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Critically evaluate the theoretical and clinical underpinnings of the SPICC model

INTRODUCTION The aim of this essay is to critically evaluate the theoretical and clinical underpinnings of the SPICC model. The learner will include a comprehensive analysis of the manner in which the contained models, Client-Centred, Gestalt, Narrative, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Behavioural Therapy relate to the process of therapy. The learner will include an in-depth … Read more

Juvenile Delinquency: Choice Or Trait

Juvenile delinquency is a relatively new concept that law enforcement and civilian organizations are attempting to understand and maintain control of. There are a number of successful programs as well as unsuccessful programs that have been implemented over the years to aid and prevent juvenile delinquency. Delinquency is a universal language among youths and is … Read more

Extra Sensory Perception

Extra Sensory Perception, which will be referred to as ESP for the remainder of this paper, can take on several different forms. ESP can be divided into four major categories; telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis. Telepathy denotes to the ability to directly transfer a thought from or to someone else’s mind. This can be simplified … Read more

Music therapy

Introduction Music is the universal language. It can speak volumes without ever saying a single word. You can go anywhere in the world with a guitar and communicate with people just by playing a few chords. People will be able to feel connected with you and even play along with what you are playing whether … Read more

Control systems

1. What’s Tinbergen’s concept of displacement behavior? Can you think of a good example of such behavior in humans? According to Tinbergen displacement behavior arises when we observe an irrelevant movement entirely out of context. More specifically, he says that displacement is when an animal is in the process of executing a specific behavior, under … Read more

Modern theories of play

Research into early childhood development has widely focused on role of play towards the development of children. Developmental and psychological theories have suggested play to be one of many sources that influence language, social, cognitive and emotional development in children (Piaget, 1961; Vygotsky, 1978). Ever since, numerous researches consisting of varying methodological designs have investigated … Read more

Intelligence & Psychological Disorders

Abstract This paper explores several articles that report on results from research conducted on highly intelligent individuals and their relationship to mental impairments. Although the articles may vary in their reasoning, they each draw to similar conclusions regarding the correlation between these. Ruth Karpinski et al. suggests that highly intelligent individuals tend to have “intellectual … Read more

Frank Parson and his input in Counselling

Frank Parson was a man of many accomplishments and ideas, but his major work focused on the idea of vocational guidance. His work established a guideline for the future of career counseling. In 1908, Parson created a three-step model for an individual seeking assistance in choosing a career path. The main of idea of his … Read more

Approaches to Psychology

Approaches to Psychology: The Psychodynamic Approach 
 The action of studying; people, behaviors, thought processes, the unconscious thought, our day to day moves. Whether a person realizes or not, they are always under someone’s studying eye. The human mind and the drive to what makes a person move and act the way they do is … Read more

Transdiagnostic Approach to Mental Disorders

The transdiagnostic approach we recommend rests on solid theoretical ground. Historically, there has been a divide in the classification of psychopathology between those who have aimed to divide pathology into finer slices, resulting in large numbers of separate disorders, each with its putatively specific treatment, and those who argue the merits of identifying and targeting … Read more

Being Bored

I will be writing about allowing people to be “bored”. In today’s society almost every second there is a child, and some adults too, that are claiming they are bored. There is so much to be done and should be done in today’s day and age but to this generation everything is considered boring. Most … Read more

Systemic thinking: is it already a taught competency

It is recognised that in order for sustainable development to become a normal human state there must be a societal change, Rieckmann (2012) contends that universities are key to facilitating this societal change with regards to sustainable development (SD). Little attention has been paid to the circumstances required for important SD competencies to be formed … Read more

Development of Happiness and Well-being

We take some steps in life in order to be happy. These steps can be taken in daily life starting from food until places we visit and thinks we do. People can choose different ways of developing their well-being. The answer to question why is well-being important for individuals is that most of our body … Read more

Analysis of Common Sense by Thomas Paine

Paine, Thomas, 1737-1809. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense: The Call to Independence. Woodbury, N.Y.: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., 1975. Print. Thomas Paine was born in Thetford, Norfolk, on February 9, 1737. Paine was an immigrant to America in 1774 and was then a fighter in the American Revolution. When he wrote Common Sense in 1776, he … Read more

Self Esteem

In psychology, the term self-esteem is described as a person’s general sense of self-worth. This term is essentially how much you appreciate yourself. Although having self-esteem is important, it is important to keep a healthy amount. For instance, having too little self-esteem can lead to depression and can hold you back from succeeding in life … Read more

Daniel Kahneman

Daniel Kahneman was born March 5th, 1934 and is known for his psychological research towards economic science. He grew up in Israel and when he was 20 he started studying phycology at a university in Jerusalem. Here he received his Ph.D. in 1961. Going into, and during his mid thirty’s, Kahneman was a lecturer and … Read more

The Green River Killer (Gary Ridgway)

The Green River Killer, or Gary Ridgway, was an American serial killer who was convicted of 49 killings, and confessed to 71. Gary was a very troubled man with instability and impulsive decisions wired to his brain. In his early life, he grew up in Salt Lake City, Utah, he was troubled in his at … Read more

Psychoanalytic theory

I decided to read chapter 2 Psychoanalytic Criticism. I find Psychoanalytic theory to be one of the more fascinating theories. I enjoy seeing the method behind people’s actions and why some act in certain ways. I was familiar with what psychoanalytic was but never knew that it was called that. I find it so intriguing … Read more

Are Humans Guided by Fate or Free Will?

