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Essay: Peer relationship in career development

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CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION

The aim of this research is to study the role of peer relationship in career development. Today’s employees are more career conscious than ever. Peer are play important role in individuals career development. Peer Relationship is helping to organization as well. Peers are mentoring to achieving individuals or as well as organization too. The role of peer relationship is positive values for increase the loyalty toward the organization and individuals, motivating the others, improving the networks (relationship), increasing job satisfaction level etc…

Career Development is the lifelong process of managing learning, work, leisure, and transitions in order to move towards a personally determined and evolving preferred future.

Career development is the series of activities or the on-going/lifelong process of developing one’s career. Career development usually refers to managing one’s career in an intra-organizational or inter-organizational scenario. It involves training on new skills, moving to higher job responsibilities, making a career change within the same organization, moving to a different organization or starting one’s own business.

Career development is directly linked to the goals and objectives set by an individual. It starts with self-actualization and self-assessment of one’s interests and capabilities. The interests are then matched with the available options. The individual needs to train himself to acquire the skills needed for the option or career path chosen by him. Finally, after acquiring the desired competency, he has to perform to achieve the goals and targets set by him.

Career development is directly linked to an individual’s growth and satisfaction and hence should be managed by the individual and not left to the employer.

Significance of Career Development

Each worker working in an association is searching for a vocation advancement which moves in the correct bearing. Vocation way taken by a worker decides the development. Profession ought to be arranged in a way that it advances. Vocation advancement furnishes the structure with Skills, objectives, mindfulness, appraisal and execution which helps a person to move in the correct bearing and accomplish the objectives one has in one’s profession.

Vocation advancement, a critical piece of human improvement, is the procedure that structures a man’s work personality. It traverses over his or her whole lifetime, starting when the individual initially winds up plainly mindful of how individuals bring home the bacon.

Profession advancement doesn’t end there. After you pick a calling, you should then get the required instruction and preparing, apply for and discover business, and at last progress in your vocation. For a great many people, it will likewise incorporate changing vocations and employments at any rate once amid their work lives, yet most likely more frequently than that.

It is vital to note that, for most people, vocation improvement happens with no mediation from other individuals. There likewise isn’t a set age for when it will start—a few people will begin to consider word related decisions right on time in life, while others won’t give this subject much thought until they are generally near deciding how they will acquire cash.

While numerous people experience this procedure autonomously, practically everybody can profit enormously from getting master profession direction. Getting assistance from a vocation instructor or other correspondingly prepared expert, or taking a class in school that assists with profession advancement, permits you manufacture an additionally fulfilling and fruitful profession way.

Components and Barriers that Influence Career Development

A few variables and the connections between them impact vocation improvement and some might be hindrances to it. These components are:

  • Personal Characteristics: When you are picking a profession, you ought to do an intensive self-evaluation. It will enable you to realize what your identity sort, interests, aptitudes and business related qualities are. These attributes, taken in mix, assume a noteworthy part in profession advancement and will help you discover vocations, and additionally working environments, that are reasonable for you.
  • Socio-Economic Factors: Socio-monetary variables can be a boundary to vocation advancement. They can altogether impact your capacity to seek after a profession that is generally a decent match for you. For instance, your budgetary circumstance may undermine to shield you from getting the fundamental instruction. Luckily, there are methods for defeating hindrances, for example, constrained budgetary assets, to be specific understudy advances, monetary guide and grants.
  • Physical and Mental Abilities: Some of us are more qualified to a few vocations than we are to others due to our physical and mental capacities, and constraints. For instance, you might need to wind up plainly a specialist yet don’t have the scholarly capacity 1to get into therapeutic school. You ought to, if conceivable, locate a related occupation that makes the best utilize your qualities while pleasing your impediments.
  • Chance Factors: Chance variables are life occasions over which we have next to zero control. They can impact what professions we pick and how we advance in them. An illustration would be an individual not having the capacity to progress in his profession since he is a guardian for a relative.

Vocation Development is additionally building up the association. In authoritative advancement (or OD), the investigation of profession improvement takes a gander at:

  • How people deal with their vocations inside and amongst associations and,
  • How associations structure the vocation advance of their individuals, it can likewise be tied into progression arranging inside the greater part of the associations.

In this day and age, more managers are searching for approaches to encourage profession advancement and urge their representatives to drive their own particular vocations.

