Essay: Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies

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  • Subject area(s): Medicine essays
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Abstract
This study seeks to determine the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies, patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets and drug consumers in Cross River State. A cross- sectional descriptive study design will be applied in this research and data will be collected from important drugs randomly selected from community pharmacies and patent medicine drug distribution outlet and the level of knowledge of the public health implication of counterfeit drugs will be collected from pharmacist and patent medicine vendors using structured questionnaires. The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to and outside the study area to test for validity and reliability of instrument. Data for this study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to assess effects of selected variables on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs, P- value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the data as applicable. Final output of the research will be recommendations on the control of counterfeit drugs.

Research objectives
The objectives of this study are to:
• assess the prevalence of the distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis
• compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis
• compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in urban and rural setting
• identify factors influencing the distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis
• determine the level of knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on the public health implications of counterfeit drugs

Identification / defining research problem
The availability of counterfeit drugs in the market presents a serious public health problem, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria, and may have a significant impact on the national disease and economic burden. Current estimate suggests that 10% of prescription drugs sold worldwide are counterfeits, fake or contaminated, and in parts of Africa and Asia, the figures exceed 50% (Newton, Lee, Goodman, Fernández, Yeung, Phanouvong, Kaur, Amin, Whitty, Kokwao, Lindegardh, Lukulay, White, Day, Green, 2009).
Counterfeit medicines are widespread and represent a threat to public health which can lead to healthcare failures, such as resistance to antibiotics and the spread of disease within a community, as well as loss of life. Research has also shown that poor-quality medicines can reach the market through deliberate fraudulent practices by those that want to get rich overnight. There is low awareness of the problem of counterfeit medicine; a problem that could lead to public-health crisis (Charles, 2010). Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding counterfeit drugs are often undermine and given less concern in the area of research.
Measuring the magnitude …

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