Essay: Human Resource Development in Information Communication environment

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Introduction:
Review of related literature is conducted to enable the researcher to get a clear understanding about the specific field of study. It also the researcher to have an insight into the tested methods, procedures and interpretations of similar studies conducted elsewhere. Considerable amount of literature is available regarding application of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in libraries professional, development and continuing education needs of library professionals. But studies are relatively few regarding the impact of ICT on professional development and educational needs of library professionals. A survey of the literature found that most of the studies are reported from foreign countries and that such studies are not given due importance by the researchers in library and information science. An attempt is made in this chapter to present a survey of the literature available in India and abroad under the subheadings listed below. The studies are further grouped under national, international and arranged in a chronological sequence.
While gone through the published literature on various publications related to study. It has been found that no concentrated efforts has been made to study the proposed topic i.e. Human Resource Development in Information Communication environment.
It has been also observed in the published literature that few studies have already been conduct by some library scientist on various aspects of Human Resource Development. Some Articles has already been appeared in some library journals but these contain scattered information and lacks depth in sight of the subject.
Abha, 1 et al., (2003) has presented a paper in SIS annual convention in which she mentioned the role of information professional in electronics Environments.
Acharya2 (2003) presented a paper in society of Information Science in 21st annual Conference on E-learning on HRD in it She has mentioned the Teaching of Human Resources Development of Learning through Electronic Resources.
Adeyinka3 (2009) examines the attitudinal correlates of some selected Nigerian librarians towards the use and application of ICT in various libraries. A total of 41 librarians from automated libraries in the Oyo state of Nigeria formed the stud’s population. The survey instrument used for the collection of data was a computer anxiety and attitude towards microcomputer utilization (CAATMU) scale and a librarian attitude questionnaire. The main objective of the study was to find relationship between demographic variables of respondents, age, gender, prior knowledge / experience and training, educational qualification, computer anxiety and librarians attitude towards ICT. The analysis of results show that all the four out of the five variables age, gender, educational qualifications and knowledge of ICT significantly correlate with librarian attitude towards ICT; while the variable ICT anxiety correlate negatively with the attitude of librarian towards ICT. The study emphasizes the need for libraries to embark on training their librarian who does not have knowledge of ICT.
Adeyoyin4 (2005) surveys the levels of ICT literacy among library staff in Nigerian libraries. The questionnaire method was used for this study. The data, collected on a self-assessment basis, covered 18 Nigerian university libraries. It shows that Nigerian university libraries, which form the basis of knowledge for the country, do not have professional librarians whose skill-set is adequate to meet the ICT applications which are indispensable for the acquisition, organization, provision and dissemination of knowledge. Library management for its part, should acknowledge the wide-ranging benefits of both ICT and raise levels of ICT literacy for university libraries and their mother institutions.
Adeyoyin5 (2006) reports a survey conducted among the professionals, paraprofessionals and other members of staff of 28 university libraries in West Africa to ascertain the information and communication technology (ICT) literacy level among the staff of English-speaking university library staff and their counterparts in French-speaking university libraries. The results show that out of about 370 professional librarians, only 179 of them were ICT literate while the remaining 191 professional librarians were ICT non-literate. Also, out of 526 paraprofessionals, only 84 of them were ICT literate while the remaining 442 were ICT non-literate. Some of the findings were that; there was a need for knowledge acquisition among the librarians in Nigerian university libraries to be able to offer efficient services in the emerging ICT era and that the ICT literacy among the librarians was low and hands-on practical experience was lacking among the librarians in some cases. The application of information and communication technology in West African university libraries and their subsequent use require that these technologies should become part of library staff training.
Adiniji,6 et. al (2012) discussed the most important and valuable resources in Nigerian higher institutions are the human resources. The quality or level of knowledge and skills the human resources are having in Nigeria play a very significant role in the success or failure of the organization in various citadels of learning.
Al-Qallaf and Al-Azmi7 (2002) in a survey study the availability and use of information technology in public libraries in Kuwait. The study includes hardware/software, patterns of connectivity such as LANs, Internet, etc., training and development activities The study shows that few libraries have internet connectivity, limited use of ICT applications, and the implementation of an automated library system are very slow. Factors impeding the development of information technology are planning funding, human resources, and building structure. The survey results also show that there is a positive attitude among library personnel towards IT.
Ansari8 (2001) has conducted a study in Human Resource Development of Central Universities libraries in thus he has evaluated the system of Human Resource Development and formulate the learning support system in the university libraries.