In self-awareness, vocation improvement is:

“The aggregate heavenly body of mental, sociological, instructive, physical, financial, and chance elements that consolidate to impact the nature and criticalness of work in the aggregate life expectancy of any given person.” [1]

The advancement or improvement of a vocation – educated by

(1) Experience inside a particular field of enthusiasm (with profession, employment, or assignment particular abilities as by-item)

(2) Success at each phase of improvement,

(3) Educational accomplishment comparable with each incremental stage,

(4) Communications (the ability to scientifically mirror your reasonableness for a given employment by means of introductory letter, continue, as well as the meeting procedure), and

(5) Understanding of vocation improvement as a safe procedure. (Angelo J. Rivera)

“The long lasting mental and behavioral procedures and also relevant impacts forming one’s vocation over the life expectancy. Thusly, profession advancement includes the individual’s formation of a vocation design, basic leadership style, and combination of life parts, values expression, and life-part self-ideas.”

Peers:

A person who is equal to another in abilities, qualifications, age, background, and social status.

  • Peer: someone else your age, a friend, or a classmate
  • Peer relationship: a friendship with someone else your age, a friend, or a classmate
  • Relationship: a connection between two people

The Value of Peer Relationships at Work

Positive peer relationships are one of the most valuable things you can cultivate in the work environment. Here’s why:

Less than a third of employees without friends at work are highly engaged. This is in stark contrast to the 69 percent of employees with multiple friends at work who remain highly engaged.

With an employee’s engagement level affecting nearly every aspect of their work, it’s crucial to ensure your organization provides an environment that promotes and encourages the development of strong peer relationships in the workplace.

We recently shared some of the top reasons friendships at work are so important, and some easy ways to inspire camaraderie and help employees build excellent peer relationships:

Peer relationships help increase loyalty.

This might be hard to take: your employees aren’t loyal to your company — but they are loyal to the people that built it, and those who keep it running. Employees with strong bonds of camaraderie are more likely to remain loyal to their team, and stay longer as a result.

Implementing peer recognition makes it easy for employees to celebrate achievements together, and see firsthand how their work and dedication to the team benefit everyone as a whole.

Work friendships increase job satisfaction.

The satisfaction of a job well done provides its own intrinsic motivation, but employees with friends at work who regularly celebrate their contributions and accomplishments are more likely to love their job, and even more likely to love the company they work for.

Make it easy for members of your team to share the things they love about their job and their colleagues. Encourage and model this kind of interaction to help build stronger bonds within your organization.

Friends provide a built-in support network.

In addition to being there to celebrate the good times, friends at work offer a priceless support system when things get tough. 61 percent of employees mentioned support from their colleagues at work was instrumental in helping them through life’s challenges.

It’s important to identify and praise members of your team who regularly offer their support to others. These people are bringing an incalculable value to your organization, and it’s important to let them know that.

Peer recognition is a powerful motivator.

We’re all familiar with the strength of peer influence, but many fail to consider the potential for peer pressure to act as a positive motivational force in the workplace.

The TINY pulse Employee Engagement and Organizational Culture Report found that 58 percent of the happiest employees will recognize and encourage their peers’ success when given tools to make it easy. That recognition provides positive peer influence, and solidifies the notion that good work is valued by everyone in the company.

Make sure you’re providing an easy way for your team to recognize and celebrate one another’s contributions. These interactions build a stronger team, and help motivate employees to continue doing their best work.

Although it’s impossible to force your employees to forge friendships, you can implement strategies that will make it very difficult not to. Start by establishing a culture of appreciation and recognition. It’s also helpful to manufacture spaces and projects that encourage social interaction.

Advantages of a Peer Group

Peer advisory groups can work through the issues related to implementation and follow-through, addressing problems and opportunities as they arise to help members effect change. Essentially, a peer advisory group acts as a reciprocal advisory board made up of top producers with skin in the game.

Here are five advantages to having a peer group.

  1. In closely held businesses, the management team frequently view issues from the same vantage point. This tends to create blind spots and limit objectivity. Peer groups provide a way to overcome that problem.
  2. CEOs and successors need a “sounding board” for their ideas. Have they missed anything, are there alternatives they haven’t considered or implementation issues they might have overlooked? Peer group discussions can provide feedback on ideas and provide greater insight and objectivity.
  3. Peer groups can provide access to the collective membership’s network of contacts, sources of information, resources and expertise. Some of these groups have even served as the genesis for various business alliances.
  4. Coordination of field trials, testing new technology and benchmarking marketing, production, compensation programs and financial information can multiply the availability and usefulness of information.
  5. Assume that several producers decide they need training in some area of personnel management. The type of program and level of expertise they need might require one to three days, and bringing in a quality presenter might cost $3,000 to $5,000 a day in speaking fees, plus expenses. Assuming this type of program isn’t available through their state’s Extension service, the cost for one producer could be prohibitive; but, shared by five to 10 producers, it could be reasonable.

