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Identify information of an existing concrete structure

(draft) ABSTRACT Which methods can be used to determine the capacity of an existing concrete structure? 1 INTRODUCTION Planet earth struggles with different kind of environmental issues. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues. The increasing concentration of greenhouse gas emissions resulted in the goal of the EU countries for 2020 to … Read more

Artifacts and filtering

Artifacts from many different sources can contaminate MEEG data and must be identified and/or removed. Artifacts can be of non-physiological (bad electrode contact, power line, etc.) or physiological (pulse, muscle activity, sweating, movement, etc.) origin. The data should first be visually inspected (where the investigator is blind to experimental conditions) to ascertain what types of … Read more

Wire Electrical Discharge Machining

Wire Electrical Discharge Machining is a Manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges by repeated spark cycle Machining parameters are provided in table by the machine tool manufacturers often do not meet the operator requirements. Selection of optimum machining and its machining parameters combinations is needed for obtaining higher cutting efficiency … Read more

Unitary PLC – advantages, disadvantages, examples

Unitary: – A Unitary PLC is a simple form of controller. This contains all the basic system components in a single box. Unitary PLC’s are mainly attached directly to the device or application system which is being controlled. Unitary PLC components include processor, which run the software program, also allows ports for input and output … Read more

The Invention of Radios

The Radio was the best invention in the 19th century that gave birth to whole field of electronics;however, radios are still being used today in so many ways regards to politics, economics,geography, and socially. Inventing radios have changed society drastically. The things being played on the radio we listen to today has a different purpose … Read more

Iron and its many uses in the world

Iron exists in all living organism as an irreplaceable dietary, needed for making hemoglobin in human and animal body. Iron is an important material that made up the needed appliances for our daily life. We can find iron and its alloy in skyscrapers, buildings, houses, tools, and many machineries. According to the Encyclopedia of Science, … Read more

Developments in Mechantronics

Introduction Recent development in mechatronics, what kind, why beneficial, what are those material, what brand. In depth later Composite has been used widely in many areas. It has since gained more popularity because of its unique properties compare to normal materials. In recent year, there has been many research conducted to study about useful composites … Read more

Metal Alloys

METAL ALLOYS An alloy is a blend of two or more metals. the blend can form a solid solution or it can be simple mixture, depending on the size of the crystals that form and how the homogenous alloy is Many people believe steel is an alloy of iron and nickel, but actually steel is … Read more


Concrete It is a composite material composed mainly of water, aggregate, and cement. Often, additives and reinforcements (such as rebar) are included in the mixture to achieve the desired physical properties of the finished material. When these ingredients are mixed together, they form a fluid mass that is easily molded into shape. Over time, the … Read more

Testing in concrete construction

Testing are important in concrete construction. Tests concerned with fresh concrete are to check the workability of concrete. Tests on hardened concrete are to find the strength, creep effects, durability, etc. Testing of Fresh Concrete Following tests are commonly employed to measure workability of fresh concrete: (1)Slump test (2)Compaction factor test (3)Flow test (4)Kelly Ball … Read more

Field Coil Connected In Series And Parallel

In this method, the field coil is divided into various parts.These parts can be connected in series or parallel as per the requirement. The Figure shows the two parts of field coil connected in series and parallel. Two Parts Of Field Coil Connected In Series And Parallel For the same torque, if the field coil … Read more

Concrete calculations

Equation is valid provided the neutral axis is in the flange, dn < t. The force C then acts at a depth If the neutral axis is in the web of a T-section, the force C has to be reduced by an amount Cn given by which can be regarded as a negative force acting … Read more

Importance of Preventive Maintenance

If you’ve been involved in the boating, yachting, or shipping industry you have undoubtedly heard the acronym for B.O.A.T – Break Out Another Thousand. When you own anything on the water, you recognize that it comes with high maintenance costs. Planned maintenance often gets overlooked because the changes in performance are seemingly insignificant. However, the … Read more

Feasibility of Prefabricated Deep Energy Exterior Retrofitting in Existent Housing to Reach Net Zero Energy Levels in the South Eastern Climates of Canada

February 4, 2019 Abstract In an effort to achieve 2030 targets set by the Paris agreement, Canada is in desperate need to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Residential housing accounts for 17% of Canada’s energy requirements and 16% of GHG emissions. Therefore, many are looking into greener alternatives to housing but with new constructions … Read more

Ultrasonic welding as a technology

Literature Review Introduction Over the years, in terms of the materials used in building aircraft and other aerospace structure, the aviation industry has evolved from wood and fabrics used by the Wright brothers to metals and composite materials seen today in commercial aircrafts such as Boeing 787 which is made up of 50% composites (Mraz … Read more

Advantages of Building Information Modelling

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ABSTRACT BIM (Building Information Modelling), an innovative parametric software has seen widespread use in AEC design firms worldwide. BIM enhances the efficiency of the AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) world to a point where buildings can be edited digitally in real time. BIM has recently attracted extensive attention in the Architectural, Engineering … Read more

How to write an engineering essay

A lot of students, when given the task of writing an engineering essay, make a lot of mistakes when writing their paper. When writing an engineering essay, it is recommended that you conduct a plan for your essay, and not just begin by typing your name, the essay title, and anything related to the topic that comes into your mind.

