Essay: YIELD RESPONSE TO SALINITY AND SODICITY OF IRRIGATION WATER

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PRELIMINARY GUIDELINE FOR YIELD RESPONSE TO SALINITY AND SODICITY OF IRRIGATION WATER UNDER NORTH NILE DELTA CONDITIONS

ABSTRACT

Preliminary Guideline of tolerance of soybean, canola, sunflower, cotton and sugar beet crops to salinity and sodicity of irrigation water were introduced through long term lysimeter experiments in sand culture under North Delta climatic conditions. Linear equation of different crops indicate that, the relative yield decrement oh with increasing unit of ECw were 16.02 , 14.59, 13.88, 6.44 and 5.31 oh for sunflower, canola, soybean, cotton and sugar beet, respectively under SAR 10. Also, increasing the SAR of irrigation water increased the adverse effect of EC* on the crop yield. The crops under consideration could be arranged in the following descending order, according to their tolerance to salinity of irrigation water.

Sugar beet >Cotton > Soybean > Canola > Sunflower.

The multiple regression equations described the combined effect of ECw and SARw on crop yield were:

Yield decrement %:

= -28.708 + 14.884 ECw + 1.608 SARw

= -25.541+ 17.0l6 ECw + 1.098 SARw

= -16.089 + 14.867 ECw + 0.784 SARw

= -21.116 + 6.135 ECw +1.286 SARw

= -22.323 + 4.9028 ECw +1.0 SARw

For soybean, sunflower, canola, cotton and sugar beet crops, respectively’

Key words: Guideline, Irrigation water, Salinity, Sodicity

INTRODUCTION

Field crops are differing greatly in their response to salinity according to species, variety, physiological stage of plant growth and environmental conditions (Balba, 1962, FAO, 1976 and Mffiries, 1988). Mass, (1986), tabulated a number of economic crops according to their tolerance to salt and stated that, cotton and sugar beet are tolerant crops while soybean is moderately tolerant and sunflower is moderately sensitive crop. The salt tolerance of various crops are conventionally expressed (after Mass and Hoffman, l977), in terms of relative yield, threshold salinity value (a) and percentage decrement value per ECw unit over the threshold (b), while soil salinity is expressed in terms of ECe, in dS/m, as the follows:

Y=100-b(ECe-a)

The use of saline water for irrigation should be evaluated for the specific conditions where it is used, since the crop yields depend on leaching fraction and. climatic factors at the same locality. It was also found that, the model recommended for the relation between yield and soil salinity by Mass, dose not fit well for yield and irrigation water salinity Abd El-Gawad and Ghaibeh, (l998). Systematic approach was suggested by Abd El-Gawad and Ghaibeh, (l997), to determine the relative yield as a result of increasing salinity of irrigation water. Therefore they considered the EC in equation of Mass represents the mean electrical conductivity of the irrigation water throughout the season, and they suggested quadratic and exponential equations as follows:

Y= A + B (EC – T) + C ( EC – T)2 and

Y= A exp (EC – T)

Where A is the absolute yield, B is the slope, EC is the mean value of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water throughout the season, and T salinity threshold expressed in dSm-l. The effect of

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