The need to keep the world safe and a better place for the continuous existence of humanity cannot be overemphasized. This responsibility is the main focus for the formation and establishment of the UN. 2. 1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE UNITED NATION: In 1899, an International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate … Read more

Is the Formation of Newly Constructed Eco-Cities the Sustainable Future?

Rationale Throughout the dissertation it is going to discuss the effects of new “eco-cities” and how they will change the world into a more sustainable place. The definition of an eco-city is; “An Eco-city is a human settlement modelled on the self-sustaining resilient structure and function of natural ecosystems. An eco-city seeks to provide healthy … Read more

Concept of integrated water management and decision support

Introduction The topic of this essay is to relate the concept of integrated water management and decision support to an example of my country, including an example of how decisions are actually made. About 71% of earth surface is water covered, the ocean holds 95% of earth’s water ( yet there is not enough water … Read more

Climate change

Climate change refers to long term conspicuous deviation from usual prevalent climate bringing variation in normal temperature, rainfall and atmospheric circulation with abnormal expression in extreme climate such as floods, droughts, extreme temperatures etc. can be termed as climate change (Ghadekar et al, 2001). India produces about 24 million tonnes of potato from 1.32 million … Read more

Agriculture in the Indian Economy

1. Introduction Agriculture is the most vital sector of the Indian economy and providing food to a population over a billion and sustains livelihood of about two-thirds of population . Similarly, agriculture has been and continues to be lifeline of Bihar’s economy. The relevance of agriculture to Bihar’s economy is reflected at varying degrees at … Read more

Effects of Fluoride Pollution

Abstract An estimated 200 million people from 29 countries including India are severely affected due to fluoride pollution. Ingestion of fluoride beyond the WHO recommended permissible level (1.5 mg/l) is associated with dental and skeletal fluorosis and other toxic responses while inadequate intake of fluoride is associated with dental caries. Natural weathering of various minerals … Read more

Conflicts between wildlife and agriculture

Introduction Conflicts between wildlife and agriculture are increasingly challenging agriculture and wildlife agencies (Krebs et al. 1998, Miller et al. 2013, Miller and Sweeney 2013). Policy to address human-wildlife conflicts is often controversial (Messmer 2009). Developing policy to manage interactions between wildlife and agriculture has been identified as critically important (Jones et al. 2013), yet … Read more

Effects of Vehicle Mass Reductions

Abstract Environmental impacts of battery electric vehicles (BEV) and internal combustion engine vehicles have been broadly studied and compared. However, there is no evidence of studies comparing the potential effect of key factors such as vehicle mass reduction, life cycle inventories regionalization and electricity mix evolution in a Brazilian conditions scenario. The purpose of this … Read more

Crop disease detection through Deep Convolutional Neural Network

INTRODUCTION 1.1 OVERVIEW The agricultural land mass is more than just being a feeding sourcing in today’s world. Indian economy is highly dependent of agricultural productivity. Therefore in field of agriculture, detection of disease in plants plays an important role. To detect a plant disease in very initial stage, use of automatic disease detection technique … Read more

Energy Consumption and Impacts

The change in our world is unavoidable. We outface with this current situation because of the fast change that have become undisciplined. Belonging to the present time of our economic and industrial evolution appear to be unsustainable. Population increase, urbanization, technological advancements, and their effect on the environment are undoubtedly in the company of the … Read more

Carbon Capture and Storage

Where countries have set very ambitious climate goals without presenting appropriate policy plans on how to achieve them (i.e. PA), CCS might prove essential. CCS refers to a collection of technologies that enables the capture and liquefaction of CO2 emissions from industrial and fuel combustion plants either before the combustion or after. The liquid CO2 … Read more

Waste management

Chapter 1 ABSTRACT Waste is a byproduct of life, due urbanization and ever increase in population solid waste management and its proper disposing is major concern in the developing countries. The general method of disposing the solid waste is by land filling in dump yard. In this method the disposing site should be far away … Read more


Norway, a European country situated near the Arctic Ocean, spreads over approximately 304,282 square kilometers of land and 19,520 square kilometers of water. When assessed at a national level, Norway seems particularly resilient to the effects of climate change. Because of this the Norwegian society was not incredibly worried about what would happen to their … Read more

Environmental disaster – BP Oil spill

Deep ecology goes beyond a limited shallow approach to environmental issues. It offers a comprehensive philosophical framework that argues the core values of social work and its conventional ecological models must be extended to support the new realities of the environmental crises (Besthorn, 2012). Deep ecology is the ‘cultivation of ecological consciousness’ (McLaughlin, 1987, p.2), … Read more

Heat Mortality and Energy Policy in the Changing Indian Climate

I. Introduction The Republic of India has emerged as a regional and global power with massive economic growth and a flourishing young citizenry, despite pressing problems such as overpopulation, environmental degradation, poverty, and corruption. Building a new India for 1.3 billion people, and whether it relies on fossil fuels or renewable energy, will be a … Read more