This research is established relationship between peer relationship and career development. Peers are affecting the individual’s career development or helping and advising them to achieve their goals. Peers are may be friends, colleagues, supervisor, teachers, family etc. . . They are demanding more in terms of personal growth and development. This research is finding which type of peer relationship effecting in career growth. This helps to examine the effectiveness of career development or program on individual employees. Career development is an important role in the effectiveness of organizations and to the experiences of people in work.

Negative attributes (disadvantages) of peer groups influence

Peer pressure

The term peer pressure is often used to describe instances where an individual feels indirectly pressured into changing his/her behavior to match that of his/her peers. Taking up smoking and underage drinking are two of the best known examples. In spite of the often negative connotations of the term, peer pressure can be used positively, for example, to encourage other peers to study, or not to engage in activities such as the ones discussed above. Although peer pressure is not isolated to one age group, it is usually most common during the adolescent stage. Adolescence is a period characterized by experimentation, and adolescents typically spend a lot of time with their peers in social contexts. Teenagers compel each other to go along with certain beliefs or behaviors, and studies have shown that boys are more likely to give in to it than girls. There has been much research done to gain a better understanding about the effects of peer pressure, and this research will allow parents to handle and understand their children’s behaviors and obstacles they will face due to their peer groups. Learning how peer pressure impacts individuals is a step to minimizing the negative effects it leads to.

Future problems

Success of peer relationships is linked to later psychological development and to academic achievement. Therefore, if one does not have successful peer relationships it may lead to developmental delays and poor academic achievement — perhaps even incompletion of a high school degree. Children with poor peer relationships may also experience job related and marital problems later in life.

Risk behaviors

Peer groups are powerful agents of risk behaviors in adolescence. Adolescents typically replace family with peers regarding social and leisure activities, and many problematic behaviors occur in the context of these groups. A study done in 2012 focused on adolescents’ engagement in risk behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, which explores values, beliefs, and aspirations, as well as a self-report that measures perceived peer group pressure and control. Both peer group pressure and control were positively related to risky behaviors. However, adolescents who were more committed to a personal identity had lower rates of risk behaviors. Adolescent identity development may help prevent negative effects of peer pressure in high-risk adolescents.

Aggression and prosaically behavior

Social behaviors can be promoted or discouraged by social groups, and several studies have shown that aggression and prosociality are susceptible to peer influence. A longitudinal study done in 2011 focused on these two behaviors. A sample of adolescents was followed over a one-year period, and results showed that adolescents who joined an aggressive group were more likely to increase their aggression levels. Also, adolescents were likely to display prosaically behaviors that were similar to the consistent behaviors of the group they were in. An adolescent’s peer group plays a role in shaping him or her into an adult, and the lack of positive behavior can lead to consequences in the future.

Sexual promiscuity

Adolescence is also characterized by physical changes, new emotions, and sexual urges and teenagers are likely to participate in sexual activity. Self-reports, peer nominations, teacher ratings, counselor ratings, and parent reports were collected, and results showed a strong correlation between deviant peer groups and sexual promiscuity. Many teens claimed that the reasons for having sex at a young age include peer pressure or pressure from their partner. The effects of sexual activity at a young age are of great concern. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are only a few of the consequences that can occur.

Career development is the lifelong process of managing learning, work, leisure, and transitions in order to move toward a personally determined and evolving preferred future. Career development more attention from various organization as an affect to improving job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Career is a sequence of related work experience and activities, directed at personal and organizational goals through which a person passes during his or her lifetime. Peer relationship Peer acceptance represents social status or popularity within a large group, whereas friendships represent relationships based on mutual respect, appreciation, and liking. Both peer relationships and friendships become increasingly important as children grow into adolescence. In organization peer relationship influence to employees as a positive or negative and motivate or demotivate in career development.

Mentoring is a relationship between two people with the goal of professional and personal development. The mentor is usually an experienced individual who shares knowledge, experience, and advice with a less experienced person, or \”mentee.\” In the way as organizational effectiveness and efficiency deepened very much on its human resource organization. Career provides a channel for organization to determine employees’ role and responsibly in a specific fiction. The most important role of the mentoring peer relationship is in developing the organizational career. Career development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career plan. Career development and employee development are different. Career development looks at the long term career effectiveness of an employee whereas employee development focuses on effectiveness of an employee in the immediate future. The action for career development may be initiated by individual himself or by the organization.

