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Essay: Exploring Challenges of Humanitarian Intervention w/ Rwandan Genocide Case Study

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   Violations of human rights and the means on how to put an end to such a violation in any given country or in the world at large, where it has being known that the nation-state is incapable and unwilling to help her own citizens in such a situation which also results in punishing, torturing and maltreating her people in a given nation is referred Humanitarian Intervention.  

   The concept of Humanitarian Intervention on how the challenges can be overcome which results into violation of a sovereign state dominance for the single-mindedness of defensiveness of human existence in control of a state suppression and deprivation or political failure and it is said to be one of the oldest concept inception for at least since the end of the cold war and it has brought intervention on lives (Alex de Waal).  

   Humanitarian intervention is said to take different forms, through quantifiable support such as through assistance aid and consents of sanctions which is coercive in nature, by no military force to put an end offensive put into practise and however the communiqu'' of a military armed forces to resolve a catastrophe disaster either natural or made tragedy such as for example hurricanes biological.


   In this thesis I will discuss and be showing the definition of Humanitarian Intervention and how it has been used to bring about intervention to human lives to the world at large, however the dilemma of Humanitarian Intervention will also be discussed below. Case study: genocide in Rwandan which resulted into a civil war.

   In addition we will look at the origin of humanitarian intervention. Not to overlook our unique topic question which says: why Humanitarian Intervention is such a contested concept that is to say in the world at large and in relations to this thesis questions we will look at the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention using Rwanda as our case study.

   And we will consider the main reasons why ICC was formed to help tackle the issues of humanitarian intervention. Finally this thesis will show how humanitarian intervention is used effectively to overcome challenges in the world and the argument of this project will be specifically shown at the Conclusion of this thesis.

    Origin of Humanitarian Intervention

   Since the heart-breaking happenings in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia in the early 1990's, there have been measures to adjust the attitude of autonomy to defend external state mediation as soon as events genocides and considerable destructions of rights of humans are of no regards inside or within a given nation state.  This has in the sense given birth to the body of doctrine of armed humanitarian or military intervention and that of responsibility to protect (Bello, 6th September 2013).

    Humanitarian Intervention definition

   Humanitarian intervention is an act which helps to avert and end a much uncivilized breach peace over the human rights of civilians of a given sovereign state  as such a state is not willing to protect the rights of the civilians and this state is in some way is torturing and persecuting  them.  

Cases of Humanitarian Intervention

   Sierra Leone and East Timor had had a clear and successful humanitarian intervention in this region.  Considering the case of Rwandan genocide and the civil war occurred in this region in Africa it is said to be a failed intervention as the world stood and watched, rolling our minds to the most recent humanitarian intervention all over the world, this one of Rwanda was unusual as millions of life's were lost and therefore was a failed intervention (Ludlow, 1999).

Why Humanitarian Intervention is such a contested concept in the world at large

   Humanitarian Intervention is known to be a Contested Concept through Military interventions of the 1990's which was not on the will of a given government with regards to humanitarian vindication and justification of nation states and its citizens.

    The 1948 Genocide Convention likewise dominated the principle of non-intervention to place down the obligation of the community of the world to punish & prevent in the world at large.  We see the response given to the genocide that occurred 1994 in Rwanda in similarities to Srebrenica massacre in Bosnian 1995 which was not prevented and in relations to this it shows the international responses to crimes against humanity to be in complexity. (Jayshree Bajoria, 2013)

   Firstly, the Security Council is in a weak position via an absence of partisan drive amid its participants. The concern of partisan drive was sadly obvious in the Rwanda crisis.

   Next, in effect and dependable humanitarian intervention stays not likely to be geo-political genuineness of associations amongst the five permanent members of the UN Security Council: most importantly leading to the use of the veto power and uneven humanitarian crisis.

   Lastly, at hand there is an international law break which is critical, with esteem to humanitarian intervention. Humanitarian intervention of NATO which is a crusade in Kosovo is above all noteworthy for the reason that it not only acmes the insufficiencies of legal international mechanisms once confronted by possibly shocking crisis's of humanitarian, as shown above, it obligates conveyed the needed inquiry of the accurate countries to mediate for humanitarian commitments wanting approval of the Security Council  of the UN which are backed into open considerations (Simons, 2001).

    The Dilemma of Humanitarian Intervention

   The organisation of the United Nations, was established as a repercussion of World War 2 in other to promote and ensure peace & stability as result it will however distinguishes the significance of sovereignty, most importantly for the newly established and independent nations which where colonized. UN Charter which says, that is only in matters which is contained in the UN charter can be used to intervene in any case of a states or a nations Jurisdictions (ayshree Bajoria, 2013).

   However this principle does not in any way go against the cases such as in breach of peace, threat of peace and that of acts aggression which is seen in the UN charter which could be used when other means of intervention has been exhausted out in a given state or nation state at a time of intervention. The 1948 Genocide Convention has been noted to have prevailed against the issue principle of non-intervention which is form to pull down and prevent, stop and punish any violators.  

   To sum up the neutrality and inaction of international communities, in aid and intervention such as the  case of Rwanda genocide in 1994 & however seen catastrophe and failure to prevent and stop or to halt the  Srebrenica massacre in Bosnia 1995 these shows the climax and  the complexities of international communities see the issues of crimes against humanity and how immediate response is not carried out in this sovereign or nation states  (ayshree Bajoria, 2013). According to Davis says "the starring role of provincial performers and actors and the nationals come to be tremendously dangerous"  (Bajoria, 2008).

