Electronic voting machines

Arguably, the most important change in society in the past few decades has been the automation of important tasks with computers, and the formation of a worldwide network of these computers that allows their storage and computing resources to be combined. It seems that almost every aspect of the modern world relies on technology in … Read more

Self-driving cars

Self-driving cars. Ten years ago, something like this would seem completely unbelievable. Now however, it’s becoming our reality. A lot of questions come to mind with this subject: how will this affect our lives? How will this affect our future? Is this good for us? Is this bad? These questions must be strongly considered and … Read more

Concrete Cracks

ABSTRACT Cracks have a significant effect on the safety of concrete structures but estimating the tribute of crack in a specific measurement is very difficult due to multiple factors applied in a single concrete member. The main emphasis of this seminar is mainly established on the observation results of some completed and under construction randomly … Read more

Scene parsing approaches

ABSTRACT Different from traditional convolutional neural networks (CNN) this model has intra-layer recurrent connections in the convolutional layers. Therefore each convolutional layer becomes a two-dimensional recurrent neural network(RNN). The units receive constant feed-forward inputs from the previous layer and recurrent inputs from their neighborhoods. The recurrent iterations proceed the region of context captured by each … Read more

SLs based on reactive (Q) compensation (SLQ) and impedance-type load

Due to growing penetration of asynchronous inverter-interfaced generation (e.g., wind, solar photovoltaic, etc.) the complexity of future power systems is expected to reduce extremely. This would cause undesirable large excursions and rates of change of the system frequencies (RoCoF) following a loss of infeed which would pressure the system security [1]. Besides, loss-of-infeeds more than … Read more

Artificial Intelligence programs

The 4 different Artificial Intelligence programs that were used either functioned using rules or the connectionist model. Rule-based approaches are top-down approaches in which one identifies the function that needs to be performed and the rules/mechanisms that are needed to perform that function. On the other hand, the connectionist model represents a bottom-up approach in … Read more

To increase energy efficiency in a cellular heterogeneous network and improve the network handling capacity

There are various reasons why diverse mobile network operators and versatile mobile makers are as one comprehensively inquiring about various approaches to optimize their system execution from the energy efficiency and capacity standpoint [1]. In recent years, with the explosive growth of mobile communications in terms of number of connected devices and the demand for … Read more

Selection of Battery size by using Power Flow decision program for Microgrids

Abstract. This paper concentrates on determining the size of energy storage system (ESS) for microgrid (MG). Renewable energies are intermittent and their productions are stochastic can cause insufficiency of supply in electrical systems. Applying an energy storage system (ESS) can alleviate the impact of renewable energies. ESS plays an important role in the MG, which … Read more

Water flooding

ABSTRACT Water flooding is a significant recovery process used for secondary recovery and pressure maintenance to increase the life of a producing well. This is a reservoir management practice for maximize the efficiency and optimize the Hydrocarbon recovery. Different reservoir characteristics are the cause of less understanding about the selection of water flooding design and … Read more

“BIM” (Building Information Modelling)

1 CHAPTER – Research Proposal 1.1 Problem Statement: Project Management is the overall planning, coordination and control of a construction Project from inception to completion, involving multi-disciplinary stakeholders from architects to quantity surveyors to contractors. Now days in construction projects different consultants are working from different region or country so it is difficult for project … Read more

Microstrip antennas

Introduction: Antennas are a fundamental element of all wireless communication systems.[1] An antenna is the component of a wireless communication system that transmits/receives electromagnetic waves. There are different types of antennas as Wire antennas, Aperture antennas, Microstrip antennas, Reflector antennas, Horn antennas, etc. The microstrip antennas consists in a metallic patch printed on top of … Read more

Monitoring systems

As man has evolved, so has his inventions. All of these tools, and eventually machines, were created with the goal in mind of making life easier and many of these took the form of improvements to previously invented items. A large part in making improvements to machines is the decrease the time of maintenance as … Read more


  ABSTRACT We visited one site for our Project Report of “Comparative between traditional concrete & Lightweight concrete” We study about lightweight concrete and normal concrete and collect various test report. We had inspected the whole about our project. Lightweight concrete as a type of concrete which includes an expanding an agent in that is … Read more

Engineering geology

Engineering geology may be defined as that of applied sciences which deals with the application of geology for a safe, stable, economical design and construction of a civil engineering project.   Engineering Geology: In Civil Engineering: Geology provides necessary information about the site of construction materials used in the construction of buildings, tanks, tunnels, dams, … Read more


1. Introduction to Brunel Isambard Kingdom Brunel can be argued as the most ambitious, innovative and successful engineer of the 19th century. Most of his work was centred on his role as engineer for the Great Western Railway. The job demanded the construction of hundreds of bridges across the south-west of England. As the Great … Read more

Nuclear Engineers

A nuclear engineer is in charge of running nuclear power stations. It is their job to make sure that energy is produced safely and efficiently. They can also be involved in research projects. Day-to-day activities / duties and responsibilities • Monitoring the reactor and the reactions occurring inside • Looking at ways to safely dispose … Read more

How to write an engineering essay

A lot of students, when given the task of writing an engineering essay, make a lot of mistakes when writing their paper. When writing an engineering essay, it is recommended that you conduct a plan for your essay, and not just begin by typing your name, the essay title, and anything related to the topic that comes into your mind.