There are too many factors affecting peer relationship. Affecting factors are like informal relationship with colleagues, superior, friends, subordinates etc… and informal leadership also affecting to the peer relationship. The employee engagement activities also improving the relation of the peers. These all factors are affecting to the individuals and organization as well.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter deals with the review of literature concerned with the subject of this study. Many studies have been conducted. They highlight the occupational the role of peer relationship in career development from different angles. The review of some of the important studies is presented below.

Pearl Malhotra and Manjari Singh (2016) indirect impact of high performers on the career advancement of their subordinates

This paper proposes a conceptual model depicting the “indirect” impact of high performers on their subordinates’ career advancement. Although certain characteristics demonstrated by high performers are not usually linked directly to either the development or career advancement of their subordinates; we propose a model to help bridge this research gap. Our conceptual framework allows us to understand the positive relation between characteristics of high performers and their subordinates’ career advancement. For this paper, those characteristics were classified into two categories — a) job competencies and b) networking abilities.

Daisy Ofosuhene Kwenin (2013) Relationship between work environment, career development opportunities and employee retention in vodafone ghana limited.

The issue of employee retention has generated growing interest for human resource practitioners and researchers because of the effects it has on the development and accomplishment of organization’s goals and objectives. The findings indicated that work environment and career development opportunities has positive relationship with employee retention and thus affect employees’ decision to stay in Vodafone Ghana Limited. The implication of the study was to show, the management of Vodafone Ghana Limited should provide advancement opportunities to increase employees’ career growth to help retain employees. Finally the study also recommends that thriving and friendly environment should be provided at the workplace to make employees more satisfied to remain in Vodafone.

Keywords: Employee Retention, Work Environment, Career Development Opportunities, Vodafone Ghana Limited.

Dr. Rashid Saeed, Rab Nawaz Lodhi, Filza Abbas, Urooj Ishfaque, Fareha Dustgeer, Dr. Moeed Ahmed (2013) The Organizational Role in Career Development of Employees

To checked the impact of organizational role in career development of an employee. Training and proper career counseling provided by the organization was the main tool for enhancing the career of employees. Findings reveals that positive and significant relation exists between Organizational role and career development.

Keywords: Organizational role, Career development, Pakistan

Dr. T. N. Sreedhara Professor (2009) Employee satisfaction with career development practices: a comparative study of Indian and foreign MNC BPO firms

This paper was based on an empirical study of five Indian and five foreign MNC BPO firms operating in India. The study finds that, on an average, the level of satisfaction towards the career development practices is at 69.71 per cent and 69.82 per cent among the respondents of Indian and foreign MNC BPO firms respectively, both of which constitute ‘satisfied’ on our scale. Regression analysis, using a significance level of 5 per cent, showed that three of the variables, namely, the variables of ‘I have a clearly established career path’ (p=.001), ‘Viewing BPO sector as a long-term career option’ (p=.000) and ‘Having a dynamic career path is a must in order to retain the outstanding and highly-performing employees’ (p=.018) are significantly influencing the satisfaction of the respondents of Indian MNCs and two of the variables, namely, the variables of ‘I have a clearly established career path’ (p=.000) and ‘Having a dynamic career path is a must in order to retain the outstanding and highly- performing employees’ (p=.042) are significantly influencing the satisfaction of the respondents of foreign MNCs towards the career development practices and all the other variables have emerged as the insignificant variables.

Key Words: Employee Satisfaction, Career Development Practices, Indian, Foreign, MNC BPO Firms.

Hans-Georg Wolff and Klaus Moser (2009) Effects of Networking on Career Success: A Longitudinal Study

This study provided a dynamic perspective on the effects of networking on career success and reports results of a longitudinal study. Networking was assessed with 6 subscales that resulted from combining measures of the facets of (a) internal versus external networking and (b) building versus maintaining versus using contacts. Objective (salary) and subjective (career satisfaction) measures of career success were obtained for 3 consecutive years. Multilevel analyses showed that networking is related to concurrent salary and that it is related to the growth rate of salary over time. Networking is also related to concurrent career satisfaction. As satisfaction remained stable over time, no effects of networking on the growth of career satisfaction were found.

