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Essay: Implement Smart Cities: Network Architecture for Internet of Things (IoT)

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An emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) as a big information technology advance leads to varieties of advantages for human live. And by that improvement in order to survive in that modern area a city as a place where people have their daily activities need to transform into a better city which can be synergies along with the Internet of Things. It is called the smart cities. However, to implement smart cities concept construct a network architecture needed as a potential application. (Jin, Gubbi, Luo. 2012)

According to various of rotocol cable system, wireless and hybrid type in dynamic networking environment, IoT has different Quality of Services (QoS) requirement of common homogeneus networks. IoT networking envorontment is characterized based on the heterogeneity of networks it feature multi service, providing more than one different application or services. This means that not only the existence of of multiple types of traffic between network, but also the network’s ability to support all the applications. (Jin, etc. 2012).

There are several design choice for network architecture:

A. Network Design Approach.

Two main design for network architecture are Evolutionary approach and Clean slate approach. Evolutionary approach make additional changes to current network architecture to re use as many components as possible from existing networking solution. The IoT  is seen as an extended architecture that evolved from internet while the clean-slate approach is a redesign of the network without being restricted by current structure. That means, it is developing a next generation network challenges, new architectures and protocols to address accordance with principles of design intrusive. (Jin, etc. 2012)

B. IP based Connectivity Models.

C. An Adoption of IP architecture is a part of a success in a Internet environment. IP architecture can be operated all of the devices and technology of communication, expanding and multipurpose while sit still scalable, manageable, and stable, and easy to run. That fact makes IP architecture is a rational choice for IOT emerged. However, the wireless sensor network community rejected the IP network in a assumption that it would not meet the challenges of wireless sensor  network systems. (Jin, etc. 2012)


A. Autonomous Network Architecture.

Autonomous Network Architecture not connected to the public network but it does not mean that the internet access is prohibited. One example of this Autonomous Network Architecture is an automatic parking management. Collecting information activity is done by a wireless sensor technology, so they can provide the users about parking vacancy information and the user can visualize it through their smartphone. The QOS requirement for this regard is application non-independent. Regarding automatic parking management above, sensor coverage, dependability and response system-ness is a main concern.(Dhima, Roumeliotis. 2014)

B. Ubquitous Network Architecture.

In Ubquintous Network Architecture smart object network are a part of Internet. The access to the provided information for the authorized user obtained by go impenetrate the internet gateway. That way, the legimate users will get access to the information through smart object network or immediately get it from the device. the feature of ubiquitous network architecture includes:

1. Multitier.

Hierarchical network architecture, consist of two wireless-network access and multi hop wireless network. In particular, multi-hop wireless network can be a wireless sensor network or ad-hoc network of a vehicle. (jin, etc. 2012)

2. Multiradio.

Have a number of radio access technology available to connect to the internet is not often these day, both of which cover same geographic region or complementary. This network can be WLAN, WiMAX, macro-cells, femto-cell or even ad-hoc. Synergies anf the integration of different networks in a multi-access and multi-operator environment introducing new opportunities for better communication channels and improve the quality of applications and services. (jin, etc. 2012)

Other than that, there are also some theories about network architecture which suitable for smart cities. Just like SEN2SOC (Bridging SENsor measurement and SOCial networks interaction via natural language generation for supporting smart city services) which is founded and developed by SmartSantander company. SEN2SOC assume a mutual relationship in the sensor data generated together with the data which generated by human available in social networking platforms. Using this approach it’s like “being listened” by network object sensor is increase and examined by human sense, therefore getting closer to realizing collective awareness tasks and collaboration. This framework proposed to work online with the principle where sensor data is used for the production of tissue exposure socially. (Srivastava and Vakali. 2012)

The main goal of the SEN2SOC is to set up compacted system from exploitation of network sensoring, propose inovative mobile use, citizen user service, guest and city auathorities. (samaras, vakali, giatsoglou, chatzakou, angelis. 2014).

SEN2SOC based upon the idea of combine measurement sensor and social network interaction through natural language generation (NLG) to support smart cities service. Natural Language System is a system that generates text in human language from non-linguistic data. The objective of SEN2SOC’s  suggest NLG is for converted the sensor and other data numeric to the language which easily understood for everyone. (samaras, etc. 2014)

The SEN2SOC is encouraged by the validity that applying smart interconnected object sensor together with activity in social network give contribution in joint awareness and smart city landscape. It will support two side of platform that will apply sensor data production and social network. (Srivastava and Vakali. 2012)

That project will carry out innovative mobile and innovative web application which involve the citizen, visitor, and city government in a various ways. In a certain way, the SEN2SOC application needs Smart Sender sensor measurement, which provide information about the environmental condition, generate alert message, providing route or recommendation place, and interact with the social media user. SEN2SOC component and function are sufficiently specified. The design also determine the central point of interaction among SEN2SOC component. More importantly manage communication among components of SEN2SOC and offer them a service to activate SEN2SOC function. (Samaras, etc. 2014)

The Basic components of the SEN2SOC includes:

1. Sensor Data Monitoring. To carry out sensor data retrieval. The sensor data monitoring s a function to analyze the sensor data and releases environmental sensor reading surpass certain boundary. His component regain sensor from the SmartSantander platform and keep it in each data storage.

2. Social Data Observer. To support data collection geographically and user-generated content mining. It collect data geographically and mining support UGC in several social media network.

3. Mobile Application. Provide user log-in via internet. This component, has a function to the application SEN2SOC for mobile devices and a second address of the residents and visitors. For the most part, the Mobile App is showing signs in extreme environmental conditions, featuring a map of city from the sensor information is supported with the nearest POI (point of interest), so as social media user activity, and supports user-way navigation from their own preferences, recent location and desired destination place. Mobile application notes user feedback on: i) environmental conditions in the region feel they are today, and ii) user’s pleasure with the recommendation given.

4. Statistical Analyze. This is the component of primary data processing which correlate and analyze data from various sources. And this part support sensor data mining, perform statistical analysis, detect sensor data anomaly and report the result to SEN2SOC web application.

5. Web Application. This function are as user log-In section, capture various aspects of the visualized useful information mined like: graphic of data sensor, statistic, alerts and sensor data anomaly.

6. Interface Component. To develop central point of interaction among some of SEN2SOC parts and to develop a communication with another component via input/output system. (Samaras, etc. 2014)

SEN2SOC will determine new ways to capture the city data from the sensor and harness the collective activities by:

1. Make recommendation to user, so that they update the navigation inside the smart cities environment.

2. Allow the municipality to get access to the knowledge from the city’s data by user friendly interface visualization.

The SEN2SOC serve newest technology for the city authority to understand any problem citizens find out in their real lives and sensor data also comments that citizen serve to start dealing with this problem. (Samaras, etc. 2014)

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