Planning your essay will enable you to write a paper, which has points and ideas that flow coherently. This guide will provide you with important tips on how you can write a high quality-engineering essay by directing you on how to plan, structure the paper, and write your points and ideas coherently.

The decision to write an engineering essay could be because the essay is part of your courses continuous assessment, application requirement, personal writing on trending topics, or a publication article in a periodical or newspaper column.

The objective of your engineering essay should be decided before starting the paper. The objective is the main information, which you want the reader to know using the essay. Remain focused to your objective and the reader from the start of your essay to the end. Structuring your engineering essay well will assist you in keeping the audience and the objective in mind in your essay. An engineering essay has the same writing structure as scientific writing. The following will help you understand how to write an engineering essay and how to structure it:


Provides the summary of what will be discussed in the essay. It is important that you structure it well because it is from this section that a reader will decide to continue reading the essay or stop. When writing your abstract, summarize the objective of your essay including examples supporting your argument, methods used to collect data used in the paper, research findings, and conclusions containing implications of the results.


An introduction provides you with a chance to instill interest in your essay topic. This is the best area to provide background information about your topic to enable the reader to understand the reason that prompted you to write the essay. An introduction of a journal essay will provide a review of current literature to define transition or difference in knowledge. When writing this section of the essay, ensure that you refer to previous works by other writers, and include reference of the sources. It is important that you avoid plagiarism because it is a serious offence.

Material and Methods

Learning how to write an engineering essay is not just about writing the essay itself. It also involves explaining where you got information from. The methods and steps used to solve the objective of the essay are discussed in this section of the essay. However, this section does not include any results. Ensure that you provide a brief description of methods used and a justification of the steps that you followed when writing the essay. This is the section where you describe the statistical or analysis techniques you used when providing interpretation of research findings. In case your essay has findings from an experiment, this is the right place to describe the methods and equipment you used to the reader. The description should contain enough details that can enable the reader to reproduce the experiments in another laboratory. For example, in a stress analysis problem, your description should include the steps you took in modeling the problem, simplifications and assumptions made during the experiment, boundary conditions, and considerations for the material used.


When presenting your research or experiment findings, utilise graphs or images to support your findings. Label all images and graphs used to present findings by including scales and units. A detailed caption when presenting findings in an engineering essay is important because it helps a reader who is not familiar with how findings are presented to understand them.


This section should focus on the reader by taking him back to the essay’s objective, and provide a description of the results in addition to showing how they relate to the topic of the essay. This is the section where you discuss the findings and anomalies encountered during your research. When writing the engineering essay, you need to relate these findings to previous research, and show how it relates to the discussion and topic of the essay.


Every essay must contain a conclusion paragraph. It summarizes what has been discussed in the essay. A conclusion can be in bullet points providing the recommendations of the problems discussed.

Referencing or Bibliography Section

After completing the essay, you need to include a list of all the references used in the essay. There are various referencing styles, which include APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian and Harvard. The following is an example of writing a reference or bibliography in various styles:

  • APA: Creme, P., & Lea, M. R. (2008). Writing at university: A guide for students. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • MLA: Creme, Phyllis, and Mary R. Lea. Writing at University: A Guide for Students. Buckingham: Open University Press, 2008. Internet resource.
  • Chicago: Creme, Phyllis, and Mary R. Lea. 2008. Writing at university a guide for students. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Turabian: Creme, Phyllis, and Mary R. Lea. Writing at University A Guide for Students. Buckingham: Open University Press, 2008.
  • Harvard: CREME, P., & LEA, M. R. (2008). Writing at university a guide for students. Buckingham, Open University Press.

After you have finished writing your engineering essay, read your work to correct any grammar or spellings mistakes in the paper. This is important because poor grammar or spellings mistakes can make you lose many marks in your essay. In summary, when writing an engineering essay, make sure you plan your essay before starting it. After you have completed your essay outline, identify the objective of the essay and target audience. Make sure that you avoid plagiarism by including references on all sources used in the essay. Finally proofread your essay before submitting it.

Did you learn a lot from reading our free ‘how to write an engineering essay’ guide?