Ashcroft and Watts9 (2005) in a study of ICT Skills for Information Professionals in Nigeria observes that Information professionals are increasingly required to adapt their skills and practice in order to gain an awareness of technological advances. A research project based at Moores University (LJMU) investigated the provision of electronic information resources in Nigerian libraries. Focusing on Nigeria as an example of a developing country, the project examined existing electronic information resources and identified barriers obstructing the effective provision of electronic information. Responses to questions about the measures required to support future use of e-resources demonstrated an overwhelming need for training/education/skills. Frequently occurring comments stressed the need for increased ICT literacy, trainings and retraining of staff.
Biddiscombe10 (2001) illustrate the Internet and IT skills that are required by information professionals in their support for learning, teaching and research within the changing context of the higher education sector in the UK and the development of managed (or virtual) learning environments. The author stresses that though IT skills, particularly in relation to the Internet are essential, some of the more basic skills that are important to the information professional should not be abandoned.
Chaudhary11 (2001) reports the continuing education needs of librarians and information professionals in the University libraries of Pakistan. The study explores the needs of university librarians in Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir, and determines the obstacles to the continuing education programs. It also tries to identify different methods to motivate librarians toward continuing education programs. It is expected that the results of this study will be of practical importance to design continuing education programs for the university librarians.
Chisengs12 (1999) surveys the use of internet for professionals development by library professionals in Sub-Saharan Africa. A survey of 47 librarians through mailed questionnaire reveals that internet and electronic mail facilities are mainly accessed at workplaces. The use of facilities for accessing E-journals, discussion groups and other web resources was quite low and in some cases nonexistent due to the shortage of computers, poor telecommunication lines and inadequate internet use skills. The study finds that the library professionals have the opinion that internet could play an important part in facilitating professional networking and sharing of information.
Chowdhury13, et al.,( ) “Database Management Systems and Use of Digital Resources in Some Selected Public University Libraries of Bangladesh: An Overview” This paper discuses present status of database management practices and use of digital resources of five selected public University Libraries of Bangladesh. This paper the objectives, methodology for collection, presentation and analysis of collected data for this study and highlights the meaning, need, main considerations, components and domain of library automation in the context of surveyed libraries also have been described. The development of digital technology combined with the evolution of internet has prompted significant changes in library services and operations within the last few years.
Dhanavandan,14 et al., (2012) ‘Access and Awareness of ICT Resources and Services in Medical College Libraries in Puducherry’ this study on Computer and communications technolsogies have drastically changed the entire human activities including library and information field. Now a day ‘ libraries are deeply engaged to modernize operations & activities to provide fast, integrated, interactive and comprehensive services. In the same direction with IT thrust the concept of digital library has emerged substantially.
Fancis,15 et al., (2008) “Re-engineering the Management of Human Resources in University Libraries’. The main factor of this study is Academic Libraries, Human Resources Management, and Technology Management in Libraries, Business Process Re-engineering, Re-defining Libraries, and University Libraries in Karala. This study is based on seven universities are functioning in Kerala. But all university libraries have adopted the modern ICTs in varied degrees and automated the in-house operations using library automation software. The scope was to determine and analyze various aspects of re-engineering and re-defining personnel functions of the university libraries and to suggest measures for improving the information services to the end users.
Flatley and Weber16 (2004) outline professional development activities for new academic librarians. The authors review various professional development activities including publishing, presentations, involvement in professional organizations, continuing education, and institutional and community service that is required for an academic librarian. The article points out the benefits for librarians in the profession by publishing articles in journals, books, and in web etc. The authors brief the importance of academic librarians to keep abreast of the profession as it changes rapidly and one of the best ways to do this by attending professional workshops, lectures, seminars etc. Workshops include technology and electronic competency workshops covering database training, software training and new technology awareness. The paper stresses those benefits of being a librarian is the expertise and service, which touches all aspects of the academic side of the institution.
Gbenga,17 et al., (2013) “Quality Administration and Management in Higher Eucation in Nigeria: Implications for Human Resource Development”. Has presented study on quality administration and management in higher education in Nigeria with the aims of highlighting the implication of Human Resource Development. Quality higher education system will produce quality skills human capacity. Therefore, in adjustment to needs for development countries such as Nigeria should embrace and implement continuous quality improvement (CQI), Total Quality Management (TQM) in the universities and higher education administration for the purpose of all-round Human Resource Development. TQM and CQI implementation in the university system will go a long way in expanding the skills and capacity of the academic staffs and consequently that of the student. In effect, there will be increase in human capital development across the nation and the attendant economic growth, technological growth, innovation and general human resource development towards national development.
