Biosensing has been one of the hottest topic attracting scientific minds since long. It is due to complex biological entities and are directly associated with the existence of a healthy environment. The design of biosensors also has gone through significant changes in the recent past. Biosensors are used for food quality estimation, environmental monitoring, and diagnosis of clinical and metabolic complications. Nanotechnology has involved some highly exciting ingredients for the improvement of sensing phenomenon. The use of nanomaterials is diversified ranging from nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, and a nanowire has enhanced the speed of detection and its reproducibility in a significant better way. The unique properties of nanomaterials such as high electrical conductivity, better shock bearing ability, and the sensitive responses such as piezoelectric and versatile color based detection mechanisms are only the results of collection of nanomaterials properties.
The diagnostic Techniques with the help of Nano-Biotechnology has been adopted as research focal area. It encompasses the state of the art phenomenon of early diagnostics of viral disease HIV. This research work would entail a dedicated effort of the researcher (Ayesha Aslam) under the supervision of honorable and respected Supervisor (Sir, Dr. Hamid Manzoor).
1.1 Background to the Study
The development of efficient biosensors which can analyze the smallest details of the biological interactions even at a very small scale and with extreme precision and maximum ever possible sensitivities has played a vital role in diagnostic studies. A key component of the bio-sensing is the transduction mechanism which converts the bioanalyte interactions into an electrical form through the use of transduction mechanism. Nanomaterials can play a key role in this dimension because of its high surface area to volume ratios. Nanotechnology has brought about a great revolution in the domain of molecular biology which has provided an opportunity for manipulation of atoms and molecules and monitored the biological phenomenon at the physiological level with far greater precision.
2. Concept of Nanobiosensors
2.1 What is Biosensor and Nano-Biosensor ?
A biosensor can be defined as a sensing device or a measurement system designed specifically for estimation of a material by using the biological interactions and then assessing these interactions into a readable form with the help of a transduction and electromechanical interpretation. It comprises of three main components, namely, bio-receptor, transducer, and the detector. The main function or purpose of a biosensor is to sense a biologically specific material. Often, these materials are antibodies, proteins, enzymes, immunological molecules, and so on.
It is done by using another biologically sensitive material that takes part in the making of bioreceptor. So, a bioreceptor is that component of a biosensor which serves as a template for the material to be detected. There can be several materials which can be used as bioreceptors. For instance, an antibody is screened using antigen and vice versa; a protein is screened using its corresponding selective substrate and so on. The second component is the transducer system. The main function of this device is to convert the interaction …
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