on Ecuador and Colombia border. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/04/rebels-kidnap-couple-ecuador-colombia-border-180417202412982.html)
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(FARC Leader Turns Back on Congress, Further Jeopardizing Peace. (2018, April 25). Retrieved from https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/farc-leader-turns-back-congress-jeopardizes-peace/)

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