Gulcin18 (2006) ‘Human Resource Development: a Strategic Approach’ this present study has been HRD it is the HRC along with the other three intangible assets underpins all activities, ranging from management of internal processes and operations, funding, budgets and customer services. This study will be development of human resources lies at the core of the knowledge productive organisations, like libraries and universities. The process will inevitably involve participation of all employees in developing the knowledge of the organisation.
Hoskins19 (2005) investigates the ICT knowledge and skills of subject librarians at the university libraries of KwaZulu-Natal. A study population of 43 subject librarians, in the university libraries were surveyed by means of a mailed questionnaire to establish in what ways subject librarians were using ICTs, what the level of ICT knowledge and skill was amongst the subject librarians, what problems the subject librarians faced in the use of ICTs and what their ICT training needs were. Interpretation of the results revealed a low level of ICT knowledge and skill amongst subject librarians and a general lack of formal training for ICTs amongst the subject librarians. The findings of the study showed that subject librarians generally do not have the knowledge to explore and take advantage of the opportunities technology creates, nor did they have the skill or ability to perform the applications functions and operations described above effectively. By identifying the problems that subject librarians face in the use of ICT, it is evident from the findings that the majority of these problems were as a result of a lack of understanding, knowledge, skill, and a lack of training. The author suggests that Library schools should provide a curriculum that is balanced so that it provides for an education in traditional librarianship as well as ICT knowledge
Islam and Rahman20 (2006) outlines the present status of information and communication technology (ICT) in Bangladesh to represent the scenario of growth and development of ICT in relation to the evolution of the information explosion with the aim of providing better library and information service in Bangladesh. The status of Information technology (IT) in Bangladesh is not at par with the other developed countries, but recently the situation has changed significantly. Libraries and information services centers are expected to get immense facilities to access and cooperate with information world. A UNDP funded Program SDNP virtual library has prepared a union catalogue of 13 libraries, all of which are using CDS/ISIS software for bibliographic record keeping.
Jeevan and Saji21 (2004) present the results of a survey conducted among the premier libraries in Thiruvananthapuram, kerala to assess the Information Technology adoption in these libraries. A survey using questionnaire and interview was used for getting information about the different IT components useful for better library organization and comprehensive as well as swift information services. Eighteen scientific, technical and research libraries both under Central and State Governments based in Thiruvananthapuram participated in the survey. All eighteen libraries were of the opinion that IT had a positive impact on the day-to-day work of the library and that IT played a positive role in enhancing services, user satisfaction, meetings users’ demands, and overall library image. Problems faced in IT adoption included inadequacy of funds, shortage of IT skilled manpower, difficulties in periodic up-gradation of infrastructural facilities, frequent change and advancement of technology, high hardware and software costs, insufficient training of professionals and absence of hands-on training.
Joseph,22 et al., (2004) Andragogy and Social Capital Theory: the implications for Human Resource Development”. This article portrays a perspective from andragogy, individual learning, and social capital theory as a contribution to the discussion on the relationship between adult learning theory and human resource development (HRD).
Kannappanavar and Vijaykumar23 (2001) survey the use of hardware and software facilities in University of Agricultural science libraries in Karnataka. The aim of the study was to evaluate the access of networks, information services and barriers in information technology applications. The survey also covers collections of the agricultural university libraries, In house database, use of IT in administration and the impact of IT applications on libraries. Results reveal that none of the University libraries at the time of study is having databases and full implementation of IT applications in their libraries. Thought the agricultural university libraries are having hardware and software facilities to some extent, the result are not reaching the clientele. It recommends that the librarians should approach the university authorities to train the library personnel on IT application and approach funding agencies like INFLIBNET and ICAR for their library automation and provide IT based information service to their clientele.
Khaiser,24 et al., (2003) has presented the paper 21st SIS conference on IT skills in library information centers an Human Resource Development in the Information Technological scenario.
Kwasik25 (2002) analyses the skills required for a serials librarian to manage electronic information. The study conducted analyzing job announcements in academic institutions during the years 1999-2001 examines the most frequently required and preferred qualifications and knowledge demands for a serials librarian. Most preferred qualifications include traditional skills such as knowledge of MARC formats, AACR2, the Library of Congress (LC) classification system, the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), familiarity with the OCLC etc. Relatively new skills such as knowledge of Dublin Core standards, knowledge of markup language, Web design, or experience in cataloging electronic publications were usually as desired qualifications Based on the study the author suggests some professional development activities to improve competencies for serials librarian due to the progress in information technology and introduction of electronic journals in library collections. To stay current with all the cataloging standards and new developments, librarians need to improve their skills constantly.
Mahapatra26 (2002) has conducted a study in Human Resource Development in Libraries. He has evaluated various facets like Motivation, Training, Team work, Orientation, Communication extra. And he has formulated a Human Resource Strategy.