Planning your essay will enable you to write a paper, which has points and ideas that flow coherently. This guide will provide you with important tips on how you can write a high quality-engineering essay by directing you on how to plan, structure the paper, and write your points and ideas coherently.

The decision to write an engineering essay could be because the essay is part of your courses continuous assessment, application requirement, personal writing on trending topics, or a publication article in a periodical or newspaper column.

The objective of your engineering essay should be decided before starting the paper. The objective is the main information, which you want the reader to know using the essay. Remain focused to your objective and the reader from the start of your essay to the end. Structuring your engineering essay well will assist you in keeping the audience and the objective in mind in your essay. An engineering essay has the same writing structure as scientific writing. The following will help you understand how to write an engineering essay and how to structure it:


Provides the summary of what will be discussed in the essay. It is important that you structure it well because it is from this section that a reader will decide to continue reading the essay or stop. When writing your abstract, summarize the objective of your essay including examples supporting your argument, methods used to collect data used in the paper, research findings, and conclusions containing implications of the results.


An introduction provides you with a chance to instill interest in your essay topic. This is the best area to provide background information about your topic to enable the reader to understand the reason that prompted you to write the essay. An introduction of a journal essay will provide a review of current literature to define transition or difference in knowledge. When writing this section of the essay, ensure that you refer to previous works by other writers, and include reference of the sources. It is important that you avoid plagiarism because it is a serious offence.

Material and Methods

Learning how to write an engineering essay is not just about writing the essay itself. It also involves explaining where you got information from. The methods and steps used to solve the objective of the essay are discussed in this section of the essay. However, this section does not include any results. Ensure that you provide a brief description of methods used and a justification of the steps that you followed when writing the essay. This is the section where you describe the statistical or analysis techniques you used when providing interpretation of research findings. In case your essay has findings from an experiment, this is the right place to describe the methods and equipment you used to the reader. The description should contain enough details that can enable the reader to reproduce the experiments in another laboratory. For example, in a stress analysis problem, your description should include the steps you took in modeling the problem, simplifications and assumptions made during the experiment, boundary conditions, and considerations for the material used.


When presenting your research or experiment findings, utilise graphs or images to support your findings. Label all images and graphs used to present findings by including scales and units. A detailed caption when presenting findings in an engineering essay is important because it helps a reader who is not familiar with how findings are presented to understand them.


This section should focus on the reader by taking him back to the essay’s objective, and provide a description of the results in addition to showing how they relate to the topic of the essay. This is the section where you discuss the findings and anomalies encountered during your research. When writing the engineering essay, you need to relate these findings to previous research, and show how it relates to the discussion and topic of the essay.


Every essay must contain a conclusion paragraph. It summarizes what has been discussed in the essay. A conclusion can be in bullet points providing the recommendations of the problems discussed.

Referencing or Bibliography Section

After completing the essay, you need to include a list of all the references used in the essay. There are various referencing styles, which include APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian and Harvard. The following is an example of writing a reference or bibliography in various styles:

  • APA: Creme, P., & Lea, M. R. (2008). Writing at university: A guide for students. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • MLA: Creme, Phyllis, and Mary R. Lea. Writing at University: A Guide for Students. Buckingham: Open University Press, 2008. Internet resource.
  • Chicago: Creme, Phyllis, and Mary R. Lea. 2008. Writing at university a guide for students. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Turabian: Creme, Phyllis, and Mary R. Lea. Writing at University A Guide for Students. Buckingham: Open University Press, 2008.
  • Harvard: CREME, P., & LEA, M. R. (2008). Writing at university a guide for students. Buckingham, Open University Press.

After you have finished writing your engineering essay, read your work to correct any grammar or spellings mistakes in the paper. This is important because poor grammar or spellings mistakes can make you lose many marks in your essay. In summary, when writing an engineering essay, make sure you plan your essay before starting it. After you have completed your essay outline, identify the objective of the essay and target audience. Make sure that you avoid plagiarism by including references on all sources used in the essay. Finally proofread your essay before submitting it.

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