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Essay: Gene selection and gene engineering

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  • Published: 22 October 2015*
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  • Words: 1,110 (approx)
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Natural selection causes heritable phenotypic traits to become either more or less common in a population. Individuals with characteristics most suited to the environment are more likely to reproduce and survive. In this base, the human nature always attempts to be perfect during entire life as well. From beginning of life, human enhancement is going toward of being perfect, simple and pleasure life.
The gene engineering is one of human enhancement, which helps human to choose the interest genes for having the better life.
Gene selection can be helpful to screen genetic disorders and chromosomal abnormalities.
The purpose of gene selection should be either to prevent the birth of the babies showing genetic disorders or to terminate their lives ones they have already been born. So gene selection can play a role in eliminating genetic disorders from the population by genetic counseling of the parents who carry the defect genes.
Gene selection can lead to have children with potentialities that are higher than average. The process eliminates the genes that don’t meet the standard of the species.
In the reproductive gene selection, we can have two points of view, one of these is to have the best and ideal child and other is preventing of diseases and disables child.
‘ Couples (or single reproducers) should select the child, of the possible children they could have, who is expected to have the best life, or at least as good a life as the others, based on the relevant, available information ‘ -Savulescu 2001.
According to these views, if we consider two different couples that wants gene selection for their future child, a couple that has the defect or mutant disabled genes in their family history and wants to have a healthy child ‘as good as others’ in the versus of couples who wants to improve the physical appearances like eye colors and intelligence child.
Of course first couples wishes are more acceptable because of if their child born with physical disorders, the life could be difficult for that child and in the other hand the care and health insurance costs will be higher for the parents as well as for the society, because this kind of individuals need special care.
Second couple also wants reproductive gene selection for their child if this one is also in the category of perfectionist view?
For answer of this question we need following examples:
‘The Wine Capacity Case: Suppose that a couple is having in vitro fertilization (IVF) in an attempt to have a child. The process produces two embryos. A battery of tests for common diseases is performed, and it is found that Embryo A has no abnormalities on the tests performed, except that its genetic profile reveals that it has a predisposition to be able to enjoy super fine wine; and Embryo B has no abnormalities on the tests performed except its genetic profile reveals it has a predisposition to be able to enjoy very fine wine, but not super fine wine. Let us assume that being able to enjoy super fine wine over very fine wine gives Embryo A a better chance to have the best life. Which embryo should be implanted?
On the Perfectionist View, Embryo B has nothing to be said in its favour over A, while Embryo A has something to be said in its favour over B. So, on the Perfectionist View, other things being equal, there is a prima facie obligation to implant Embryo A. But it is difficult to see how there could be an obligation, even a prima facie one, to choose A over B in this case. Advocates of the Perfectionist View might reply that given that it is agreed that Embryo A will have a better chance of having a better life than Embryo B, surely, there is some reason to prefer Embryo A to B. However, it seems that the notion of reason here is ambiguous. It could be a reason for a prima facie obligation, that is, something that, other things being equal, one ought to do; or a supererogatory reason, that is, something that is good to do but that there is no obligation to do. To illustrate this distinction, consider the following:
The Blind Lady Case: Suppose that you have the option of helping a blind lady to cross a street or helping the blind lady to cross the street and getting her a free ice cream. The blind lady loves ice cream and would be very happy if she had ice cream. Someone just across the street is giving away ice cream for free, and it is no trouble for you to get her some.
There is certainly a reason to help the lady to cross the street. In addition, there may also be a reason to help get ice cream for the lady, since it would make her very happy. But arguably, the two reasons are not the same. The reason to help the lady cross the street looks to be a prima facie obligation, that is, something that, other things being equal, one ought to do. However, the reason to help get ice cream for the lady looks at best to be a supererogatory reason, that is, something that is good to do but that there is no obligation to do. In the Wine Capacity Case, it seems that the reason to prefer Embryo A to B is also something that is good to do but that there is no obligation to do. If this is right, one can grant that there is a reason to prefer Embryo A to B without accepting that this is a reason for a prima facie obligation. If so, the Wine Capacity Case does not seem to support the Perfectionist View. ‘ -Buchanan, Brock, Daniels, and Wikler 2000-S.Matthew Lia 2008
To have child with better physically appearance is not helpful to the eliminate disorders populations, this is only whishes of parents to have a child with such a appearance but people value different and maybe a person who born with this appearance would not like those.
One of the other views is gene selections could reduce genetic diversity, for example if we engineer perfect children in the way that be intelligence, beautiful and physically same appearance the world would be a sterile place where everyone is the same and the surprise of the life is gone which we do not discuss this point of view here.
At the end, we can say that it isn’t possible to create perfect children from all aspects; we can only attempt to create next generation with opportunities of better life and without genetic disorders and disability.

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