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Microwave Hybrid Sintering may extend the service life of dental ceramics

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Dental Ceramics are required to withstand a complex environment with several mechanical and chemical challenges. Testing the mechanical properties of the material can provide a good insight of the compatibility of the material for dental function. However, due to the particular failure mode of ceramics, fatigue tests are more reliable to predict the … Read more

Gender is a social construct

The concept of gender is as old as humans. George Orwell once stated “all animals are equal, but some are more equal than others” (Eriksen, 2015). The act of gendering is exertion of power, instilling your dominance or submission onto another. Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity, while the study of gender examines the … Read more

Food preservation

Throughout the history of mankind science has searched into the realms of the unknown. Along with it bringing new discoveries, allowing for our lives to become healthier, more efficient, safer, and at the same time, possibly more dangerous. Among the forces driving scientists into these many experiments, is the desire to preserve the one fuel … Read more

Effectiveness of physics teaching module (esp. uncertainty in measurements)

I. INTRODUCTION Physics, being inherently an experimental science, involves direct observation and physical experimentation. The undergraduate laboratory is thus an essential part of any physics course, developing practical, computational and experimental skills, and certain habits in novice physicists, training them to ‘think like a physicist’ over the course of their degree. The University of Durham … Read more

Reflective essay: A protein found in human breast milk could help kill drug resistant bacteria

The purpose of this essay is to explore the topic “A protein found in human breast milk could help kill drug resistant bacteria” through examining a chosen secondary review article, and comparing it with a primary research article. The secondary review article that I have selected is “Lactoferrin: an important host defence against microbial and … Read more

The stages of protein synthesis from DNA

A gene is a segment of DNA which is used for an amino acid sequence which then creates polypeptides. Protein is synthesised through a process in which the DNA is decoded and then the amino acids are then generated from this. This is called gene expression. There are some components needed in order for DNA … Read more


Contents Introduction Synthesis of silver nanoparticles Polyol method Different shapes of AgNPs Properties Therapeutic applications Conclusions and further perspectives References 1.Introduction In the past years, nanoparticles (NPs), mainly those of noble metals, like silver (Ag) or gold (Au) have been the focus of research due to their definite properties: chemical biological physical ones. Due to … Read more

Qualitative research

Qualitative research is a fundamental part of understanding our society, it aids in the discovery of social norms, confirms or refutes different hypotheses about society and is a crucial part of the development of knowledge in modern society. Qualitative research is a method among many others of how we describe and explain our social world, … Read more

Phosphofructokinase Structure and Function

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is an enzyme of glycolysis which occurs at a critical point, regulating pathways within the third step of the process. PFK catalyzes the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) to fructose-1,6-biphosphate (F1,6BP) by adding a phosphate from ATP, thus creating ADP. The enzyme is sustained allosterically and the △ºG (-14.2 kj/mol) of the reaction is … Read more

Identification of unknown bacteria

Identification of unknown bacteria is a critical part of microbiology. The purpose of the experiment is for students to learn different characteristics of bacteria, construct a proper dichotomous key, carry out tests to differentiate and narrow down bacteria, and use the results to identify two unknown bacteria. By carrying out this experiment, students learn how … Read more

Diversity of life

This essay is a draft and may be incomplete in areas. Pandinus imperator (scorpion) Pheretima praepinguis (Earthworm) Chordates (tiger) Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) Characteristics: Common earthworms are in the phylum Annelid, and their scientific name is . All earthworms are eukaryotic, and they are heterotrophs meaning that they cannot make their own food. This mean that … Read more

The digestive system of earthworms

Nutrition Structures and Mechanisms The digestive system of the earthworm is divided into many different sections, each of which have a certain function. These different digestive systems consist of the oesophagus, the intestine the pharynx, the crop and the gizzard. Food is swallowed by the pharynx as it enters the earthworms mouth, this includes such … Read more

Analysis of ‘Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change’

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to analyze the article; Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change, for the purpose of examining the authors’ writing style, experimental process/methodology, with the express goal to clarify the article for a variety of audiences, as well as determining the validity of the conclusions … Read more

The importance and success of the printing press within the scientific revolution

The scientific revolution was the arrival of modern science during the early modern period, with significant advances in physics, astronomy and mathematics helping lead to a transformation in societal viewpoints about nature and life itself. With this advancement, the scientific enlightenment emerged, and the Renaissance was born. A radical change in art, science and culture … Read more

Adding tomato and asparagus powders in processed cheese

Abstract: Rheological, chemical and sensory properties of processed cheese fortified with different levels of tomato (1%, 2% and 4% wt/wt) and asparagus (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) powders were analyzed. Both of the powders decreased the pH and lipolysis indexes and increased proteolysis extent of processed cheese. Phenolic and lycopene content and antioxidant activity decreased … Read more


A synthesized BiVO4/TiO2 nanocomposite by hydrothermal method was employed for the removal of MC-LR. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to assess the effects of operating variables (pH, contact time, and catalyst dose) on the MC-LR removal. The coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated 98.7% for the response. The obtained maximum MC-LR removal efficiency was … Read more

Molecular clouds

Abstract Molecular clouds are dark, cold, dense regions of high extinction within the ISM. They confine the majority of the mass in the ISM and these clouds are the primary sites of star formation within the galaxy. Molecular clouds have a characteristic filamentary structure that is omnipresent across the ISM within both star forming regions … Read more

Desalinization: Status and Prospects

Abstract Desalinization was researched for its feasibility as a long-term solution to current and future water demands worldwide. After briefly describing the two primary desalinization processes, thermal processes and reverse osmosis, several environmental and financial issues were evaluated for their impact on the feasibility of desalinization. Specifically, chemical waste disposal, brine effluent disposal, energy consumption, … Read more

Host-Directed Therapies: A New Avenue to Save Lives

Host-Directed Therapy (HDT) is a revolutionary way to boost a patient’s immune system in order to fight different diseases that modern medicine and medical procedures are having trouble with. In this current age, the creation and approval of drugs is an extremely difficult and long process, resulting in a shortage of drugs. Furthermore, most of … Read more

Energy losses in pipes and fittings experiment

The energy losses in pipes and fittings experiment was conducted by Rylan Verge, Alice Huang, Erin Agbay, and William Olmsted. The purpose of this experiment was to develop an understanding of pressure losses in pipe flow. According to the memo, the team is part of a large consulting firm that is tasked with predicting the … Read more