Mahapatra27 (2002) Information is recognized as power and plays a very importance role in the development of a country. A well established and well equipped information system is required to achieve this. All the Library activities, functions and operations are done by the people whether they are manual or in an electronic systems, behind all planning, designing organization, implementation and the performing result, and there is Human mind. Library management should consider the factors improves the functional aspects and develops personal qualities for best personal contribution.
Mahapatra28 (2002) Personnel management and human resource management is a concept and approach to shape the organizational work culture. Human resource management is basically known as the development and administration of personnel policies and psychological and sociological forces that affect the attitudes and performances of individual as well as the groups as work force. The library personnel are heterogeneous, consisting of individual’s motivation, personnel characteristics, needs and personalities. The library management must understand now. These factors interact in the work environment.
Mahapatra29 (2002) There are three factors in any library. These are the materials, users and library personnel. Library materials are there for the users. The library personnel are responsible for organization and arrangement of the library materials as well as for users’ services. Therefore, the operational activities of the library personnel are vital in the library. A library must have required number of competent, well trained, qualified and motivated professionals and supporting staff according to the particular kind and size of the library.
Mahapatra30 (2002) Work environment can be enriched by in-service training, new education, and short-term courses to learn and operate new technologies by which the library personnel can acquire updated knowledge and can grow professionally. Library management should create such supportive environment by providing opportunities to increase expertise, new area of knowledge and information, new types of job performance, self-confidence, and leadership qualities and to accept challenging targets.
Mahapatra31 (2002) Staff development is essentially required in libraries because there is a need to prepare employees for future supervisory and management positions. It is also essential where the work environment is changing for the introduction of technological innovations. The library must determine what organizational needs can be met by staff development programmes. Staff development opportunities are more important for designing persons as reward and appreciation as well as to sustain motivation. Opportunities should be given to employees who have proved their worth to attend workshops, seminars and conferences to be acquainted with latest developments and new areas of knowledge and technical expertise.
Mahapatra32 (2002) The goals of team work can be achieved only in the electronic environment. Computer based communication and information technology offer the greatest opportunities for creating innovations in library and information services. Electronic communication systems can go far to increase efficiency and speed, capability and accomplishment of operational activities. Electronic communication can contribute to a distinctly different quality in interaction among library personnel. Thus, it can increase productivity of group-efforts.
Mahapatra33 (2002) The changes in library situation, particularly when electronic environment has to be created, these may be some staff problems regarding lack of skill or ability to perform in the new environment or to accept the new system or method of work while accustomed in the existing methods of work. Some staff or some staff may apprehend that they may lose control because of the rigidity of the system requirements or their work will be more closely monitored.
Mahapatra34 (2002) The methodology of evaluation should very for different training situations, different status of trainee groups and for specific training programs for subordinate employees and specific technological training for the supervisors must have differences in objectives, techniques, intensiveness, technological expertise. Therefore, parameters for evaluation must differ.
Maureen,35 (2005) ‘The Impact of ICT on the Development of Information Literacy by Students in Further Education: A report on the initial findings of an ongoing PhD study’ this study has based on the information now plays a vital part in the lives of individuals, organizations and institutions and information literacy is the key to the optimum use of information. At a recent JISC Conference, the Secretary of State for Education and skills emphasized the importance of ICT and information literacy as vital components in the development of life skills, workplace skills and citizenship.
Minishi-Majanjaa and Ocholla36 (2003) reports a project that aims to record and review the types, nature and diffusion of ICTs in LIS education and training programmes in A frica. One of the main objectives of the study was to determine the extent to which ICTs are taught and used in teaching, learning, research, and academic administration in LIS schools in Africa. The findings show that LIS schools in Kenya have embraced the use of ICTs, but there are major differences in terms of application. Though LIS Schools offers a wide range of relevant ICT courses, not all of them offer practical training for their students. In teaching and learning, only a few LIS schools use ICTs to deliver lectures, the majority still favour age-old methods of face-to-face classroom teaching. In research, the lack of ICT facilities has resulted in partial and minimal use of ICTs, especially since academic staff has to pay to access the Internet. In terms of academic administration, most LIS schools have computerized but most activities still are conducted offline due to networking inadequacies. The study recommends that Kenyan LIS schools should increase the use of ICTs in teaching and learning to promote greater efficiency. Kenyan LIS schools should make every effort to provide online and distance education in order to open more learning opportunities for the nation.