The debate of whether humans are guided by fate or free will is a heated topic that is discussed. Throughout the examples of famous greek and english plays, it is evident that the human life is governed by fate, rather than free will. In Oedipus the King, one of Sophocles’ most popular plays, Sophocles clearly … Read more

False Consciousness Analysis

Although “false consciousness” is closely associated with Marxism, the term was never actually used by Karl Marx. The first usage of the theoretical concept was in “History and Class Consciousness”, written in 1923 by György Lukács, a Hungarian literary critic and philosopher. Later on, the concept was further advanced and developed by Marxist scholars such … Read more

Theodore Robert Bundy

Theodore Robert Bundy didn’t fit the stereotype of mass killers. He was a college graduate with a major in psychology, he loved children, read poetry, rescued a child from drowning, loved the outdoors, respected his parents, was a college honour student, worked with people at a suicide prevention centre and even wrote a rxxx prevention … Read more

The story of Chris McCandless

The story of Chris McCandless and his obsession with living an extremely simplistic life and being self-reliant is quite peculiar. McCandless’ story is discovered, read, and seen by many since 1992. Though very inspirational, Chris McCandless’ journey showcases two types of lives: a dangerous and barbaric lifestyle, and a romantic vision of nomadic independent freedom. … Read more

Mary Ainsworth’s Theories

Following the domains of development attachment theory, this self-analytic study covers physical, cognitive, and social/emotional influences regarding Ainsworth’s theory. While taking into account my own relation to these three domains, I should note that my caretaker’s physical, cognitive and social/emotional domains are also to be examined. Prefacing Ainsworth’s attachment theory, John Bowlby attempted to prove … Read more

How to write a psychology essay

Writing a psychology essay

Writing a psychology essay is similar to writing any other essay requiring planning, intensive research, understanding the topic, and research analysis before beginning to write the essay.

It is different from other essays in the sense that, a psychology essay questions about your understanding on a situation or reaction. For example, a psychology essay may question your understanding on the role that genetics play in collaboration with various environmental issues, which relate to schizophrenia’s two hit theory. The essay may specifically require you to relate your discussion on neurological antecedents, which are related to schizophrenia.

In any psychology essay, an individual first conducts research on the topic or question, and outlines the essay before proceeding to write the final essay. When the essay is complete, the following step involves reviewing the essay, and proofreading it. This guide will discuss how psychology essays differ from other types of essays, and provide a guide on how to write them. It is advisable that the opening paragraph captures the attention of your reader, and directs them to the topic of your essay. A good way to do this is by using facts, and statistics relating to the discussion of the essay.

Planning how to write a psychology essay

It is important to plan your essay carefully before starting it. Avoid looking at the key words and topic in a hurry, and begin writing the essay without planning. Suppose you are required to write an essay about neurological antecedents, which is related to schizophrenia, do not just write about antecedents and schizophrenia because the essay will not be focused on the main assignment. Planning gives you a good opportunity to organize yourself how you will attack the essay topic, the time you need to allocate for research, and what you need to allocate for writing the essay.

Research and analysis

Learning how to write a psychology essay involves a lot of research and analysis. The best place to start a topic research is in a University library with an academic database. Many university libraries provide access to various psychology databases, such as PSYCInfo and PSYCHNET Using these libraries based databases over the internet can provide you with relevant information through academic websites like, and These websites are both professional journals , and publish peer reviewed psychological articles. The internet provides an excellent place to conduct research by accessing the various professional association sites, which contain links to different sites containing related information.

In the writing stage, indicating references is easier when you highlight the phrases from a journal article. It is easier to remember the information you have highlighted when organizing the essay. This makes the information available including the reference.

Outlining the essay

Prolific writers can decide to avoid this part. An outline preparation is important in college essays because it offers a guide in writing the essay, and assists in organizing the essay. Preparing an outline helps you remain focused on the topic. Preparing an outline ensures that every important area of the essay is discussed and relevant information is used to support the arguments presented. An outline well prepared makes the work easy for you in writing the rest of the article by filling additional details from the reference on the various supporting points outlined.

Writing the essay

An essay’s flow is as important as its outline, which assists you to write the essay fast. The following essay areas may be used using or without subheadings.

I. Introduction

It is characterized by information, which captures the attention of a reader using figures, facts, and describes the background of the problem including the essay’s objective. For example, in a study to identify depression in various adoptive parents, signs and symptoms are similar to those for post-partum depression in mothers who have given birth although there is an insufficient record about this issue.

II. Research question

A research question should be identified after stating the topic area. A research essay or literature essay requires only the research questions. In a quantitative essay, a hypothesis on the essay is stated.

III. Literature review

This section of your psychology essay is intended to offer an insight into the research question using evidence presented in the various scholarly literatures. In the essay, your presentation is required to be followed by literature review in a critical analysis format.

IV. Conclusion

This section should summarize everything discussed in the essay, and to ensure that the reader does not have any questions, which need clarification. A good conclusion does not leave the reader seeking more information from the essay. Effective conclusions draw a reader’s attention using words like, “In conclusion…” which direct the reader to the concluding remarks.

Many psychology essays use the APA format. Another format commonly used is the Harvard style. It is important to take note of the paper formatting instructions because instructors deduct points when the correct paper format is not followed.

After you complete writing the essay, it is important that you proofread it to correct spellings, and grammar mistakes in the essay. Use an updated grammar and spell check software to check for all grammatical mistakes.

We hope you gained a lot from reading our free ‘how to write a psychology essay’ guide.