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Compare and contrast Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and Erikson’s neo-analytic theory

Introduction This essay will look and focus on the two theories namely theory by Freud which is the psychoanalytic theory and theory by Erikson which is the neo-analytic theory. This essay will compare and contrast the theories and focus on the similarities and the differences between the two theories. Furthermore this essay will focus on … Read more

Psychological perspectives on learning

A major learning theory is the psychological perspective Behaviourism. Work within this perspective was first carried out in the early part of the 20th century (Scales, 2008, p.58) Behaviourism is concerned with observable changes in behaviour which can be scientifically measured. This perspective is a comparative approach which suggests human learning is by association and … Read more

Indirect attitude measures to evaluate implicit attitudes

Indirect attitude measures evaluate implicit attitudes – they assess unconscious mental associations between different concepts, using participants’ performance on experimental paradigms, most often speed categorisation tests. They were created to overcome the shortcomings of direct measures, which are a way of assessing attitudes directly – that is, a participant reports their own attitudes consciously, for … Read more

Critically evaluate the cycle of human development and the significance of diversity in relation to life stages and transitions.

Human Development can be defined as “the scientific study of age related changes in behaviour, thinking, emotion and personality” (Boyd & Bee 2006, p 3). There are many different theories and thus, debates, behind the various stages of human development over the lifespan, as it is rich in complexity. A review of the literature in … Read more

Comparison of Piaget and Vygotzky’s theories on cognitive development

Cognition is the process involved in thinking and mental activity, such as attention, memory and problem solving. In this essay on cognitive development I will compare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, who were both influential in forming a more scientific approach to analysing the cognitive development process of the child active construction … Read more

Rationale in the paradigm of research used in Counselling

In this essay I will explain the rationale involved in the paradigm of research used in Counselling. Followed by evaluating the research methods and applying to counselling studies. I shall then plan to undertake research within BACP ethical boundaries. Finally, I will design a small scale research project, applying appropriate research techniques to an are … Read more

Explain different theories and frameworks of child and young person development

Cognitive Development Theory Piaget Piaget observed children doing a series of simple but in genius tests to reveal different cognitive abilities. He found that children are merely less competent thinkers than adult and he showed that young children think in strikingly different ways compared to adults. According to Piaget children are born with a very … Read more

Critically Evaluate Freud’s Theory (dream function)

Critically Evaluate Freud’s Theory Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) he was Jewish and educated in Vienna, where he trained in medicine. Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis. He was the first psychologist to recognise the importance of the conscious and unconscious mind. His theory was psychoanalysis. The value and validity of his theory has been greatly questioned, … Read more

Critically evaluate the theoretical and clinical underpinnings of the SPICC model

INTRODUCTION The aim of this essay is to critically evaluate the theoretical and clinical underpinnings of the SPICC model. The learner will include a comprehensive analysis of the manner in which the contained models, Client-Centred, Gestalt, Narrative, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Behavioural Therapy relate to the process of therapy. The learner will include an in-depth … Read more

Juvenile Delinquency: Choice Or Trait

Juvenile delinquency is a relatively new concept that law enforcement and civilian organizations are attempting to understand and maintain control of. There are a number of successful programs as well as unsuccessful programs that have been implemented over the years to aid and prevent juvenile delinquency. Delinquency is a universal language among youths and is … Read more

Extra Sensory Perception

Extra Sensory Perception, which will be referred to as ESP for the remainder of this paper, can take on several different forms. ESP can be divided into four major categories; telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis. Telepathy denotes to the ability to directly transfer a thought from or to someone else’s mind. This can be simplified … Read more

Music therapy

Introduction Music is the universal language. It can speak volumes without ever saying a single word. You can go anywhere in the world with a guitar and communicate with people just by playing a few chords. People will be able to feel connected with you and even play along with what you are playing whether … Read more

Control systems

1. What’s Tinbergen’s concept of displacement behavior? Can you think of a good example of such behavior in humans? According to Tinbergen displacement behavior arises when we observe an irrelevant movement entirely out of context. More specifically, he says that displacement is when an animal is in the process of executing a specific behavior, under … Read more

Modern theories of play

Research into early childhood development has widely focused on role of play towards the development of children. Developmental and psychological theories have suggested play to be one of many sources that influence language, social, cognitive and emotional development in children (Piaget, 1961; Vygotsky, 1978). Ever since, numerous researches consisting of varying methodological designs have investigated … Read more

Intelligence & Psychological Disorders

Abstract This paper explores several articles that report on results from research conducted on highly intelligent individuals and their relationship to mental impairments. Although the articles may vary in their reasoning, they each draw to similar conclusions regarding the correlation between these. Ruth Karpinski et al. suggests that highly intelligent individuals tend to have “intellectual … Read more