Mohamed Haneefa37 (2004) in a study of special libraries assess in detail the application of information and communication technology in special libraries in Kerala. The survey using structured questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observations, provides a state-of-art application of ICT in automated special libraries of premier research institutions in Kerala. The study identify the factors that promote or hinder application of ICT, user’s satisfaction, ICT skills of library professionals and the facilities for training in ICT in special libraries. It also assesses the attitude of user and librarians towards the application of ICT. Survey results show that majority of the libraries have basic hardware and software facilities. Majority provide training for their library staff in ICT based services. The librarians and use have a highly positive attitude towards ICT application and the main barrier to ICT application is inadequately trained library professionals.
Mohamed Haneefa and Shukoor38 (2010) reports the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy among the library professionals of Calicut University. The study includes only the library professionals in the central library and departmental libraries of Calicut University. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The study reveals that the Professional Assistants are more ICT proficient in ICT skills than the Junior Librarians and Assistant Librarians. The use of ICT-based resources and services, library automation software, and general purpose application software is high among the Junior professionals than the senior library staff. The use of digital library and institutional repository software is very low among the library professionals. Majority of the professionals has confidence in routine ICT and Internet tasks, and need training or orientation on library automation, digital library and institutional repository software.
Mohana Kumar39 (2007) in his study of college librarians in Kerala evaluates their professional manpower in the IT environment. He studies the present position of library manpower in college libraries and develop a professional library manpower measurement scale PLMM. The study found limited use of IT in college libraries and inadequate staff to provide relevant service. Majority have attended conferences, continuing education programmes, computer training etc. But only a very few have publications and he recommends more IT related training programmes for college librarians to provide effective services for users in their respective institutions.
Moorthy40 (2001) surveys the impact of electronic media on library and information centres with special reference to India, to assess the infrastructure available in libraries, the level of automation and extent of usage of electronic media in library and information work. The study includes R & D institutions in science and technology and University. The survey method includes questionnaire with open and closed type questions and interview with Librarians. The study covers topic related to infrastructure, hardware and software, databases created, availability of Library LAN, internet connectivity, CD ROM based services etc. It also evaluates the training and orientation needs of the library staff to cope with the electronic media. The study reveals that the extent of use of electronic media is improving with the impact of digital libraries, online journals etc in the library system. One of the major concerns is the training and computer literacy of library staff and users. He points out the need to restructure the curriculum of library and information science courses in India by including various aspects of ICT applications.
Muhammed Salih41 (2004) surveys the computerization of University libraries in Kerala for his Doctoral thesis. The main objective is to identify and compare the application of computers in housekeeping operations in University libraries, infrastructure, finance, library services etc. The study also aims to identify the personnel engaged in computerized activities and their competency for work in terms of their qualifications. The study covers four major university libraries of Kerala, viz. University of Kerala, M.G. University, Cochin University of science and technology and University of Calicut. Data was collected using questionnaires to librarian, person in charge of computerization, users and from websites of the university libraries. The survey shows that none of the university libraries is totally computerized. All the libraries under study had Inflibnet support, had university LAN and providing internet service to users. User awareness about various library and information service was found to be poor. One of the main suggestions includes setting up of a Consortium of University to share the resources between university libraries in Kerala.
Nair42 (1997) reports a study of the attitude of librarians in Kerala towards the use of information technology in library and information activities in his thesis. The main objective of the study was to find out the nature of attitude of librarians towards information technology (IT). The study was conducted on a representative sample of 284 professionally qualified librarians in different libraries of Kerala. The tools used include a scale of attitude towards information technology, general data sheet an job satisfactory inventory for library professional. The results of the study showed that majority of librarians showed favorable attitude towards information technology. They were prepared to accept modern technology in library activities. Librarians considered IT not as a means to reduce their workload but as a device to render effective information service to patrons. Librarians engaged in different professional work were similar in their attitude towards information technology.
NamitaKhot43 (2014) this present study will be help of library professionals to cope with the tremendous change in the librarianship due to the revolution in ICT. The support of electronic services requires special skills and competences. Today libraries are emerging as information resource centers, performing electronic cataloguing, electronic acquisition and serial control, electronic circulation functions. Information Technology has made drastic change in the every field. Universities and other higher education institution are undergoing rapid change on the teaching and the learning process mainly because of e-learning. Library and information services can not lag behind and also require changing to the tune of the progress of the civilization, keeping in view the requirements of time, technological developments and global change.
Narender Kumar44 et. al. (2014) the present study discussed the most important and valuable resources in Bhiwani-Haryana Academic Industry on educational institutes are the Human Resources Development. Human resources are also known to be the heart of any organization. In the age of ICT, public sector and private sector have been focusing and paying more to meet the challenges of an open market. Many organizations consider their human resource as human capital as human resource is to develop the balancing act in the growth of business. The human resource works like a catalyst in the organization.