   According to this academicians Patrick says, compulsory humanitarian intervention and it is a difficult choice to make. This help rule the of state which is awkward omission of crime "The whole world first apprehension is intended aimed by the wounded" and if and individual is to choose to dynamism a succour, 'first and foremost thing that will trigger military response from a given country and state you would trigger military response'.   This preparedness is aimed and said to use fortified force such as the army in such surroundings which is also known to be inevitably unfair not only by the extreme anxiety via a means of geopolitical factors together with the significance of the community, and provincial stability, and the assertiveness of other most significant dramatis personalities, as said by experts.

  The Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention using Rwanda as a case study

   The 1994 Rwandan annihilation and genocide was a serious case that honourably is compulsory to a humanitarian intervention & see to not receive one.   Regardless of the circumstance that from one places to another 800,000 general community largely the Tutsis and Hutu population) remained overwhelmed in emotionless body fluid by means of Hutus revolutionaries (Agwu, 2014).

    The transnational community failed to prevent and respond to the 1994 genocide that occurred in Rwanda, Tutsis and Hutus people a total of 800,000 dead. Inaction compounded the scale of the calamity and poorer the predicament, which subsequently converted itself into a provincial conflict.

    Regional war breaks down as soon as Hutu wrongdoers of genocide issue which fled to   DRC border subsequently Tutsi armed forces go downhill on Kigali to position a conclusion to the violence. As soon as there was a recovery in eastern DRC, these paramilitaries accompanied cross border incursions and organised diplomacies for a yet to originated assault to throw out the once more formed Tutsi administration in Rwanda.

   The incapability of Congolese powers that be to end these invasions controlled to the choice of Tutsi Rwandan armed forces to occupy East DRC in knowledge to eradicate the dormant fundamental Hutu intimidation. This martial or military incursion burned the First Congo Confrontation, manufacturing the loss of 100 of thousands of innocent lives.  Noticeably, the nonappearance of world-wide involvement in Rwanda heightened the encounter not only in the interior Rwanda anywhere it established into massacre but glowing out there Rwanda's boundaries in place as well (Calderon, Year of Article publication is unknown).

International Criminal Court in relations to humanitarian intervention

   The ICC''s precautionary obligation is a very good opportunity which has a vital means to realise their accountability to the society & international community which it has the accountability to safeguard this concept.  Therefore, the hope of the ICC is to keep to the protection and prevention on the ending shown past and present immunities. (Ol''solo, 2010)

   Without a doubt referring to the meaning of  international criminal law which is well-defined as the trial of persons for crimes such as which includes, international crimes such as crimes against  humanity  & war crimes as time of definition there was no law of such in the period of 20th century (Rosen, Unknown) .  These resulted in the introduction of both the Hague Conference of 1899, and for a second time in 1907, which however was guarded by concepts of sovereign States, and the Nuremberg was carved out in 1946.

   Formerly in 2002 the ICC turn out to be an authenticity, mostly works of humanitarian is noticed to be a good thinking.  As countless organisations of humanitarian asked that a stop of impunity was to be welcomed by the societies & citizens like the issues which humanitarians are trying to relieve and so a lot of movements have been done to foster the set-up of this ICC (Kate Mackintosh, 2006).   

    ICC is established out of bequest by the aim of termination of liberty for or of a group massacres and genocides in addition to bring crime to justice and issues which warrants & permits international responsiveness.   

Humanitarian Intervention is used effectively to overcome challenges in the world

   In a close perspective such as in conflict & crisis, the main view goal is to help prevent fatalities and casualties of human and guarantee right of entry to the basic needs for life survival which includes such amenities as: food, shelter water, sanitation, health care, clothing and sanitation.

   Far away  the combat is aggressive, humanitarian intervention main concern is to support general public who be necessary have been exiled & displaced and however main idea is to avert the reach of conflict, war crime, relief support , genocide and an act to aid in process for  the issue of rehabilitation (Branczik, 2014).   


    Notably, it is unique to state that this thesis has shown the heart breakings in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s as the origin of humanitarian intervention, which however as at that time there was no form of regards to human rights. The birth of the doctrine of armed humanitarian and military intervention which shows the R2P: This is Responsibility to Protect.

    Indeed, it has been shown via the definition of humanitarian intervention which comprises of the act to avert and end an uncivilised breach of human rights as the states in some cases are not willing to protect lives of civilians, thereby resulting into torture and cruelty with persecutions. Rwanda genocide was said to be a failed intervention to the world at large, likewise to the international community were not on time to avert the crises.

   To tell the truth, our main question 'why humanitarian intervention is such a contested concept' in the world at large, as previously shown directly above I will add that humanitarian intervention is based on justification of nation states. Since 1990s this concept has been so contested such as in the use of arm force. And it shows how the international community responds to crimes against humanity which is said to be a complexity (Jayshree Bajoria, 2013).

   Finally, humanitarian intervention is used effectively to overcome challenges in the world which is to help prevent casualties of lives and provide amenities such as, food, water, shelter and health care and to sum up the ICC is aimed at putting a halt to massacres and genocides fears to promote justice and peace.



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