Keywords: Networking, career success, career development, social interaction

Polly Parker, Douglas T. Hall and Kathy E. Kram (2008) Peer Coaching: A Relational Process for Accelerating Career Learning

The study examined the nature of peer coaching and frames it as a type of developmental tool that can enhance personal and professional development. They began study with a discussion of the relational perspective on career learning, which provides a context for peer coaching as a tool that can accelerate career learning. We distinguish between peer coaching and the related concepts of mentoring and peer mentoring and discuss factors that facilitate the development of this type of helping relationship. We also offer a theoretical model of peer coaching, along with propositions for future research. We conclude that when peer coaching works best for a person, it happens through a 3-step process of (1) building the developmental relationship, (2) creating success in development, and (3) internalizing the learning tactic by applying the peer-coaching process in future relationship.

Belinda Renee Barnett, Lisa Bradley (2007) The impact of organizational support for career development on career satisfaction

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational support for career development (OSCD) and employees’ career satisfaction. Based on an extended model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and an integrative model of proactive behaviors, the study proposed that career management behaviors would mediate the relationship between OSCD and career satisfaction, and between proactive personality and career satisfaction. OSCD, proactive personality and career management behaviors were all positively related to career satisfaction and career management behaviors mediated the relationship between proactive personality and career satisfaction. There was no support for the career management behaviors mediating between OSCD and career satisfaction. The results suggest that there are benefits for organizations and individuals investing in career development.. First, from an organizational perspective, investing in OSCD may enhance employees’ career satisfaction. Second, employees may enhance their own career satisfaction by participating in career management behaviors.

Keywords: Career satisfaction, Human resource development, Career management, Employee development

Denise L. Peroune (2007) Tacit knowledge in the workplace: the facilitating role of peer relationships

The purpose of this article was to investigate the role peer relationships play in making tacit knowledge explicit and accessible in the wider organization and whether they contribute to learning in a learning environment. It was found that peer relationships provide the context within which sense making can take place and that the peer relationship by definition is the context within which these constructs already function effectively.

Keywords: Tacit knowledge, workplace, knowledge emangement learning, knowledge transfer

Linda Holbeche (2006) Peer mentoring: the challenges and opportunities

As Described in the differences between “conventional” mentoring and peer mentoring. Highlights the increasing relevance and need for peer mentoring in changing organization structures where management support may be disappearing or non‐existent. Outlines various approaches to establishing peer mentoring relationships, whether this is at the initiative of individuals or of the organization. Identifies some of the potential pitfalls, as well as the key benefits of peer mentoring relationships.

Keywords:

Career development, Coaching, Management development, Organizational change, Peer mentoring

Sarah Birrell and Lea Waters (2005) the Role of Mentoring and Peer Support in Contributing To Perceived Progress toward Small Business Success: A Cross Sectional Study

The study examined the associations between career-related support and psychosocial support on business success of Small Business Incubators (SBI). Tenants in the SBIs reported that psychosocial support given by SBI managers and career-related support given by SBI peers was positively related to subjective assessments of perceived progress to business success. From a theoretical perspective, this research indicates that mentoring exists outside the traditional organisational domain. From a practical perspective, the findings illustrate the importance of mentoring support for small business owners in the business establishment stage.

Wolfe, Jessica B, Betz, Nancy E. (2004) the relationship of attachment variables to career decision-making self-efficacy and fear of commitment.

The study indicated that both attachment bonds and self-rated attachment style were significantly related to fear of commitment and, to a lesser extent, career decision-making self-efficacy. Given previous research showing that fear of commitment is related to career indecisiveness and “floundering,” the possible importance of attention to attachment bonds and styles in career counseling is suggested.

Ghulam R. Nabi (2001) the connection between HRM, social support and subjective profession accomplishment among men and ladies Most previous research on career success has examined the differential importance of predictors of objective career success (e.g. salary) between men and women. The aim of the present paper is to investigate hypotheses pertaining to male‐female differences in subjective career success (SCS) prediction. Two measures of SCS, intrinsic job success (IJS) and perceived career success (PCS), were employed as criteria and a range of organizational policy perceptions and social support strategies as predictors. The main results suggested that peer support was a more powerful predictor of men’s SCS, whereas personal support was a more powerful predictor for women’s SCS. The implications of these findings are discussed, together with avenues for further research.