Frank Parson and his input in Counselling

Frank Parson was a man of many accomplishments and ideas, but his major work focused on the idea of vocational guidance. His work established a guideline for the future of career counseling. In 1908, Parson created a three-step model for an individual seeking assistance in choosing a career path. The main of idea of his … Read more

Approaches to Psychology

Approaches to Psychology: The Psychodynamic Approach 
 The action of studying; people, behaviors, thought processes, the unconscious thought, our day to day moves. Whether a person realizes or not, they are always under someone’s studying eye. The human mind and the drive to what makes a person move and act the way they do is … Read more

Transdiagnostic Approach to Mental Disorders

The transdiagnostic approach we recommend rests on solid theoretical ground. Historically, there has been a divide in the classification of psychopathology between those who have aimed to divide pathology into finer slices, resulting in large numbers of separate disorders, each with its putatively specific treatment, and those who argue the merits of identifying and targeting … Read more

Being Bored

I will be writing about allowing people to be “bored”. In today’s society almost every second there is a child, and some adults too, that are claiming they are bored. There is so much to be done and should be done in today’s day and age but to this generation everything is considered boring. Most … Read more

How to write a psychology essay

Writing a psychology essay

Writing a psychology essay is similar to writing any other essay requiring planning, intensive research, understanding the topic, and research analysis before beginning to write the essay.

It is different from other essays in the sense that, a psychology essay questions about your understanding on a situation or reaction. For example, a psychology essay may question your understanding on the role that genetics play in collaboration with various environmental issues, which relate to schizophrenia’s two hit theory. The essay may specifically require you to relate your discussion on neurological antecedents, which are related to schizophrenia.

In any psychology essay, an individual first conducts research on the topic or question, and outlines the essay before proceeding to write the final essay. When the essay is complete, the following step involves reviewing the essay, and proofreading it. This guide will discuss how psychology essays differ from other types of essays, and provide a guide on how to write them. It is advisable that the opening paragraph captures the attention of your reader, and directs them to the topic of your essay. A good way to do this is by using facts, and statistics relating to the discussion of the essay.

Planning how to write a psychology essay

It is important to plan your essay carefully before starting it. Avoid looking at the key words and topic in a hurry, and begin writing the essay without planning. Suppose you are required to write an essay about neurological antecedents, which is related to schizophrenia, do not just write about antecedents and schizophrenia because the essay will not be focused on the main assignment. Planning gives you a good opportunity to organize yourself how you will attack the essay topic, the time you need to allocate for research, and what you need to allocate for writing the essay.

Research and analysis

Learning how to write a psychology essay involves a lot of research and analysis. The best place to start a topic research is in a University library with an academic database. Many university libraries provide access to various psychology databases, such as PSYCInfo and PSYCHNET Using these libraries based databases over the internet can provide you with relevant information through academic websites like, and These websites are both professional journals , and publish peer reviewed psychological articles. The internet provides an excellent place to conduct research by accessing the various professional association sites, which contain links to different sites containing related information.

In the writing stage, indicating references is easier when you highlight the phrases from a journal article. It is easier to remember the information you have highlighted when organizing the essay. This makes the information available including the reference.

Outlining the essay

Prolific writers can decide to avoid this part. An outline preparation is important in college essays because it offers a guide in writing the essay, and assists in organizing the essay. Preparing an outline helps you remain focused on the topic. Preparing an outline ensures that every important area of the essay is discussed and relevant information is used to support the arguments presented. An outline well prepared makes the work easy for you in writing the rest of the article by filling additional details from the reference on the various supporting points outlined.

Writing the essay

An essay’s flow is as important as its outline, which assists you to write the essay fast. The following essay areas may be used using or without subheadings.

I. Introduction

It is characterized by information, which captures the attention of a reader using figures, facts, and describes the background of the problem including the essay’s objective. For example, in a study to identify depression in various adoptive parents, signs and symptoms are similar to those for post-partum depression in mothers who have given birth although there is an insufficient record about this issue.

II. Research question

A research question should be identified after stating the topic area. A research essay or literature essay requires only the research questions. In a quantitative essay, a hypothesis on the essay is stated.

III. Literature review

This section of your psychology essay is intended to offer an insight into the research question using evidence presented in the various scholarly literatures. In the essay, your presentation is required to be followed by literature review in a critical analysis format.

IV. Conclusion

This section should summarize everything discussed in the essay, and to ensure that the reader does not have any questions, which need clarification. A good conclusion does not leave the reader seeking more information from the essay. Effective conclusions draw a reader’s attention using words like, “In conclusion…” which direct the reader to the concluding remarks.

Many psychology essays use the APA format. Another format commonly used is the Harvard style. It is important to take note of the paper formatting instructions because instructors deduct points when the correct paper format is not followed.

After you complete writing the essay, it is important that you proofread it to correct spellings, and grammar mistakes in the essay. Use an updated grammar and spell check software to check for all grammatical mistakes.

We hope you gained a lot from reading our free ‘how to write a psychology essay’ guide.