Nath, Bahl and Kumar45 (2007) reports a survey of librarians of Chandigarh city to assess the ways in which librarians use ICT’s, their level of knowledge and skills, problems faced in the use of ICT’s and their training needs. The study also investigates the extent of adoption of ICT in Chandigarh city libraries as modern tools of providing library service to users. A questionnaire was used to survey the ICT skills and knowledge of librarians with 9 sections on respondent’s background, file management, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentations, E-mail and Internet. Survey of 21 academic and public libraries reveal a low level of ICT knowledge among librarians and a general lack of formal training among the academic librarians. The study recommends library education with a balanced curriculum including both traditional as well as ICT knowledge and skills.
National Library Kolkata46 (2010) Illustrated that the objectives of the policy on human resource development that the purpose of the policy is to state in broad terms the commitment of the National Library, Government of India, Kolkata, to staff development and to training other who are not employees of the library in skills pertaining to various aspects of library and information management in India. The policy also aims at indicating the roles that different parties play in the delivery of such training, particularly the training and human resource development division of the National Library.
Obioha47 (2005) identifies the role of ICT in information seeking and use amongst research officers in Research Institutes in Nigeria. The study examines awareness, use, exposure to ICT; role of ICT and improvements on ICT tools. It shows that ICT plays an significant role in information sourcing, generation, processing, storage, retrieval, dissemination and also entertainment, It also proves that for ICT to be used maximally there is need to have regular power supply, stable infrastructure and provision of more ICT tools and centers.
Pat48 (2004) mentioned that like library the changes take place in human resource profession also due to shifting of workforce, technology, increasing competition, globalization, demographic changes and redesigning of human resources functions.
Ramesh Babu, Vinayagamoorthy and Gopalakrishnan49 (2007) reports a survey of the ICT skills among librarians in engineering educational institutions in Tamil Nadu. The main objective was to identify the types of ICT skills possessed by the librarians, assess the level/extent of different types of ICT skills, the means of acquiring ICT skills, and identify the constraints in acquiring ICT skills by the librarians. The knowledge in ICT relates to operating system, packages and programming languages, library automation software, web awareness, knowledge of online facilities/services, and also technical skills and managerial skills. The results show that the librarians of these institutions are acquiring considerable basic skills in ICT. However, they need to concentrate more on network-based service and digital library services.
Ramzan50 (2004) determines the extent of information technology (IT) utilization in libraries in Pakistan together with librarians’ level of knowledge in IT and their attitudes toward IT in libraries through a survey of 244 librarians in Pakistan.. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent of computers, CD-ROMS. Network servers, and other hardware, email, Internet, software, and electronic databases available, use of IT-based systems and resources by the library staff and patrons, and the degree of changes occurring in IT applications in their libraries. The respondents’ level of knowledge in IT was examined through measuring the extent of knowledge of technology, rate of keeping abreast of IT, and how much they had written or published about IT in libraries. Regarding the extent of knowledge of technology, the data shows 13.5 per cent of the respondents had no knowledge in technology, 33 per cent had little knowledge, while the majority, 41 per cent of the respondents had a moderate level of knowledge in technology. The findings of the study also reveals that availability of appropriate IT and its proper utilization are important variables that are capable of increasing the librarians’ attitudes more positive toward IT which implies that librarians require continuing education and exposure to increase their level of knowledge of new technologies.
Sagolsem, Purnima Devi and Vikas51 (2007) report a survey conducted among the library professional staff working in public libraries NGO libraries of Manipur. The main objectives of the study was to find the status of digital environment in Manipur public libraries, to evaluate the need of manpower training for IT application, attitude of staff towards IT application, their career opportunities and problems in IT application. A questionnaire was used for the survey among 50 library staff in the public libraries of Manipur. The study reveals that public libraries lack sufficient professional staff with required knowledge of IT. Though most of them had a favourable attitude towards IT application majority were not satisfied with their opportunities to enhance qualifications. The problems in IT application include lack of qualified professionals, high cost of IT infrastructure and insufficient computer facilities. The study recommends the importance of continuing education programmes to upgrade professional competencies and suggests that the government should provide more grants for library development in the state.
Sampath Kumar and Biradar52 (2010) observe the use of information communication technology (ICT) in 31 college libraries in Karnataka, India by analyzing the ICT infrastructure, status of library automation, barriers to implementation of library automation and librarians’ attitudes towards the use of ICT. The survey carried out using questionnaire, observation and informal interview with selected college librarians show that lack of budget, lack of manpower, lack of skilled staff and lack of training are the main constraints for not automating library activities. Even though library professionals have shown a positive attitude towards the use of ICT applications and library automation, majority expressed the need for appropriate training to make use of ICT tools.