Keywords

Career development, Success, Subjectivity, Gender, Organizational policy

Joy van Eck Peluchette and Sandy Jeanquart (2000) Professionals’ Use of Different Mentor Sources at Various Career Stages: Implications for Career Success

The authors investigated the various sources of mentors used by professionals, how these sources influenced both objective and subjective career success, and whether the participants used different sources of mentors at different stages of their careers. Assistant professors with mentors in their professions, associate professors with mentors outside the work place, and professors with mentors within their organizations had the highest levels of objective career success. Assistant professors with multiple sources of mentors yielded significantly higher levels of both objective and subjective career success than did those with single sources or no mentor. On the off chance that one connections scholarly rank to vocation organize, the outcomes propose that the members utilized diverse wellsprings of tutors at various phases of their professions.

Tammy D. Allen and Stacy E. McManus and Joyce E.A. Russell (1999) Newcomer Socialization and Stress: Formal Peer Relationships as a Source of Support

The study examined formal peer developmental relationships within a graduate academic setting. The outcomes underscore the profitable part that more experienced companions can serve in coaching newcomers and upgrading socialization. The outcomes likewise give exact support to growing traditional perspectives in regards to the system of reasonable tutoring connections.

Debra E. Felsman and David L. Blustein (1999) the Role of Peer Relatedness in Late Adolescent Career Development

The role of close peer relationships in facilitating the resolution of the exploration and commitment tasks of career development in late adolescence was investigated. Measures of environmental and self-exploration, progress in committing to career choices, attachment to peers and parents, mutuality, and intimacy along with relevant demographic information were completed. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that the three peer relatedness variables (i.e., attachment to peers, intimacy, and mutuality) shared a significant and unique amount of variance with the exploration and commitment variables, above and beyond the contribution of parental attachment, age, and gender. The findings were discussed in light of current assumptions about career development and psychosocial theory.

Kathryn H. Dansky (1996) the Effect of Group Mentoring on Career Outcomes

The importance of mentoring as a component of career development has been well supported empirically. This study proposed that professional associations may function as a source of mentoring for its members. The impact of association with an expert association on vocation results was tried. Four components of group mentoring were identified through factor analysis: psychosocial support, inclusion, networking, and role modelling. Inclusion predicted higher job attainment, whereas role modelling made a significant contribution to salary. This study has practical implications for management development.

Robert C. Merchant (1994) The Role of Career Development in Improving Organizational Effectiveness and Employee Development

This paper examined the role and importance of Career Development Programs in developing and retaining employees. A Career Development Program seeks to match to needs of the employee with those of the organization with the major components being counselling and training. Advising furnishes workers with the chance to characterize profession objectives and to make arranges inside the setting of hierarchical substances. Preparing enables the worker to create and gain information, aptitudes and capacities required to upgrade his/her present place of employment and sets them up for future openings for work. This will allow employees to fulfil their career needs, and organizations will benefit by retaining a greater number of their competent and qualified employees.

Cheri Ostroff and Steve W.J. Kozlowski (1993) the Role of Mentoring in the Information Gathering Processes of Newcomers during Early Organizational Socialization

An examination of the impacts of coaching connections on the learning procedure of newcomers during early organizational socialization experiences was undertaken by focusing on how newcomers acquired information about the important content domains of the setting (task, role, group, organization) from potential information sources (mentor, supervisor, co-workers, observation, experimentation, and objective referents). The outcomes demonstrated distinctive examples of data obtaining for newcomers with and without tutors. Those with mentors tended to rely on observation of others and their mentors, while those without mentors generally relied on observation and co-workers to acquire information about their new setting. The most significant difference between mentored and non-mentored newcomers emerged for the organizational domain; those with mentors were able to learn more about organizational issues and practices compared to non-mentored newcomers. Implications of these findings are discussed in the study.

William Whitely, Thomas W. Dougherty and George F. Dreher (1991) Relationship of Career Mentoring and Socioeconomic Origin to Managers’ and Professionals’ Early Career Progress

This study examined the relationship of career mentoring to the promotions and compensation. The results indicate that with a number of variables controlled, career mentoring was related to both promotion rate and total compensation. The results also support the conclusion that career-oriented mentoring has a greater relationship with promotion rate for people from the highest-level socioeconomic backgrounds than for those from lower-level backgrounds.

Kathy E. Kram and Lynn A. Isabella (1985) Mentoring Alternatives: The Role of Peer Relationships in Career Development

This study identified types of peer relationships, highlights various enhancing functions these relationships provide, and shows the unique manner in which these relationships could support psychosocial and career development at every career stage.

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