Sharma,53 et al., (2003) have presented study on Human Resources Development in the age of information technology in it he has mention the changing of role Library on Information centers.
Singh54 (2002) has made a study in about the problems of Library professional in the era of information Technology where he errors the problems of Library professionals after the application of information Technology in Library & Information Centers.
Singh,55 et al., (2014) this study described the actual condition of engineering college libraries in ICT in Jaipur Districts of Rajasthan State. Present era in information era and role of libraries are increased day to day. Libraries are provided various services as with help of information of communication technology. In this study tried to evaluate the users’ attitude, awareness and satisfaction related to library services in being provided with the support of ICT. The data collected with the help of questionnaire have been interpreted and output results have given in this study.
Singh and Nazim56 (2008) discuss the impact of information technology and role of libraries in the age knowledge and information societies. The paper highlights the problems faced by the Library & Information Service (LIS) sector in Indian and achievements over the years using modern information technologies. Stress the role of libraries in performing pivotal roles in disseminating and sharing the culture of knowledge. Development in information communication technology (ICT) have enabled libraries to provide access to all, and bridge the gap between the local, the national and the global. Yet the library and Information services (LIS) sector in India has not kept pace with the paradigmatic changes place in society.
Singh, Sharma and Negi57 (2009) repots a study of the current state-of-the-art use and applications of ICT in LIC’s in Noida. The study is based on 25 LIC’s of public, government, corporate, public, and private enterprises in Noida. The data was collected through a structured questionnaire through mail/e-mail among the librarians of selected institutions. The study tries to find the opinion of the librarians shout the barriers in application of ICT in LIC’s and their attitudes towards adopting the technology. The results show that that lack of awareness, interest and initiation of library professionals towards ICT application in the library are the major barriers of ICT application in the LIC’s even though the attitude of the librarians towards ICT application/use in the LIC’s was very positive. The majority of LIC’s in Noida has good hardware, software facilities to some extent but ICT based services, and products are not reaching the users to the extent expected due to the problems of inadequate finance, infrastructure, and trained library professionals leaving available ICT infrastructure underutilized, Therefore, it is essential that ICT resources should be enhanced; ICT skilled staff should be increased or trained in using and handling ICT.
Smith58 (2001) examines the pattern of staff development activity in Australian University libraries, State Libraries, the National Library etc. The study reveals various factors influencing staff development. Most of the responses show that increased information technology applications have led to a greater need to train staff in IT applications. There is a good balance between training in specific knowledge and job skills and broader professional developmental programs and activities. In many instances the libraries report that they have a preference for staff development that can be undertaken in-house and the growing role of libraries in teaching literacy, knowledge management skills etc. has resulted in a need to develop these skill in their staff.
Srivastava59 (1997) reports results of a questionnaire survey conducted in 22 R & D institutions in India to determine the extent of usage of IT components by library professionals and the coverage of IT in their graduate and post graduate library science programmes. IT components form an integral part of library operations and services. DOS/UNIX databases, library applications software, DCROM databases, word processing, bar coding, multimedia etc are important to library professional. The study reveals that library and information science courses must expose students and practicing library professional to various components of IT, regularly redesigning the syllabus of LIS courses to include the advancements in thechnology.
Terry60 (2001) reports organizations’ approach to continuing education, with the help of e-mail interviews of a sample of publishers, librarians (academic, research, and corporate) subscription agents; serials aggregators, and library system vendors. The types of training and staff development opportunities available (both formal and informal), the interviewee’s personal experience with training and the organization’s annual budgets for continuing education activities per employee are also included in the survey. All of the organizations interviewed had highly developed and customized internal training programs. The one principal skills requirement mentioned by all interviewees was in the area of technology, software and hardware skills. Apart from computer skills, a prevalence of training was reported in the communication/ presentation skills, negotiation skills, knowledge management skills, time management skills, management training, and user outreach/customer service training.
Thanuskodi61 (2013) “Awareness and Use of ICT among Under Graduate Degree Students of Rural Areas in Tuticorin District, India: A Study” the use of information and communication technologies no doubt is gaining momentum in Indian colleges. The internet is used by faculty, staff, and students in sourcing information. ICT is assist libraries in providing efficient and current information services. ICT usage will facilitate development since there will be free flow of information.
Tiwari62 (2014) “ICT for Sustainable Development in Higher Education.” Higher education systems have grown exponentially to fulfill the demands of quality education for all due to advancements in information and communication Technology (ICT). Information technology is ‘the use of man-made tools for the collection, generation, communication, recording, re-management and exploitation of information. It includes those applications and commodities, by which information is transferred, recorded, edited, stored, manipulated or disseminated’. Recently the NKN has been set up with the objective to interconnect all institutions of higher learning and research with a high speed data communication network to facilitate knowledge sharing and collaborative research.
Vaclav,63 et al., (2011) ‘Processes, Performance Drivers and ICT Tools in Human Resource Management’ this presented study authors’ contemporary insight to processes, performances drivers and ICT tools in Human Resources Management. The study important aspects of HR management and to provide and ICT centric overview of the subjective area, authors’ model of component corporate information system was also introduced. On its basis, important areas that should be covered by Human Resources Information System (HRIS) were identified by definition of relationship between processes, performance drivers and appropriate ICT components.
Verma,64 et al., (2014) this presents study of the human resources development. It also highlights the key challenges faced, the lessons learnt and the way forward in enhancing sustainable human resource development. Personnel policies can keep the morale and motivation of employees high, Job satisfaction as a key factor influencing, effectiveness, efficiency and also productivity. Human resource development encompasses the broad set of activities that improve the performance of the individual and teams of an organization.
Vespry and Kitiyadisai65 (1992) survey the application of information technology (IT) among academic libraries in Thailand. The survey shows that Librarians are generally aware of the role of IT in libraries and keen to automate their library service. It also shows that the speed of IT implementation in academic libraries depend to a large extent on administrator’s support.
Vijaykumar66 (2007) evaluates manpower utilization in the university libraries of Keraka, through a survey of university libraries and library professionals in five universities with well equipped university library system. He makes a detailed study of the various university libraries in Kerala with details regarding central library and various departmental libraries with the help of data sheets and questionnaire for library staff. Data includes details of documentary sources, budget allocation. Infrastructure and manpower of all libraries. Form the analysis of the qualifications and skills of library professionals it is seen that 83% of professional staff had higher qualifications than the entry level requirement. He states that library professionals must acquire more management skills in addition to computer skills and recommends restructuring the manpower in university libraries in the light induction of new technologies.
Wagh,67 et al., (2014) this study era of ICT library authorities have a pressure for improving quality and quantity of library services. One method of facing these challenges is to have a more efficient and productive staff. In order to maintain and improve efficiency and productivity of the library personnel, there is a necessity of continuous development of skills and knowledge of library personnel and it can be achieved through human resource development. Present study defines the term human resource development and states the various mechanisms in it.
Walmiki and Ramakrishnegowda68 (2009) in a survey of University libraries in Karnataka outline the status of ICT infrastructure of selected six University libraries. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from the University librarians, The data collected include details of hardware infrastructure like a availability of servers, PC’s, Laptops, Printers, scanners etc. Software facilities for automation of house-keeping operations, digital library activities are included in the survey. Availability of campus LAN and internet facilities to provide access to information sources are detailed in the study. The survey reveals that most of the libraries lack sufficient hardware and software facilities, and internet with required bandwidth. The University libraries have to plan, implement and develop ICT infrastructure to exploit the benefits of digital information environment.
Watane, Vinchurkar Chaukande69 (2005) reports a study of the computer literacy of library professionals and the use of information technology related services in the college libraries of Amaravati city. The main objectives of the study were to find the awareness of IT application among the professionals and the proportion of application of IT in libraries. A questionnaire survey of selected 38 college libraries was conducted and the results using simple statistical analysis reveals that majority of library professionals are computer literate and are reluctant to make use of IT applications in their libraries. Automation is progressing in all the college libraries under study and they are providing library services of which 50% are IT oriented.
Zhang70 (2004) uses a questionnaire to assess and identify areas of training and development of library support staff in selected academic libraries in Oklahoma and Kanasa. Questions include opinions on the importance of training topics on computer skills, interpersonal skills, and supervision/management skills that they perceive as important to their job and the importance of library/organizational supports that encourage them to participate in training and development. It is seen that support staff highly rated computer skills like web browsers, MS office Suites (e.g., word processing, spreadsheet, etc.) e-mail management etc. that help their job and oral/written communication, working with difficult people, managing priorities etc. as important training topics on interpersonal skills.
2.6 Conclusion
The survey of literature has given an insight into the research carried out in the related fields of study. Further, it has helped to know the tools and methods relevant for the study. Majority of the studies are conducted with the help of questionnaire survey and personal interview. The literature survey has also revealed that most of the ICT related studies are conducted abroad. In India there are comparatively few studies related to ICT applications and professional development of library professionals. The pace of developments in ICT in the field of library and information science is rather slow when compared to other sectors. It is clear that technological change clearly affects library staff and there is a need to develop guidelines and policies to train the professionals in providing frontline services in academic libraries.
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